• Title, Summary, Keyword: Apple

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Phenolic Compounds Content and Tyrosinase Inhibitory Effect of Unripe Apple Extracts

  • Choi, Sang-Yoon;Kim, Sung-Soo;Lee, Yeon-Mi;Lee, Bog-Hieu;Han, Chan-Kyu
    • Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.53 no.2
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    • pp.87-90
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    • 2010
  • This study consisted of a quantitative analysis of five phenolic ingredients in differently sized unripe apple extracts, and their tyrosinase inhibitory effects were examined. In the HPLC analysis of phenolic ingredients, small ($4{\pm}1\;g$ per one) unripe apple extracts were observed to have significantly higher quercetin content than larger ($8{\pm}1\;g$ per one) unripe apple and ripe apple extracts. The amount of catechin, epicatechin, p-coumaric acid and chlorogenic acid contents were similar in both the small and large unripe apple extracts. For the results of the tyrosinase assay, small unripe apple extracts provided a potent tyrosinase inhibitory effect, showing 89.2% at 1000 ppm. The tyrosinase inhibitory effects of large unripe apple and ripe apple extracts were weaker than those of the small unripe apple extract. These results suggest that the small unripe apple extract could be useful for de-pigmenting material, while quercetin could be responsible for the potent tyrosinase inhibitory properties of small unripe apple extracts.

Changes in the Content of Individual Phenolic Compounds in Apple Slices during Cold Storage (냉장저장 중 사과슬라이스의 개별페놀성분함량과 제변화)

  • Ahn, Sun-Choung
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.489-498
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    • 2008
  • The objectives of this study were to provide fundamental information on how individual phenolic compounds form on the inside of apple slices during cold storage, the changes in the content of four types of phenols, ingredient variation of individual phenolic compounds and the influence of phenolic compounds on enzymatic browning. This study measured the changes in the content of soluble solids, pH and vitamin C in order to investigate the correlations between these variables. HD and FA were the main phenolic compounds found in the apple slices, and HD was the most prevalent phenol. Furthermore, comparison of the CG and EP content revealed that there were more CGs than EPs. The phenol content tended to decrease considerably in the fresh apple slices and water-dipped apple slices but only slightly in the CP from sucrose-dipped apple slices and 0.5% ascorbic acid solution-dipped apple slices. The degree of browning increased in the following order: fresh apple slices, water-dipped apple slices, 0.5% ascorbic acid solution-dipped apple slices and CP from sucrose-dipped apple slices. The vitamin C content tended to decrease in the fresh apple slices, water-dipped apple slices, 0.5% ascorbic acid solution-dipped apple slices and CP from sucrose-dipped apple slices. The pH tended to increase in all sample groups, but the pH of the water-dipped apple slices was lower than that of the comparison group. The CP from sucrose-dipped apple slices had the lowest value of pH. The change in soluble solids tended to increase in all treatment groups, but this increase was less in the CP from sucrose-dipped apple slice. Correlation analysis revealed a high degree of correlation between browning and chlorogenic acid content. The results of the present study show that, when stored in the fridge, the change in phenol ingredient content in apple slices influences the browning of the slices. The results also showed that HD and FA were the main phenolic compounds, while CG was shown to have the greatest influence on browning.

A Survey on Uses, Preference and Recognition of Apple (사과의 이용실태, 기호도 및 인식에 대한 조사연구)

  • Choi, Young-Hee;Lee, Su-Jin
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.204-213
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    • 2005
  • This study was focused on the analysis of questionnaire that surveyed the uses, preference and recognition on apple. The subjects of this study consisted of 452 female(married 238, unmarried 214) in Daegu area. Among those respondents, 49.1% answered that they ate apple after dinner. Respondents preferred as purchase place fruits store(34.5%), traditional market(22.6%), and big discount store(21.7%), in order. Taste(46.0%) was the most important as purchase criterion. 49.1% of respondents preferred small amount below 2-3kg every one purchase. In preference survey on apples, 80.5% of total subjects responded 'like' or 'very like', and 73.6% of those subjects who favorably responded liked the 'taste' of apples. The preference survey study on apple foods revealed that respondents preferred the most apple juice(M=3.47), fellowed by apple jam(M=3.35) and apple vinegar(M=3.21). On the other hand, apple bab(M=2.29) and apple jook(M=2.23) had the most low preference score. The recognition survey study on apple revealed that respondents knew relatively well the followings: apple is natural food(M=4.25), apple is good for body and apple is good for beauty(M=4.20). Respondents required apple to be fresher(41.0%) and taster(37.4%). 89.4% of respondents expected that consumption of apples would be increased or maintain at the present level.

Quality Characteristics of Sulgidduk Prepared with Apple Powder (사과가루를 첨가한 설기떡의 품질특성)

  • Lim, Jeom-Hee
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.111-123
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    • 2011
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the quality characteristics of Sulgidduk prepared by adding the optimal amount of apple powder. Five different mixture ratios of apple powder to rice flour were prepared (0, 4, 8, 12, and 16%). After being stored for 3 days, the mixtures of apple powder and rice flour were measured to determine moisture content, color values, sensory qualities, and the mechanical texture characteristics of Sulgidduk. Moisture content of Sulgidduk with added apple powder ranged from 36% to 39% and but decreased with significantly with added apple powder. The L-color value decreased, whereas both the a-and b-values increased as apple powder was added. Thus, apple peel likely affected the Sulgidduk color value. The pH of Sulgidduk decreased with the addition of apple powder, whereas sugar level increased as apple powder was added. In the mechanical evaluation of apple Sulgidduk, hardness was significantly higher during the 3 days of storage with increasing amounts of added apple powder. Cohesiveness increased significantly during the storage period with the addition of apple powder,-; however, it began to decreased after 3 days. Springiness increased significantly with the addition of apple powder. Both adhesiveness and chewiness of Sulgidduk increased with added apple powder. Sensory quality characteristics such as color, taste, flavor, and moistness were improved with increasing amounts of added apple powder. However, the sensory quality of Sulgidduk decreased when the ratio of apple powder to rice flour was greater than 25%. Consequently, a mixture of 15~20% apple powder to rice flour was the best formula for improving Sulgidduk in terms of sensory quality.

Survey on the Occurrence of Apple Diseases in Korea from 1992 to 2000

  • Lee, Dong-Hyuk;Lee, Soon-Won;Choi, Kyung-Hee;Kim, Dong-A;Uhm, Jae-Youl
    • The Plant Pathology Journal
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.375-380
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    • 2006
  • In the survey from 1992 to 2000, twenty-eight parasitic diseases were observed in major apple producing areas in Korea. The predominant apple diseases were white rot(Botryosphaeria dothidea), Marssonina blotch(Marssonina mali), Valsa canker(Valsa ceratosperma), Alternaria leaf spot(Alternaria mali), and bitter rot(Collectotrichum gloeosporioides and C. acutatum). Apple scab that reappeared in 1990 after disappearance for 15 years was disappeared again since 1997. A viroid disease(caused by apple scar skin viroid) was newly found in this survey. The five diseases, fire blight(Erwinia amylovora), black rot(Botryosphaeria obtusa), scab(Cladosporium carpophilum), Monochaetia twig blight(Monochaetia sp.), and brown leaf spot(Hendersonia mali), which had once described in 1928 but no further reports on their occurrence, were not found in this survey. However, blossom blight(Monilinia mali), brown rot(Monilinia fructigena), and pink rot(Trichothecium roseum), which did not occur on apple after mid 1970s, were found in this survey.

Consumers' purchasing behavior and preference for small packaged apple (포장사과 구입실태 및 선호 분석)

  • Cho, Jae-Hwan;Lee, Han-Sung;Lee, Sang-Hak;Kim, Tae-Kyun;Hong, Na-Kyung
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.39 no.1
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    • pp.151-159
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    • 2012
  • This paper analyzes the consumers' preference for packaged apple and derives the measures to vitalize the distribution of packaged apple. To do this, survey was conducted for consumers in large cities, Seoul, Busan, and Daegu to observe their purchasing behavior and satisfaction both for packaged and unpackaged apple. Survey was focused to how they are satisfied with several attributes of package such as size, appearance, content, material, and label. On the basis of the survey results, the values of the package attributes were estimated. Survey results show that consumers tend to buy unpackaged apple rather than packaged apple. About 34 percent out of 313 respondents have ever purchased apple packed with paper box while only 10.5 percent have an experience to buy packaged apple with transparent box. Most respondents answered they preferred the package of five to six apples and 1.3 kilograms most. They preferred mid or large size apple. Estimation of the values of the package attributes using the conjoint analysis shows that consumers are giving the highest value to the price of packing material. It means that consumers are reluctant to the extra payment resulted from packing the apple. Therefore, the efforts to reduce the cost of packing apple should be made steadily. In order to vitalize the distribution of small packaged apple, the package should contain high quality apple with high sugar content, proper size, good appearance, and so on. And it needs to be promoted to the consumers that small packaged apple are not inferior to apple packed with paper box.

Effects of Antibrowning agents on browning of apple slices during cold storage (냉장저장 중 사과 슬라이스의 갈변에 미치는 갈변저해제의 효과)

  • Ahn Sun-Choung;Lee Gui-Chu
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.24-32
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    • 2005
  • Changes in apple slices during cold storage were investigated by evaluating the physical properties such as degree of browning and compression force. Chemical properties such as PPO activity and total phenol contents were also determined and sensory evaluation was carried out. The correlation analysis between browning parameters was conducted. Degree of browning was increased in the order of fresh apple slice, water-dipped apple slice, $0.5\%$ ascorbic acid solution-dipped apple slice and CP(caramelization product) from sucrose-dipped apple slice. PPO activity was increased in the order of fresh apple slice, water-dipped apple slice, $0.5\%$ ascorbic acid solution-dipped apple slice and CP(caramelization product) from sucrose-dipped apple slice. Amongst several treatments, CP from sucrose-dipped apple slice showed the lowest degree of browning and PPO activity. Total phenol contents were decreased from 60 to 56.2 mg and from 59.6 to 56.0 mg in fresh apple slice and water-dipped apple slice, respectively, but CP from sucrose-dipped apple slice and $0.5\%$ ascorbic acid solution-dipped apple slice were increased from 51.9 to 52.8 mg and from 54.1 to 54.4 mg, respectively, showing the smallest changes when compared with fresh apple slice and water-dipped apple slice. Compression forces of apple slices during cold storage were decreased in the order of fresh apple slice, water-dipped apple slice, $0.5\%$ ascorbic acid solution-dipped apple slice and CP from sucrose-dipped apple slice. In sensory evaluation of apple slices during cold storage, CP from sucrose-dipped apple slice had higher score than the other treatments. In addition, a significant correlation was observed among degree of browning, PPO activity and phenol content. Therefore, CP from sucrose-dipped apple slice seems to be effective in controlling of enzymatic browning during cold storage. In addition, CP from sucrose-dipped apple slice seems to be effective on other several factors. These results suggest that CP from sucrose should be a potential source for controlling enzymatic browning during storage of vegetables and fruits.

Analysis of Mineral in Korean Apple Juice by Inductively Coupled Plasma (Inductively Coupled Plasma를 이용한 사과주스중의 무기성분 분석)

  • 김성수
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.12 no.4
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    • pp.344-349
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    • 1999
  • The mineral contents were analyzed for apple juices by Inductively Coupled Plasma. The Mg contents of tested commercial apple juices ranged 6.27∼32.91ppm, Ca 15,95∼3.11.76ppm K231∼1148.02ppm Na 39.82∼115.68ppm and P 19.27∼304.02ppm. The mineal contents of model apple juice were Mg 29.83∼45.65ppm Ca 16.98∼30.98ppm K 814.28∼1,256.70ppm Na 19.88∼26.85ppm and P 25.88∼54.71ppm. respectively. Comparing mineral contents of model apple juices and commercial apple juice, Na, Ca and P contents of commercial apple juices were higher but Mg, K contents were lower than that of model apple juices. Among the mineral content of apple juices. K was the major element.

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