• Title, Summary, Keyword: Arbuscular mycorrhizae

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A study on the production of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal spores by using the commercial fertilizers and the pot culture techniques (화학비료을 사용한 Arbuscular 내생균근 균의 포자증식에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Sang-Sun;Eom, Ahn-Heum;Lee, Seok-Koo
    • The Korean Journal of Mycology
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.172-183
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    • 1994
  • The productions of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal(AMF) spores were observed by adding three different commercial fertilizers on AMF inhabiting soils. Various morphological features, vesicles, arbuscles, sporulations of spore, and flower-like-structures, were also found in the mycorrhizal roots during 80 days after transplanting. Spore prodcutions of the employed AMF were observed to be periodically increased with the intervals of 40 days. Sorghum, green onion, hot pepper, and wild legume plants were appeared to be a good plant for productions of AMF and as the host of AMF. The productions of AMF spores was inversely related to phosphate fertilizer, and also observed to be low in the plant pots added with whole balanced fertilizers.

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Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal Fungi found at the horticultural and cultivated Plants (원예식물 및 재배식물에서 발견된 내생균근)

  • Lee, Sang-Sun;Ka, Kang-Hyeon;Lee, Sog-Koo;Paek, Kee-Yoeup
    • The Korean Journal of Mycology
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.186-202
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    • 1991
  • Out of the 36 species (22 families) of horticultural plants collected from the horticultural shop around Cheong Ju, the 17 plant species (47.2%) were infected with VA-mycorrhizae in the root tissues. Also, the chlamydospores or azygospores of VA-mycorrhizae were identified (two genera, three species); Acaulospora spinosa, Glomus etinucatum, and G. tortusom. VA-mycorhizae found from the cultivated plants around Korea National University of Education and other area were also identified (four genera, six species); A. myriocarpa, Gigaspora decipiens, G. caledonium, G. glomerulatum, G. microcarpum, and Scutellospora calospora.

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Effects of Source and Application Rate of Phosphorus on Growth and Arbuscular Mycorrhizae Formation of Trifoliate Orange in Volcanic Ash Soil (화산회토양에서 인 공급원과 시용 수준이 탱자유묘의 생육과 공생균근 형성에 미치는 영향)

  • Kang, Seok-Beom;Jwa, Sung-Min;Moon, Doo-Khil;Han, Hae-Ryong;Chung, Jong-Bae
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.206-212
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    • 2000
  • The effects of two phosphorus sources (fused phosphate and rock phosphate), applied at different rates, on growth, arbuscular-mycorrhizae(AM) formation in roots and nutrient contents of trifoliate orange grown in an uncultivated volcanic ash soil were investigated in a greenhouse. The seedlings were either inoculated with AM fungi or left uninnoculated. Growth of seedlings were best in the treatments of 156-272 mg P/kg with fused phosphate. Although the applied P in the rack phosphate treatments were nearly same or much higher comparing to the fused phosphate treatments, seedling growth were significantly less. Soil available P in the treatment of 272 mg P/kg of fused phosphate was maintained in the range of 3-5 mg/kg during the experiment, and the AM formation was about 60% in average. In the treatments of lower rates of fused phosphate application or of rock phosphate application, soil available P were lower than 3 mg P/kg and AM formations were less than 30%. Significant increases were found in seedling growth and nutrient absorption due to AM fungi inoculation, and the effects were much more significant in the treatments of higher AM formation. In most of citrus groves in Cheju island, soil available P is much higher than 200 mg P/kg, and average AM formation in citrus roots is less than 30%. Results obtained in this study show that the formation of AM can be increased at much lower level of available P than the present levels found in citrus groves.

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Occurrence and Quantification of Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (VAM) Fungi in Industrial Polluted Soils

  • SELVARAJ;THANGASWAMY;PADMANABHAN CHELLAPPAN;JEONG, YU-JIN;KIM, HOON
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.147-154
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    • 2005
  • A survey for vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae (VAM) status was undertaken in three different industrially polluted sites at Uyyakondan channel of Senthanneerpuram area in Trichy, India. The soils and the effluents were acidic, and contained higher Zn (621 to 711 ppm) than the other heavy metals, such as Cu, Pb, and Ni. Eighteen plant species were collected from the rhizosphere soils, and 13 species were positive for VAM colonization. Fifteen VAM fungal species were isolated from the plant species. The number of VAM fungal spores from the soils ranged from 45 to 640 per 100 g of soil. There was a significant correlation observed between the number of spores and percentage root colonization, as exemplified by Acalypha indica (45 and 20%, respectively) and Paspalum vaginatum (640 and 98%, respectively). Hostspecific and site-specific associations were observed in site 2; particular VAM species, Gigaspora gigantea and Glomus fasciculatum, were specific to particular host plants, Phyllanthus maderaspatensis and A. indica, respectively, even though Eclipta prostrata and Physalis minima were maximally associated with 8 VAM species. G. fasciculatum was found in 11 plant species and predominant VAM species. These results led us to conclude that VAM fungi are associated with a majority of the plants in the industrial polluted sites and support the plants to survive in the acidic soils, polluted with heavy metals of the industrial effluents.

Seasonal Changes in Colonization and Spore Density of Arbuscular-Mycorrhizae in Citrus Groves (감귤뿌리에서의 Arbuscular-Mycorrhizae 형성과 감귤원 토양중 포자밀도의 계절적 변화)

  • Kim, Sang-Youb;Oh, Hyun-Woo;Moon, Doo-Khil;Han, Hae-Ryong;Chung, Jong-Bae
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.174-181
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    • 1998
  • In four citrus grow of Satsuma mandarin (rootstock of trifoliate orange) including two grove of organical management and two groves of conventional management, spores of arbuscular mycorrhizal(AM) fungi were identified and seasonal changes in spore density in soils and AM colonization of citrus roots were investigated. AM colonization in weeds found in the groves were also examined. Three species of Glomus (G.deserticola, G. vesiculiferum, G. rubiforme ) and one unknown species of Acaulospora were observed in all of the groves. Annual mean density of AM fungal spores were in the range of 10,000${\sim}$40,000 per 100g soil with more spores in the organically-managed groves. The least spores were observed in December in all groves, and the most spores in April in the organically-managed groves while in February or April in the conventionally- managed. Annual mean AM colonization more 27% of citrus root were observed in the organically-managed with the high peaks in April and October and the minimum in August, while mean colonization less than 15% in the conventionally-managed with the peak in February and the minimum in different times depending on groves and years. AM colonization corresponded to a sigmoidal curve consisting of a laf phase during winter and a subsequent increase in spring, then succeeded by a maximum, and then a decrease at the end of vegetation. Fungal spore density and AM colonization showed a parallel pattern during the sample period. The seasonality appeared to be related more to the phenology of the plant than to the soil factors. Generally more spore density and AM colonization were found in organically managed groves. AM colonization was not correlated with available P and organic matter content in soil in this field investigation. Among sixteen weed species found in the groves, Astrogalus sinicus of Leguminosae, Portulaca oleracea of Portulacaceae showed high colonization in all groves and they can be considered as a source of inoculumn and host plants for propagation of AM fungi.

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Growth Response and Arsenic Uptake of White Clover (Trifolium repens) and Evening Primrose(Oenothera odorata) Colonized with Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in Arsenic-Contaminated Soil

  • Kim, Dae-Yeon;Lee, Yun-Jeong;Lee, Jong-Keun;Koo, Na-Min;Kim, Jeong-Gyu
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.50-59
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    • 2008
  • A greenhouse experiment was conducted to investigate the role of the arbuscular mycorrhizal(AM) fungus, Glomus mosseae(BEG 107) in enhancing growth and arsenic(As) and phosphorus(P) uptake of white clover(Trifolium repens) and evening primrose(Oenothera odorata) in soil collected from a gold mine having concentrations of 381.6 mg total As $kg^{-1}$ and 20.5 mg available As $kg^{-1}$. Trifolium repens and O. odorata are widely distributed on abandoned metalliferous mines in Korea. The percent root colonization by the AM fungus was 55.9% and 62.3% in T. repens and O. odorata, respectively, whereas no root colonization was detected in control plants grown in a sterile medium. The shoot dry weight of T. repens and O. odorata was increased by 323 and 117% in the AM plants compared to non-mycorrhizal(NAM) plants, respectively. The root dry weight increased up to 24% in T. repens and 70% in O. odorata following AM colonization compared to control plants. Mycorrhizal colonization increased the accumulation of As in the root tissues of T. repens and O. odorata by 99.7 and 91.7% compared to the NAM plants, respectively. The total uptake of P following AM colonization increased by 50% in T. repens and 70% in O. odorata, whereas the P concentration was higher in NAM plants than in the AM plants. Colonization with AM fungi increased the As resistance of the host plants to As toxicity by augmenting the yield of dry matter and increasing the total P uptake. Hence, the application of an AM fungus can effectively improve the phytoremediation capability of T. repens and O. odorata in As-contaminated soil.

Mycorrhizae, mushrooms, and research trends in Korea (균근과 버섯 그리고 국내 연구동향)

  • An, Gi-Hong;Cho, Jae-Han;Han, Jae-Gu
    • Journal of Mushroom
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.1-9
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    • 2020
  • Mycorrhiza refers to the association between a plant and a fungus colonizing the cortical tissue of the plant's roots during periods of active plant growth. The benefits afforded by plants from mycorrhizal symbioses can be characterized either agronomically, based on increased growth and yield, or ecologically, based on improved fitness (i.e., reproductive ability). In either case, the benefit accrues primarily because mycorrhizal fungi form a critical linkage between plant roots and the soil. The soilborne or extramatrical hyphae take up nutrients from the soil solution and transport them to the root. This mycorrhizae-mediated mechanism increases the effective absorptive surface area of the plant. There are seven major types of mycorrhizae along with mycoheterotrophy: endomycorrhizae (arbuscular mycorrhizae, AM), ectomycorrhizae (EM), ectendomycorrhizae, monotropoid, arbutoid, orchid, and ericoid. Endomycorrhizal fungi form arbuscules or highly branched structures within root cortical cells, giving rise to arbuscular mycorrhiza, which may produce extensive extramatrical hyphae and significantly increase phosphorus inflow rates in the plants they colonize. Ectomycorrhizal fungi may produce large quantities of hyphae on the root and in the soil; these hyphae play a role in absorption and translocation of inorganic nutrients and water, and also release nutrients from litter layers by producing enzymes involved in mineralization of organic matters. Over 4,000 fungal species, primarily belonging to Basidiomycotina and to a lesser extent Ascomycotina, are able to form ectomycorrhizae. Many of these fungi produce various mushrooms on the forest floor that are traded at a high price. In this paper, we discuss the benefits, nutrient cycles, and artificial cultivation of mycorrhizae in Korea.

Identification of a V.A.Mycorrhiza in the Cultured Panax ginseng (재배 인삼에서 V. A. Mycorrhiza의 동정)

  • Park, Hoon;Lee, Myong-Gu;Lee, Chong-Hwa;Lee, Kyung-Joon
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.73-76
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    • 1990
  • A search for presence of Versicular-Arbuscular endomycorrhiza was attempted using 6-year-old Panax ginseng roots. Hyphae without septum, and vesicles were observed in the cortex of fine roots of Panax ginseng. Brown chlamydospores with thick wall were found in the soil of root zone and it is classified as Glomus sp.

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Mycorrhizae Effects on N Uptake and Assimilation Estimated by 15N Tracing in White Clover under Water-Stressed Conditions (15N 추적에 의한 화이트 클로버에서 마이코라이자 접종이 수분 스트레스 조건하에서 질소 흡수 및 동화의 평가)

  • Zhang, Qian;Park, Sang-Hyun;Kim, Tae-Hwan
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.31 no.3
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    • pp.277-284
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    • 2011
  • To investigate the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis on N uptake and its assimilation under drought-stressed conditions in white clover, total $^{15}N$ amount and $^{15}N$ amount incorporated into $NO_3^-$, amino acids and soluble proteins were quantified by $^{15}N$ tracing during 7 days of water treatment. Under well-watered conditions, there were no significant effects of AM symbiosis on all parameters analyzed in this study. Drought stress decreased total $^{15}N$ amount both in AM and non-AM plants, with a lower rate in AM plants (-13.8%) relative to non-AM plants (-28.5%) at day 7. Drought significantly increased $^{15}N-NO_3^-$ amount in non-AM plants. The amount of $^{15}N$-amino acids was 1.26-fold and 1.33-fold higher, respectively, in leaves and roots of AM plants compared to those of non-AM ones. Drought decreased the amount of $^{15}N$-soluble proteins in leaves at day 7, with a higher rate in non-AM plants than in AM ones. These results clearly indicate that AM colonization effectively alleviating the decrease in N uptake, amino acids and proteins synthesis caused by drought stress.

Identification of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Colonizing Panax ginseng Using 18S rDNA Sequence (18S rDNA를 이용한 인삼(Panax ginseng)의 내생균근 균의 동정)

  • Eo, Ju-Kyeong;Kim, Dong-Hun;Jeong, Hyeon-Suk;Eom, Ahn-Heum
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.47 no.2
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    • pp.182-186
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    • 2004
  • Morphological observation of roots and molecular technique were used to investigate the symbiotic relationships between arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and ginseng roots. Korean ginseng, Panax ginseng, was collected from 8 sites in Korea. Colonization pattern of AM fungi in ginseng roots was determined as an Arum type under light microscopes. Nested PCR using AM fungal specific primers was employed to amplify a partial region on 18s rDNA of AM fungi from the root extracted mixed DNA. The amplified DNA was cloned and analyzed by random fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) with restriction enzymes, AluI, HinfI and AsuC21. One from each RFLP pattern was selected for sequencing. A total 16 clones were sequenced and identified as 2 species of AM fungi; Paraglomus brasilianum and Glomus spurcum. Paramglomus brasilianum was found from most of the ginseng roots, in this syudy suggesting that this species of AM fungi could have specific relationship with the ginseng root. Possible roles of AM fungal species in ginseng roots are discussed.