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Neuro-fuzzy based approach for estimation of concrete compressive strength

  • Xue, Xinhua;Zhou, Hongwei
    • Computers and Concrete
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    • v.21 no.6
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    • pp.697-703
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    • 2018
  • Compressive strength is one of the most important engineering properties of concrete, and testing of the compressive strength of concrete specimens is often costly and time consuming. In order to provide the time for concrete form removal, re-shoring to slab, project scheduling and quality control, it is necessary to predict the concrete strength based upon the early strength data. However, concrete compressive strength is affected by many factors, such as quality of raw materials, water cement ratio, ratio of fine aggregate to coarse aggregate, age of concrete, compaction of concrete, temperature, relative humidity and curing of concrete. The concrete compressive strength is a quite nonlinear function that changes depend on the materials used in the concrete and the time. This paper presents an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) for the prediction of concrete compressive strength. The training of fuzzy system was performed by a hybrid method of gradient descent method and least squares algorithm, and the subtractive clustering algorithm (SCA) was utilized for optimizing the number of fuzzy rules. Experimental data on concrete compressive strength in the literature were used to validate and evaluate the performance of the proposed ANFIS model. Further, predictions from three models (the back propagation neural network model, the statistics model, and the ANFIS model) were compared with the experimental data. The results show that the proposed ANFIS model is a feasible, efficient, and accurate tool for predicting the concrete compressive strength.

The Electronic and Magnetic Properties of Fe Overlayers on W(110) (W(110)위에 성장한 Fe 웃층의 전자 및 자기적 성질)

  • ;;A. J. Freeman
    • Journal of the Korean Magnetics Society
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    • v.1 no.2
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    • pp.1-8
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    • 1991
  • The electronic and magnetic structure of Fe overlayers on W(110) is determined by means of the all-electron local spin density full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FLAPW) method with a single slab approach. Charge and spin densities, magnetic moments, contact hyperfine fields, and layer projected density of states (LDOS) are presented. For bilayer Fe coverage, we find magnetic moments to be 2.90 and 2.30 ${\mu}_B$ for the surface and subsurface Fe layers, respectively, corresponding to a 18% enhancement of the total magnetization compared with the calculated bulk value (2.22${\mu}_B$);For monolayer coverage the moment is 2.56 ${\mu}_B$ which is enhanced by 16% compared to bulk. Unusual changes in the magnetic hyperfine interaction are found in going from a monolayer to a bilayer coverage. Comparison of the results to the theoretical ones of the clean Fe(110) to discuss the hybridization and the negative pressure effects. We discuss our results by comparing them to experimental results.

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Study of the optical switching properties in waveguide type Au/$SiO_2$ nanocomposite film using prism coupler (프리즘 커플러를 이용한 도파로형 Au/$SiO_2$ 나노 혼합박막의 광 스위칭 특성 연구)

  • Cho, Sung-Hun;Lee, Soon-Il;Lee, Taek-Sung;Kim, Won-Mok;Lee, Kyeong-Seok
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Electrical and Electronic Material Engineers Conference
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    • pp.76-76
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    • 2008
  • The resonance properties due to the surface plasmon(SP) excitation of metal nanoparticles make the nanocomposite films promising for various applications such as optical switching devices. In spite of the well-known ultra-sensitive operation of optical switches based on a guided wave, the application of nanocomposite film(NC) has inherent limitation originating from the excessive optical loss related with the surface plasmon resonance(SPR). In this study, we addressed this problem and present the experimental and theoretical analysis on the pump-probe optical switching in prism-coupled Au(1 vol.%):$SiO_2$ nanocomposite waveguide film. The guided mode was successfully generated using a near infrared probe beam of 1550 nm and modulated with an external pump beam of 532 nm close to the SPR wavelength. We extend our approach to ultra-fast operation using a pulsed laser with 5 ns pulse width. To improve the switching speed through the reduction in thermal loading effect accompanied by the resonant absorption of pump beam light, we adopted a metallic film as a coupling layer instead of low-index dielectric layer between the high-index SF10 prism and NC slab waveguide. We observed great enhancement in switching speed for the case of using metallic coupling layer, and founded a distinct difference in origin of optical nonlinearities induced during switching operation using cw and ns laser.

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BUILDING INFORMATION MODELING (BIM)-BASED DESIGN OF ENERGY EFFICIENT BUILDINGS

  • Cho, Chung-Suk;Chen, Don;Woo, Sungkwon
    • Journal of KIBIM
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.1-6
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    • 2012
  • With the increased awareness of energy consumption as well as the environmental impact of building operations, architects, designers and planners are required to place more consideration on sustainability and energy performance of the building. To ensure most of those considerations are reflected in the building performance, critical design decisions should be made by key stakeholders early during the design development stage. The application of BIM during building energy simulations has profoundly improved the energy analysis process and thus this approach has gained momentum. However, despite rapid advances in BIM-based processes, the question still remains how ordinary building stakeholders can perform energy performance analysis, which has previously been conducted predominantly by professionals, to maximize energy efficient building performance. To address this issue, we identified two leading building performance analysis software programs, Energy Plus and IES (IES ), and compared their effectiveness and suitability as BIM-based energy simulation tools. To facilitate this study, we examined a case study on Building Performance Model (BPM) of a single story building with one door, multiple windows on each wall, a slab and a roof. We focused particularly on building energy performance by differing building orientation and window sizes and compared how effectively these two software programs analyzed the performance. We also looked at typical decision-making processes implementing building energy simulation program during the early design stages in the U.S. Finally, conclusions were drawn as to how to conduct BIM-based building energy performance evaluations more efficiently. Suggestions for further avenues of research are also made.

Strength Model for Punching Shear of Flat Plate-Column Connections (플랫플레이트-기둥 접합부의 뚫림전단강도)

  • Choi Kyoung-Kyu;Park Hong-Gun
    • Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.163-174
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    • 2004
  • A number of experiments were performed to investigate the punching shear strength of flat plate-column connections. According to the experiments, the punching shear strength varies significantly with design parameters such as the column size of the connection, reinforcement ratio, and boundary condition. However, current design methods do not properly address the effects of such design parameters. In the present study, a theoratical approach using Rankine's failure cirterion was attempted to define the failure mechanism of the punching shear According to the study, the failure mechanism can be classified into the compression-controlled and the tension-controlled, depending on the amount of bottom re-bars placed at the connection, and the punching shear strength is also significantly affected by the flexural damage of slab. Based on the finding, a new strength model of punching shear was developed, and verified by the comparisons with existing experiments and nonlinear finite element analyses. The comparisons show that the proposed strength model addressing the effects of various design parameters can predict accurately the punching shear strength, compared to the existing strength models.

Dynamic Response of Unreinforced Masonry Building (비보강 조적조의 동적 거동)

  • Kim, Nam-Hee;Kim, Jae-Kwan
    • Journal of the Earthquake Engineering Society of Korea
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    • v.8 no.5
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    • pp.1-14
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    • 2004
  • The seismic behavior of a 1/3-scale model of a two-story unreinforced masonry (URM) structure typically used in constructing low-rise residential buildings in Korea is studied through a shaking table test. The purposes of this study are to investigate seismic behavior and damage patterns of the URM structure that was not engineered against seismic loading and to provide its experimental test results. The test structure was symmetric about the transverse axis but asymmetric to some degrees about longitudinal axis and had a relatively strong diaphragm of concrete slab. The test structure was subjected to a series of differentlevels of earthquake shakings that were applied along the longitudinal direction. The measured dynamic response of the test structure was analyzed in terms of various global parameters (i.e., floor accelerations, base shear, floor displacements and storydrift, and torsional displacements) and correlated with the input table motion. Moreover, different levels of seismic performance were suggested for performance-based design approach. The results of the shaking table test revealed that the shear failure was dominant on a weak side of the 1stfloor while the upper part of the test model remained as a rigid body. Also, it was found that substantial strength and deformation capacity existed after cracking.

Numerical analysis of channel connectors under fire and a comparison of performance with different types of shear connectors subjected to fire

  • Shahabi, S.E.M.;Ramli Sulong, N.H.;Shariati, M.;Mohammadhassani, M.;Shah, S.N.R.
    • Steel and Composite Structures
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.651-669
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    • 2016
  • The behavior of shear connectors plays a significant role in maintaining the required strength of a composite beam in normal and hazardous conditions. Various types of shear connectors are available and being utilized in the construction industry according to their use. Channel connectors are a suitable replacement for conventional shear connectors. These connectors have been tested under different types of loading at ambient temperature; however, the behavior of these connectors at elevated temperatures has not been studied. This investigation proposes a numerical analysis approach to estimate the behavior of channel connectors under fire and compare it with the numerical analysis performed in headed stud and Perfobond shear connectors subjected to fire. This paper first reviews the mechanism of various types of shear connectors and then proposes a non-linear thermo-mechanical finite element (FE) model of channel shear connectors embedded in high-strength concrete (HSC) subjected to fire. Initially, an accurate nonlinear FE model of the specimens tested at ambient temperature was developed to investigate the strength of the channel-type connectors embedded in an HSC slab. The outcomes were verified with the experimental study performed on the testing of channel connectors at ambient temperature by Shariati et al. (2012). The FE model at ambient temperature was extended to identify the behavior of channel connectors subjected to fire. A comparative study is performed to evaluate the performance of channel connectors against headed stud and Perfobond shear connectors. The channel connectors were found to be a more economical and easy-to-apply alternative to conventional shear connectors.

An experimental study of the behaviour of double sided welded plate connections in precast concrete frames

  • Gorgun, Halil
    • Steel and Composite Structures
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.1-22
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    • 2018
  • Multi-storey precast concrete skeletal structures are assembled from individual prefabricated components which are erected on-site using various types of connections. In the current design of these structures, beam-to-column connections are assumed to be pin jointed. Welded plate beam to-column connections have been used in the precast concrete industry for many years. They have many advantages over other jointing methods in component production, quality control, transportation and assembly. However, there is at present limited information concerning their detailed structural behaviour under bending and shear loadings. The experimental work has involved the determination of moment-rotation relationships for semi-rigid precast concrete connections in full scale connection tests. The study reported in this paper was undertaken to clarify the behaviour of such connections under symmetrical vertical loadings. A series of full-scale tests was performed on sample column for which the column geometry and weld arrangements conformed with successful commercial practice. Proprietary hollow core slabs were tied to the beams by tensile reinforcing bars, which also provide the in-plane continuity across the connections. The strength of the connections in the double sided tests was at least 0.84 times the predicted moment of resistance of the composite beam and slab. The secant stiffness of the connections ranged from 0.7 to 3.9 times the flexural stiffness of the attached beam. When the connections were tested without the floor slabs and tie steel, the reduced strength and stiffness were approximately a third and half respectively. This remarkable contribution of the floor strength and stiffness to the flexural capacity of the joint is currently neglected in the design process for precast concrete frames. In general, the double sided connections were found to be more suited to a semi-rigid design approach than the single sided ones. The behaviour of double sided welded plate connection test results are presented in this paper. The behaviour of single sided welded plate connection test results is the subject of another paper.

An experimental study of the behaviour of double sided bolted billet connections in precast concrete frames

  • Gorgun, Halil
    • Steel and Composite Structures
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    • v.29 no.5
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    • pp.603-622
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    • 2018
  • Precast concrete structures are erected from individual prefabricated components, which are assembled on-site using different types of connections. In the present design of these structures, beam-to-column connections are assumed pin jointed. Bolted billet beam to-column connections have been used in the precast concrete industry for many years. They have many advantages over other jointing methods in component production, quality control, transportation and assembly. However, there is currently limited information concerning their detailed structural behaviour under vertical loadings. The experimental work has involved the determination of moment-relative rotation relationships for semi-rigid precast concrete connections in full-scale connection tests. The study reported in this paper was undertaken to clarify the behaviour of such connections under symmetrical vertical loadings. A series of full-scale tests was performed on sample column for which the column geometry and bolt arrangements conformed to successful commercial practice. Proprietary hollow core floor slabs were tied to the beams by 2T25 tensile reinforcing bars, which also provide the in-plane continuity across the connections. The contribution of the floor strength and stiffness to the flexural capacity of the joint is currently neglected in the design process for precast concrete frames. The flexural strength of the connections in the double-sided tests was at least 0.93 times the predicted moment of resistance of the composite beam and slab. The secant stiffness of the connections ranged from 0.94 to 1.94 times the flexural stiffness of the attached beam. In general, the double-sided connections were found to be more suited to a semi-rigid design approach than the single sided ones. The behaviour of double sided bolted billet connection test results are presented in this paper. The behaviour of single sided bolted billet connection test results is the subject of another paper.

Non-linear Dynamic Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Slabs Subjected to Explosive Loading Using an Orthotropic Concrete Constitutive Model (이등방성 콘크리트 모델을 이용한 폭발하중을 받는 철근콘크리트 슬래브의 비선형 동적해석)

  • Lee, MinJoo;Kwak, Hyo-Gyoung
    • Journal of the Computational Structural Engineering Institute of Korea
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    • v.32 no.6
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    • pp.409-416
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    • 2019
  • An improved numerical model for non-linear analysis of reinforced concrete (RC) slabs subjected to blast loading is proposed. This approach considers a strain rate dependent orthotropic constitutive model that directly determines the stress state using the stress-strain relation acquired from the data obtained using the biaxial strength envelope. Moreover, the bond-slip between concrete and reinforcing steel is gradually enlarged after the occurrence of cracks and is concentrated in the plastic hinge region. The bond-slip model is introduced to consider the crack direction of the concrete under a biaxial stress state. Correlation studies between the numerical analysis and the experimental results were performed to evaluate the analytical model. The results show that the proposed model can effectively be used in dynamic analyses of reinforced concrete slab members subjected to explosive loading. Moreover, it was determined that it is important to consider biaxial behavior in the material model and the bond-slip effect.