• Title, Summary, Keyword: Arbuscular mycorrhizae

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Occurrence of Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (VAM) Fungi and Their Effect on Plant Growth in Endangered Vegetations

  • Selvaraj, Thangaswamy;Padmanabhan, Chellappan;Jeong, Yu-Jin;Kim, Hoon
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.885-890
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    • 2004
  • A survey for vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae (VAM) occurrence was undertaken in three endangered vegetation sites in the area of Kudankulam atomic power station. Fifteen VAM fungal species were isolated from the root-zone soils of fourteen different plant species. There was a significant correlation observed between the number of spores and of percentage root colonization as exemplified by Phyllanthus niruri and Paspalum vaginatum (450, 95%; 60, 25%). Although VAM species are not known to be strictly site specific, the fact that Acaulospora elegans was observed only in site 1, Glomus pulvinatum in site 2 only, and Gl. intraradices in site 3 only, showed site-specificity in this study. To confirm the infection efficiency, two host plant species in the sites, P. niruri and Eclipta alba, were selected and inoculated in field with three selected VAM fungal spores. Gl. fasciculatum was found to be the most efficient VAM species in percentage root colonization, number of VAM spores, and dry matter content. When the nutrients in roots of P. niruri and E. alba were analyzed, there was higher uptake of K (4.2 and 3.4 times, respectively) and Ca (5.3 and 4.9 times, respectively), the analogues for $^{137}Cs$ and $^{90}Sr$, respectively. From the results, it might be concluded that VAM association helps the plants survive in a disturbed ecosystem and enhances uptake and cycling of radionuclides from the ecosystem.

Arbuscular-Mycorrhizae Colonization and Mineral Nutrient Uptake of Poncirus trifoliata Seedling in Volcanic Ash Soil (화산회토양에서 인산 시용수준별 탱자 유묘의 공생균근 형성과 무기양분 흡수)

  • Kang, Suk-Bum;Moon, Doo-Khil;Chung, Jong-Bae
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.33 no.4
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    • pp.283-291
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    • 2000
  • The beneficial effects of mycorrhizal fungi on plant growth has largely been attributed to higher uptake of P and other mineral nutrients. However, the effects of mycorrhizal colonization on uptake of mineral nutrients are conflicting in various past investigations. This study was carried out to investigate the effect of P application rate on mycorrhizal colonization and nutrient uptake of Poncirus trifoliata (trifoliate orange) seedlings grown in non-cultivated volcanic ash soil of Cheju island. Five levels of P (40, 573, 1,106, 1,373. $1,640mg\;P\;kg^{-1}$) were applied with double superphosphate. Seedlings inoculated with mycorrhizal fungi were grown for 5 month in a greenhouse. As the level of P application increased, mycorrhizal colonization in the seedlings decreased, and the colonization was significantly reduced when available P was higher than $150mg\;P\;kg^{-1}$ levels. There was a significant correlation between mycorrhizal colonization and P uptake by trifoliate orange seedlings at lower P applications. The effectiveness of mycorrhiaze on P uptake was more significant at lower P applications. Uptake of N, K, Ca, Mg an Zn by trifoliate orange seedlings also increased as mycorrhizal colonization increased, but mycorrhizae could not enhance the uptake of Cu by trifoliate orange seedlings in volcanic ash soil of Cheju island.

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Oak Tree Canker Disease Supports Arthropod Diversity in a Natural Ecosystem

  • Lee, Yong-Bok;An, Su Jung;Park, Chung Gyoo;Kim, Jinwoo;Han, Sangjo;Kwak, Youn-Sig
    • The Plant Pathology Journal
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.43-50
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    • 2014
  • Microorganisms have many roles in nature. They may act as decomposers that obtain nutrients from dead materials, while some are pathogens that cause diseases in animals, insects, and plants. Some are symbionts that enhance plant growth, such as arbuscular mycorrhizae and nitrogen fixation bacteria. However, roles of plant pathogens and diseases in natural ecosystems are still poorly understood. Thus, the current study addressed this deficiency by investigating possible roles of plant diseases in natural ecosystems, particularly, their positive effects on arthropod diversity. In this study, the model system was the oak tree (Quercus spp.) and the canker disease caused by Annulohypoxylon truncatum, and its effects on arthropod diversity. The oak tree site contained 44 oak trees; 31 had canker disease symptoms while 13 were disease-free. A total of 370 individual arthropods were detected at the site during the survey period. The arthropods belonged to 25 species, 17 families, and seven orders. Interestingly, the cankered trees had significantly higher biodiversity and richness compared with the canker-free trees. This study clearly demonstrated that arthropod diversity was supported by the oak tree canker disease.

Sporocarp-forming Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi, Glomus spp. in Forest Soils of Korea (우리나라의 산림토양(山林土壤)에 분포(分布)하는 포자낭과(胞子囊果)를 형성하는 아버스큘균근균(菌根菌), Glomus속(屬))

  • Koo, Chang-Duck;Kim, Tae-Hun;Yi, Chang-Keun;Lee, Won-Kyu;Kang, Chang-Ho;Lee, Byung-Chun;Lee, Seung-Kyu
    • The Korean Journal of Mycology
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.29-36
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    • 1992
  • Glomus species forming sporocarps were collected at limestone areas in Danyang, on coal mine overburdens in Munkyung, on plantations of Celtis sinensis in the Jindo island and Cryptomeria japonica in the Namhae island, on the Ilchulbong crater base and at a shrubby land near the Chunjiyeon fall. One of the characteristics of Glomus clavisporum is the thick wall ($25-33{\mu}m$) of its cylinderic chlamydospores at the apex. G. heterosporum chlamydospores are loosely connected with each other through brown thick-walled hyphae. G. liquidambaris has paraphysis between chlamydospores. G. rubiforme is blackberry alike. G. sinuosum has a peridium composed of golden yellow thick-walled($2-3{\mu}m$) sinuous hyphae. G. taiwanense has red brown sporocarps with yellow spores of which wall is thickest at the apex.

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Mycorrhizal Root Infection and Growth of Cucumber and Tomato Plants by the Inoculated with Glomus sp. In solid Medium Culture (균근균 Glomus sp. 접종에 따른 고형배지경 오이와 방울토마토의 균근 형성과 생육)

  • Cho, Ja-Yong;Kim, Young-Ju;Jin, Seo-Young;Kang, Sung-Gu;Kim, Hong-Lim;Sohn, Bo-Kyoon
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.37 no.5
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    • pp.341-349
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    • 2004
  • This study was conducted to compare the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on the growth and fruit yield of hydroponically grown cucumber and tomato plants in solid medium culture. Mycorrhizal fungus Glomus sp. was collected from plastic film house soils of cucumber and tomato and inoculated to the experimental crops at the time of seeding and transplanting. Root infection of cucumber and tomato plants by AMF was more significantly increased when the AMF was inoculated at seeding stage than at transplanting stage. In the infected roots of cucumber and tomato, mycorrhizal hyphae was easily observed but vesicle and arbuscule were rare. Overall plant growth was increased with AMF inoculation and the growth was higher when AMF was inoculated at seeding stage. Fresh weight of each fruit of cucumber and tomato and sugar content in tomato fruits were significantly increased with AMF inoculation at seeding stage. The AMF inoculation also increased fruit yields of cucumber and tomato.

Taxonomic Distribution of Ecto- and Endomycorrhizae among Woody Species in Korea (한국(韓國)의 목본식물(木本植物)의 외생(外生) 및 내생균근(內生菌根)에 관(關)한 분류학적(分類學的) 분포(分布) 조사(調査))

  • Lee, Kyung Joon;Koo, Chang Duck
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.59 no.1
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    • pp.37-45
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    • 1983
  • Taxonomic distribution of ecto- and endomycorrhizae among woody species growing in Korea was studied and their distribution was compared with foreign literature, Most of root samples were collected from Central Branch Station of forest Research Institute in Gwangneung, Gyonggido. A total of 32 families, 63 genera, 102 species were examined. Ectomycorrhizae were observed in the following 13 general of Pinaceae (Pinus Larix, Picea, Abies), Salicaceae (Populus, salix), Betulace (Alnus, Betula, Carpinus, Corpylus), Fagaceae(Quercus, Casianea), and Tiliaceae (Tilia), Endomycorrhizae (vesicular-arbuscular) were observed in Populus and the rest of the 49 genera. Rhus was the only genus which did not have either ecto- or endomycorrhizae, while foreign literature listed following genera having both mycorrhizal types: Juniperus, Cupressus, Populus, Salix, Juglans, Alnus, Ulmus, Malus, Pyrus, and Tilia. Juniperus, Ulmus, Pyrus, and Acer which were reported to have facultative ectomycorrhizae were free of ectomycorrhizae, Some morphological characteristics of endomycorrhizae are shown in photogrphs and discussed.

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Responses of VA mycorrhizal Fungus, Glomus mosseae, on the Growth and Nutrition of Mulberry tree (VA 내생균근균, Glomus mosseae,가 뽕나무의 생장과 영양에 미치는 영향)

  • 김중채;문재곡
    • Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.1-14
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    • 1986
  • This study was carried out to acguire some basic information on nutritional and lhysiological effects of vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizae(VAM) on mulberry trees inoculated with Glomus mosseae, Gerd. & Trap. grown in clay for 65 days and treated with 5 different levels of phosphorus, ie 30, 60, 120, 240, 480 ppm as (NH4)2 HPO4. At the End of the expermental period the levels of fixed phosphate in the soil was measared. And the native VAM fungi were collected to select the most effective VAM species on mulberry tree. The nutritional and biochemical effects of VA mycorrhizae on the mulberry leaves were also studied. Those results are as follow. 1. The mulberry trees grown in clay and inoculated with VAM were heavier in shoot dry weight as much as 197% than uninoculated plants. But in vermioulite, uninoculated mulberry trees were heavier as much as 135% than inoculated. 2. The rates of endo mycorrhizal formation in clay was highest at 60 ppm level of phosphorus, and vesicles in roots were formed in 240ppm and 480ppm level of phosphorus, but not in 30ppm, 60ppm and 120ppm. 3. The greatest growth responses of VAM inoculation was found at 60ppm level of hosphorus, and the optimum phosphorus level for VAM responese appeared to be 60ppm. 4. VAM was also to absorb soil-fixed phosphate. VAM abosrbed Fe-bound phosphate most efficiently and Ca-bound phosphate with ease but not Al-bound phosphate and Al-Fe occluded phosphate. 5. Three species of Gigaspora and one species of Glamus growing naturally in mulberry plantations were collected and tested for the growth responses. Gigaspora tricalipta and Gigaspora calospora revealed the greatest growth responses on mulberry tree among tested VAM fungi. 6. Mulberry leaves inoculated with VA mycorrhizal fungi contained 9.8% more phosphate and 15.2% more nitrogen, 22.2% more water-soluble carbohydrates and 15.2% more proteins than uninoculated plants. 7. The electrophoretic pattern of mulberry leaf protein inoculated with VAM fungi has 19 bands. 8. The patterns of peroxidase zymogram and Amulase zymogram were different between the mulberry leaves inoculated and uninoculated with VA mycorrhizal fungi. The peroxidase zymogram of inoculated leaves has 1 less majour band than unioculated leaves The amylase zymogram of inoculated leaves has 2 bands near the +pole, but that of uninoculated leaves has 1 band near the $pole.

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Mycorrhizal colonization effects on C metabolism in relation to drought-tolerance of perennial ryegrass (페레니얼 라이그라스에서 Mycorrhiza 접종이 탄수화물대사와 가뭄스트레스 저항성에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Bok-Rye;Jung, Woo-Jin;Kim, Dae-Hyun;Kim, Kil-Yong;Shon, Bo-Kyoon;Kim, Tae-Hwan
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.35 no.4
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    • pp.232-242
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    • 2002
  • To investigate the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus (Glomus intraradices) colonization on drought-stress tolerance, leaf water potential, chlorophyll concentration, P content and carbohydrate composition were examined in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) plants exposed to drought-stressed or well-watered conditions. Drought stress significantly decreased leaf water potential, P content and leaf growth. These drought-induced damages were moderated by mycorrhizal colonization. Drought stress decreased the concentration of soluble sugars in shoots. AM plants had a higher foliar soluble sugar than non-AM plants under drought stress condition. Drought stress depressed the accumulation of starch and fructan in shoots, but stimulated in roots. Under drought-stressed condition, starch concentration in roots was higher in non-AM plants than in AM plants. Fructan was the largest pool of carbohydrates, showing the highest initial concentration and the highest net increase for 28 days of treatment. Drought stress slightly decreased fructan concentration in shoots, but remarkably increased in roots. Under drought-stressed condition, fructan concentrations in non-AM and AM shoots at day 28 were 18.7% and 13.3% lower than the corresponding values measured at well-watered plants. However, in the roots, fructan accumulation caused by drought was lessen 13.6% by mycorrhizal colonization. The results obtained suggest that mycorrhizal colonization improves drought tolerance of the host plants by maintaining higher leaf water status and P status, and by retaining more foliar soluble sugars.