• Title, Summary, Keyword: Approach slab

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Equivalent Beam Model for Flat-Plate Building (무량판 건물의 등가 보 모델)

  • 박수경;김두영;박성무
    • Proceedings of the Korea Concrete Institute Conference
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    • pp.312-316
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    • 1995
  • Flat-plate buildings are commonly modeled as two-dimensional frames to calculate lateral drift, unbalanced moments, and shear at slab-column connections. For gravity loads. the slab-column frames are analyzed using equivalent column approach, while equivalent beam approach is typical for lateral loads. The equivalent beam approach is convenient for computer analysis, but no rational procedure exists for determining the effective width of foor slabs. At present, the determination of the equivalent slab width and its stiffness is a matter of engineering judgement. To account for cracking, overly conservative assumptions are made regarding the stiffness of the slab. A rational approach is therefore needed to realistically estimate the equivalent slab width and its stiffness for unbalanced moment and lateral drift calculations. Based on the test results of 8 interior slab-column connections, an equivalent beam model is proposed in which columns are modeled conventionally as a function of column and slab aspect ratios and the magnitude of the gravity load. the proposed approach is verified with selected experimental results and is founded to be practical and convenient for analyzing flat-plate buildings subjected to gravity and lateral loading.

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The Allowable Displacement Limit on the Approach Slab for a Railway Bridge with Ballastless Track (콘크리트궤도부설 교량의 접속슬래브 허용변위한도에 관한 연구)

  • Choi, Jin-Yu;Yang, Shin-Chu;Yoo, Jin-Young;Cho, Hyun-Cheol
    • Proceedings of the KSR Conference
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    • pp.1149-1155
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    • 2007
  • The transition area between a bridge and an earthwork is one of the weakest area of track because of the track geometry deterioration caused unequal settlement of backfill of abutment. In case of a ballastless track, the approach slab is installed to prevent the phenomenon. But, if there is occurred the inclined displacement on the approach slab by a settlement of the foundation or formation, the track is also under the inclined displacement. And this defect causes reducing the running stability of a vehicle, the riding comfort of passengers, and the deteriorations of track by excessive impact subjected to the track. In this study, parametric studies were performed to know what is the allowable displacement limit on the approach slab to avoid such a bad effect. The length and amount of unequal settlement of the approach slab was adopted as parameter for numerical analysis. And car body accelerations, variations of wheel force and rail stress and uplift force induced on a fastener clip are investigated. From the result, resonable settlement limits of an approach slab according to slab length was suggested.

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The Displacement Limit at the End of an Approach Slab for a Railway Bridge with Ballastless Track (콘크리트궤도 부설 교량의 접속슬래브 단부 처짐한도에 관한 연구)

  • Choi, Jin-Yu;Yang, Shin-Chu
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Railway
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.195-202
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    • 2008
  • The transition area between a bridge and an earthwork is one of the weakest area of track because of the track geometry deterioration caused unequal settlement of backfill of abutment. In case of a ballastless track, the approach slab could be installed to prevent such a phenomenon. But, if there is occurred the inclined displacement on the approach slab by a settlement of the foundation or formation, the track is also under the inclined displacement. And this defect causes reducing the running stability of a vehicle, the riding comfort of passengers, and increasing the track deteriorations by excessive impact force acting on the track. In this study, parametric studies were performed to investigate the displacement limit on the approach slab to avoid such problems. The length and the amount of unequal settlement of approach slab were adopted as parameter for numerical analysis considering vehicle-track interaction. Car body accelerations, variations of wheel force, stresses in rail, and uplift forces induced on fastener clip were investigated. From the result, resonable settlement limit on the end of an approach slab according to slab length was suggested.

Experimental Analysis of Prestressed Approach Slab Behavior (프리스트레스가 도입된 접속슬래브의 실험적 거동 분석)

  • Park, Hee-Beom;Eum, In-Sub;Kim, Seong-Min
    • International Journal of Highway Engineering
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    • v.12 no.4
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    • pp.157-164
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    • 2010
  • This research was conducted to analyze the behavior of Single-PTAS (Single Post-Tensioned Approach Slab) under tensioning and environmental loads by performing field tests when the demonstration Single-PTAS was being constructed. The temperature measurement sensors were installed at different depths, and the displacements in the approach slab under environmental loads and tensioning were measured using displacement transducers. As an experimental result, an abrupt change in the longitudinal displacement due to tensioning was not observed. The daily temperature change in the approach slab was negligible where the depth is over about 35cm. The temperature gradient in the approach slab adjacent to bridge was smaller than that adjacent to pavement. The patterns and magnitudes of vertical displacements were directly related to the temperature gradient at the measuring location. The behavior of Single-PTAS was very similar to that of concrete pavement. Therefore, a new design methodology for approach slabs is needed to include the pavement concept and to overcome drawback of current design procedures based on the simple beam concept.

Numerical Analysis of Curling Behavior of Prestressed Approach Slab Subjected to Environmental Loads (환경하중에 의한 교량 프리스트레스 접속슬래프의 컬링 거동 수치 해석적 분석)

  • Park, Hee-Beom;Eum, In-Sub;Kim, Seong-Min;Rhee, Suk-Keun
    • International Journal of Highway Engineering
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.7-14
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    • 2011
  • The numerical analyses were performed to investigate the curling behavior of the post-tensioned prestressed concrete approach slab (PTAS) under environmental loads. A technique to include properly the boundary conditions of one end of PTAS that was connected to the bridge abutment using hinges was proposed for the numerical model. The applicability of a simplified model not having hunches was also investigated. By using the developed models, the curling behavior of PTAS was analyzed when the foundation settlement occurred. The analysis results showed that the maximum tensile stress obtained from the simplified model involving a simplified hinge connection was very closed to that obtained from a rigorous model. When the slab curled up, the maximum tensile stress occurred in the model including no foundation settlement, but when the slab curled down, the maximum stress occurred in the model including partial settlement of the foundation. Therefore, the design of PTAS should be performed considering those maximum tensile stresses.

Experimental Study on the Structural Behavior of Typical Bar Connections of Approach Slab in the Integral Abutment Bridge (일체식교량의 접속슬래브 연결철근 형상에 따른 연결부 구조거동에 대한 실험연구)

  • You, Sung-Kun;Kim, Na-Yeon;Kim, Ho-Seop;Kim, Hyun-Gi;Kim, Young-Ho
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Advanced Composite Structures
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    • v.5 no.4
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    • pp.24-35
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    • 2014
  • An experimental study on the structural behavior of connection types between approach slab and integral abutment has been done for three typical bar connections. Typical hinge style reinforcing bar detail for its connection is preferred in order to accommodate rotation of the approach slab among engineers. However, the straight horizontal bars can be used as connection detail accomodate structural capacity. Total six specimens with three types of rebar detail are tested for direct tensile and bending load. The characteristic structural behaviors are carefully monitored and all the strain gauge data obtained are analyzed. It is shown that the structural performance of all the specimens well exceed its design allowance. Several design suggestions are given based on careful reviews on the experiment.

Behavior Analysis of Approach Slabs of IPM Bridges according to Unsupported Length and Settlement (토압분리형 교량 접속슬래브의 비지지길이와 지반 침하에 따른 거동 해석)

  • Park, Min-Cheol
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.19 no.5
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    • pp.650-660
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    • 2018
  • The approach slab plays an important role in the driving comfort of the connection section on a bridge. On the other hand, the approach slab only calculates the section force of a simple beam, and does not analyze the behavior. In this study, the unsupported length and settlement of approach slabs of IPM Bridges were examined using structural analysis. First, the section force was calculated by designing a simple beam, according to the length of the approach slab. The structural analysis was conducted to examine the behavior of the unsupported length and settlement. As the result, the bending moment decreased when the unsupported length was increased, and the bending moment increased when the settlement was increased. In addition, the design section force was estimated to be larger than the force of structural analysis, and the design of the approach slab according to the design guideline showed no problem in stability. Nevertheless, the vertical displacement exceeded the maintenance criterion of a 1/200 curve when the settlement exceeded 10 mm regardless of the unsupported length. Therefore, excessive settlement occurs in the reinforced earth retaining wall supporting the approach slab, and the design bending moment may be exceeded. Therefore, strict management is required.

Damage assessment of shear connectors with vibration measurements and power spectral density transmissibility

  • Li, Jun;Hao, Hong;Xia, Yong;Zhu, Hong-Ping
    • Structural Engineering and Mechanics
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    • v.54 no.2
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    • pp.257-289
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    • 2015
  • Shear connectors are generally used to link the slab and girders together in slab-on-girder bridge structures. Damage of shear connectors in such structures will result in shear slippage between the slab and girders, which significantly reduces the load-carrying capacity of the bridge. Because shear connectors are buried inside the structure, routine visual inspection is not able to detect conditions of shear connectors. A few methods have been proposed in the literature to detect the condition of shear connectors based on vibration measurements. This paper proposes a different dynamic condition assessment approach to identify the damage of shear connectors in slab-on-girder bridge structures based on power spectral density transmissibility (PSDT). PSDT formulates the relationship between the auto-spectral densities of two responses in the frequency domain. It can be used to identify shear connector conditions with or without reference data of the undamaged structure (or the baseline). Measured impact force and acceleration responses from hammer tests are analyzed to obtain the frequency response functions at sensor locations by experimental modal analysis. PSDT from the slab response to the girder response is derived with the obtained frequency response functions. PSDT vectors in the undamaged and damaged states can be compared to identify the damage of shear connectors. When the baseline is not available, as in most practical cases, PSDT vectors from the measured response at a reference sensor to those of the slab and girder in the damaged state can be used to detect the damage of shear connectors. Numerical and experimental studies on a concrete slab supported by two steel girders are conducted to investigate the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed approach. Identification results demonstrate that damages of shear connectors are identified accurately and efficiently with and without the baseline. The proposed method is also used to evaluate the conditions of shear connectors in a real composite bridge with in-field testing data.

The Study of the Roughness of the Pavement on the Bridge Deck and Approach Slab using a 5year(2003 to 2007) Pavement Condition Survey Data (HPMS 데이터를 이용한 고속도로 교량 및 뒷채움구간 평탄성 특성 연구)

  • Park, Sang-Wook;Suh, Young-Chan
    • International Journal of Highway Engineering
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    • v.10 no.3
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    • pp.189-197
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    • 2008
  • Using a 5 year(2003 to 2007) pavement condition survey data from the highway pavement management system(HPMS), the roughness of the bridge deck pavement was analyzed. Based on the result of this analysis, this study tried to identify the factors affecting the deterioration of the bridge deck pavement condition. The data from HPMS indicates that the roughness of the bridge deck pavement is worse than that of the general pavement on the roadbed. The worse roughness of the bridge deck pavement is caused by the settlement of approach slab as well as the surface distress on the bridge deck pavement. In order to improve effectively the roughness of the bridge deck pavement, a management system was established in which not only the regular automated pavement condition survey to check the distress of surface of the bridge deck pavement was adopted but an automated surface profiler to check the degree of settlement of approach slab was applied.

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Effective Beam Width Coefficients for Lateral Stiffness in Flat-Plate Structures

  • Park, Jung-Wook;Kim, Chul-Soo;Song, Jin-Gyu;Lee, Soo-Gon
    • KCI Concrete Journal
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.49-57
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    • 2001
  • Flat-plate buildings are commonly modeled as two-dimensional frames to calculate unbalanced moments, lateral drift and shear at slab-column connections. The slab-column frames under lateral loads are analyzed using effective beam width models, which is convenient for computer analysis. In this case, the accuracy of this approach depends on the exact values of effective beam width to account for the actual behavior of slab-column connections. In this parametric study, effective beam width coefficients for wide range of the variations are calculated on the several types of slab-column connections, and the results are compared with those of other researches. Also the formulas for effective beam width coefficients are proposed and verified by finite element analysis. The proposed formulas are founded to be more suitable than others for analyzing flat-plate buildings subjected to lateral loading.

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