• Title, Summary, Keyword: Arbuscular mycorrhizae

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Symbiosis of Arbuscular Mycorrhizae on the Plant Roots (식물뿌리에 내생균근의 공생)

  • Lee, Sang-Sun;Ryu, Chang-Neyon
    • The Korean Journal of Mycology
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.126-133
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    • 1992
  • Using the soils containing several arbuscular mycorrhizae, the degrees of infection on the plant roots were measured with the different level of phosphate added on pot cultures. Infection on the plant roots was independent of the phosphate level for the roots of sorghum, but formation of arbuscular mycorrhizae in the roots was inversely related to the growth of soybean roots. It was concluded that infection of arbuscular mycorrhizae would be related to the phosphate level in the soils. Plants, themselves, were considered to control the infection of arbuscular mycorrhizae under the environments of soils, especially amount of phosphate.

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Population Changes of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Spores in the Different Soil Environments (환경변화에 따른 내생균근 포자증식의 변화)

  • Lee, Seok-Koo;Eum, An-Heum;Lee, Sang-Sun
    • The Korean Journal of Mycology
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.134-143
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    • 1992
  • The association of soil environments and sporulation of arbuscular mycorrhizae was investigated using pot cultures. Increased arbuscular mycorrhizal spores as well as the better growth of the host plants were observed when sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) was treated with different soil conditions using several fertilizers with different concentrations. For to five fold increase of sporulation of arbuscular mycorrhizae was noticed depending on the mycorrhizal species. Although there were some differences between the four arbuscular mycorrhizae species and the conditions of soil environments, maximum populations of spores were reached at about 30-40 days after cultivation. The populations of four arbuscular mycorrhizal species was individually fluctuated. Also, the growth rate of host plants were different from the fertilizers over 2-3 times, but the increase of spores were not influenced by it.

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Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhizae in Some Plants (IV) (몇 가지 식물(植物) 중(中)의 Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhizae 에 관(關)하여 (IV))

  • Kim, Chong-Kyun;Choe, Du-Mun;Mun, Hyeong-Tae
    • The Korean Journal of Mycology
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.214-222
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    • 1989
  • Of the 103 species (41 families) sampled from two limestone bites in Korea, 98 species (95.1%) contained VA mycorrhizae. No mycorrhizal structures were observed in the other 5 species. The nonmycorrhizal species were members of the following 4 families: Equisetaceae, Davalliaceae, Amaranthaceae and Ericacene. Of the 124 species (51 families) sampled from two different nonlimestone sites, 99 species (79.8%) were found to contain VA mycorrhizae and no mycorrhizal structures were observed in the other 25 species. The nonmycorrhizal species were members of the following 16 families: Equisetaceae, Pteridacaea, Davalliaceae, Cyperaceae, Commelinaceae, Polygonaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Phytolaceaceae, Amaranthaceae, Aizoaceae, Portulacaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Fumariaceae, Cruciferae, Ericaceae and Rubiaceae.

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Arbuscular-Mycorrhizae Formation and Nutrient Status of Citrus Plants in Cheju (제주 감귤원에서 Arbuscular-Mycorrhizae 형성과 감귤 잎 중의 무기양분 조성)

  • Chung, Jong-Bae;Moon, Doo-Khil;Han, Hae-Ryong;Lim, Han-Cheol
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.181-186
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    • 1997
  • Since volcanic ash soils in Cheju island have high capacities of adsorption and immobilization of phosphate, a relatively high rate of P application has been recommended in citrus orchards for many years and such a large amount of P application could be problematic both in agricultural and environmental point of view. The objective of this study was to test whether arbuscular-mycorrhizae can be used to improve P availability in Cheju citrus orchard soils. Soil, root and leaf samples were taken from 14 citrus orchards of different location and soil texture. Mycorrhizal spore distribution in the soils, mycorrhizal infection ratio on the citrus roots, and mineral nutrients in leaf samples were determined. Numbers of mycorrhizal spore were in the range of $9,000{\sim}40,000/100g$ soil. The population level was not correlated with any of the soil characteristics examined. Mycorrhizae were found in all of the examined orchards and root infection ratio varied between $14{\sim}60%$. The mycorrhizae infection ratio differed substantially in different soils. Although root infection was high at soils with low extractable P level, it was not significantly correlated with other soil factors measured. Since a positive correlation was observed between leaf P concentration and root infection, enhancement of P uptake seemed to be associated with mycorrhizal infection. These results indicate that mycorrhizae could be a useful method to reduce P applications in Cheju citrus orchards.

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A study on the pot cultures of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in Korea (Arbuscular 내생균근 균의 포트배양에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Snag-Sun;Eom, Ahn-Heum;Lee, Oun-Hack;Kim, Myoung-Kon
    • The Korean Journal of Mycology
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.38-50
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    • 1993
  • Four plant (Sorghum bicolor, Cassia mimosoides var. nomame, Sesamum indicum and Glycine soja) were cultivated at the pots including the soils containing arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and were also investigated with the colonizations and productions of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Whereas the colonizations of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi continuosly increased on the roots until 50 days, the productions of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal spores were fluctuated with the terms of 30 days after inoculated. This indicated that the colonizations on the roots were not correlated with productions of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal spores. Also, the various soils collected were applied to this technique by using pot cultures. Out of 82 various soils collected, the spore productions of arbuscular mycorrhiaze were observed only from 42 soils. The spores cultured under artificial conditions were identified to 15 species with four genera. The spore productions of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi using this technique would be considered to be related to the soil pH: The spore productions were found in the low pH for the species of Acaulospora and Glomus, the those near pH 7.6 for the species of some Glomus, Scutellospora and Gigaspora.

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Multiple Symbiotic Associations Found in the Roots of Botrychium ternatum

  • Lee, Jun-Ki;Eom, Ahn-Heum;Lee, Sang-Sun
    • Mycobiology
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.146-153
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    • 2002
  • Two types of mycorrhizae, orchid(OM) and arbuscular mycorrhizae(AM), were observed in the cortical cells of Botrychium ternatum roots. The vesicles or arbuscules of AM fungi were examined and the fresh or digestive pelotons by other species of basidiomycetes were also observed in the roots under light microscope. These symbioses were, as the genomic DNAs extracted from roots of B. ternatum reacted with the specific primers, confirmed with PCR technique, being added to more strong evidences. These discoveries were rarely happened in the roots, especially a fern in nature. OM was observed in the roots of B. ternatum collected from the nationwide areas, whereas AM was only in the roots of B. ternatum collected from Chung-Buk areas. It is speculated that OM are associated with the nitrogen cycle in Islands and the growth of B. ternatum in the inland of Central Korea is related to both the phosphate and nitrogen cycle in the nature. The results suggest that B. ternatum is a typical species with two types of mycorrhizae under various growing conditions.

Rock Phosphate with Mycorrhizae as P Source for Tomato Plant in Volcanic Ash Soil (화산회토양에서 Arbuscular Mycorrhizae 에 의한 토마토의 인광석 이용)

  • Chung, Jong-Bae;Moon, Doo-Khil
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.287-291
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    • 1999
  • In order to examine the possible use of rock phosphate as P source, tomato seedlings with or without inoculation of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi were grown in the pots of sterile volcanic ash soil from Cheju island with two levels of phosphorus (100 and 200 mg/kg) supplied either as fused or as rock phosphate. After three months of culture, plant dry weight, P and other nutrient uptake, root colonization and spore density in the soil were determined. Treatments of rock phosphate of both levels resulted in the significantly depressed plant growth in comparison to the treatments of fused phosphate, likely due to lower P availability in soil with rock phosphate. Mycorrhizal fungi inoculation increased the dry weight of plant at 200 mg/kg level of both fused and rock phosphate. Root infection and sporoulation were reduced in rock phosphate treatments. Nitrogen, K, Ca and Mg contents in plants were not significantly different at all treatments. As a P source, rock phosphate in combination with mycorrhizae was not satisfactory for optimum plant growth at $100{\sim}200\;mg/kg$ levels in Cheju volcanic ash soil.

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The Distribution of Cytoplasm and Nuclei within the Extra-radical Mycelia in Glomus intraradices, a Species of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi

  • Lee, Jai-Koo
    • Mycobiology
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    • v.39 no.2
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    • pp.79-84
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    • 2011
  • Nuclear distribution within the extra-radical fungal structures and during spore production in the arbuscular mycorrhizae fungus Glomus intraradices was examined using an in vitro monoxenic culture system. A di-compartmental monoxenic culture system was modified using a nitrocellulose membrane and a coverglass slip for detailed observations. Nuclear distribution was observed using the fluorescent DNA binding probes SYBR Green I and DAPI. Both septate and non-septate mycelial regions were observed, but cytoplasmic contents were only found within non-septate mycelia. Nuclear fluorescent staining revealed that the non-septate hyphal region contained nuclei only with cytoplasm, and that nuclear distribution was limited by septa. Swollen hyphal bodies were often associated with septate and empty-looking hyphae. Cytoplasmic contents filled the swollen hyphal body from the non-septate hyphal region following removal of the septa. As a consequence, the swollen body developed into a new spore. These observations provide understanding about the distribution of AM fungal nuclei within extra-radical mycelia and during spore formation. The results suggest a mechanism by which the development of a cytoplasm-containing mycelium is controlled by the formation or removal of septa to efficiently maintain and proliferate essential contents. This mechanism may provide a survival strategy to the fungus.

Effects of Arbuscular Mycorrhizae on Growth and Mineral Nutrient Contents in Trifoliate Orange Seedling (Arbuscular Mycorrhizae가 탱자 유묘의 생육과 무기양분 함량에 미치는 영향)

  • Oh, Hyun-Woo;Kim, Sang-Youb;Han, Hae-Ryong;Moon, Doo-Khil;Chung, Jong-Bae
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.182-188
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    • 1998
  • The effect of arbuscular mycorrhizae(AM) on the growth of trifoliate orange seeding were investigated in volcanic ash soil. Trifoliate orange is used as a root stock of citrus in Cheju island. Seedings innoculated with AM fungi were grown for 16 weeks in pots of various levels of fertilizer. Growth characteristics and mineral nutrient contents were measured and spores of AM fungi colonized were identified. Seventy % of the replicsted pots of seedings were colonized by AM in the treatment of high level fertilizer and additional phosphate (40g of 21-17-17 complex fertilizer and 50g of fused phosphate added to 50L of soil). In treatments of low levels fertilizer or without fused phosphate addition, the pots colonized were less than 20 %. Colonization of trifoliate seedings with AM fungi greatly increased the growth of seedings. Shoot length and weight of shoot and root positively regressed on AM colonization ratio. AM colonization caused higher concentrations of P, Cu and Mg in plant, and the relations were significant at 5 % level. Contents of N and Zn in plants also tended to increase, while that of Ca to decrease, with increasing colonization ratio. Four species of AM fungi - Glomus deserticola, G. rubiforme, G. vesiculiferum and Acaulospora sp, - were found in the soil where roots of trifoliate orange as an innoculation materials were collected. All of the 4 species were found in the inoculated pot soils after the seedling growth, indicating that these species can be colonized in trifoliate orange roots.

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Contribution to the Checklist of Soil-inhabiting Fungi in Korea

  • Lee, Seon-Ju;Hong, Seung-Beom;Kim, Chang-Yung
    • Mycobiology
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.9-18
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    • 2003
  • A total of 82 genera and 271 species of soil-inhabiting fungi including saprobic, nematode-trapping, and arbuscular mycorrhizal but plant pathogenic fungi published hitherto in South Korea are listed with the information on geographic location, habitat, vegetation when available, and relevant literatures.