• Title, Summary, Keyword: Antimicrobials

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Antimicrobial-resistance Profiles and Virulence Genes of Vibrio parahaemolyticus Isolated from Seawater in the Wando Area (완도해역 해수에서 분리한 장염비브리오(Vibrio parahaemolyticus)의 항균제 내성 및 병원성 유전자의 특징)

  • Kim, Tae-Ok;Eum, In-Seon;Jo, Sang-Man;Kim, Hee-Dai;Park, Kwon-Sam
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.47 no.3
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    • pp.220-226
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    • 2014
  • Sixty-seven Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolates from surface seawater from the Wando area, on the southern coast of Korea, were analyzed for their susceptibility to 15 different antimicrobials and the presence of virulence genes. According to the disk diffusion susceptibility test, all of the strains studied were resistant to ampicillin and oxacillin, while decreasing percentages were resistant to vancomycin (64.2%), streptomycin (56.7%), amikacin (31.3%), kanamycin (22.3%), cephalothin (20.9%), erythromycin (10.4%), ciprofloxacin (4.5%), and tetracycline (3.0%). All of the strains were susceptible to five antimicrobials: chloramphenicol, gentamycin, nalidixic acid, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, and trimethoprim. Fifty-nine isolates (88.1%) were resistant to three or more classes of antimicrobial and defined as multidrug resistant, and two strains were resistant to seven antimicrobial agents. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the 67 V. parahaemolyticus isolates to ampicillin and oxacillin ranged from 512-2,048 and $64-512{\mu}g/mL$, respectively. All 67 isolates were also examined for the presence of the tdh and trh virulence genes using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). However, no isolates possessed either tdh or trh. The VPA0477 (${\beta}$-lactamase) gene, present in all of the tested strains, was validated as a new specific marker gene in PCR assays for the accurate detection and identification of V. parahaemolyticus.

Role of Microbiologic Culture Results of Specimens Prior to Onset of Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia in the Patients Admitted to Intensive Care Unit (인공호흡기연관 폐렴의 경험적 항생제 선택 시 이전 호흡기검체의 유용성)

  • Kim, Ji-Hye;Yoon, Sung-Chul;Lee, Yu-Mi;Son, Ji-Woong;Choi, Eu-Gene;Na, Moon-Jun;Kwon, Sun-Jung
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.72 no.1
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    • pp.30-36
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    • 2012
  • Background: Patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in intensive care unit (ICU) have a high mortality rate. The routine surveillance cultures obtained previously or an ATS guideline for hospital-acquired pneumonia was used in selecting initial antimicrobials. The object of this study was to compare the respiratory samples before VAP and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) culture. Methods: 54 patients underwent fiberoptic bronchoscopy to obtain BAL samples. We reviewed microbiologic specimen results of prior respiratory specimens (pre-VAP) and BAL. Results: Among 51 patients with 54 VAP episodes, 52 microorganisms of pre-VAP and 56 BAL samples were isolated. Pre-VAP included 21.2% of MRSA, and 32.6% of multidrug resistant-Acinetobacter baumannii (MDR-AB). BAL samples comprised 25.0% of MRSA, 26.7% of MDR-AB, 14.3% of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and 3.6% of Klebsiella pneumonia in order. In pre-VAP samples compared to BAL samples, only 35.2% were identical. In BAL samples compared to pre-VAP samples obtained in 5 days before the onset of VAP, only 43.6% were identical. However, among BAL samples compared to pre-VAP samples obtained after more than 5 days, 13.3% were identical (p=0.037). Conclusion: Based on these data, pre-VAP samples obtained prior to 5 day onset of VAP may help to predict the causative microorganisms and to select appropriate initial antimicrobials.

Treatment of Multidrug-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii Pneumonia after Glucocorticoids Administration for Interstitial Lung Disease: A Case Report (사례 보고: 간질성 폐질환 치료를 위한 glucocorticoids 투여 환자에게 발생한 다제 내성 Acinetobacter baumannii 폐렴의 치료)

  • Kim, Hae-Sook;Shin, Hyun-Taek;Kim, Hyun-Ah
    • Korean Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.181-186
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    • 2012
  • Objective: To report a fatal case of Multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MDR-AB) in a patient with interstitial lung disease (ILD) on high-dose glucocorticoids. Case Summary: A 66-year-old man with a history of coniosis was transferred to the hospital with progressive cough and sputum production. This patient has been diagnosed with pneumonia and ILD on admission, requires antimicrobial therapy and systemic immunosuppressants. He received high dose of methylprednisolone and cyclophosphamide for ILD as well as ceftriaxone and azithromycin for pneumonia. On day 7 in the intensive care units (ICUs), patient had fever and leukocytosis, thus antimicrobials were switched to piperacillin. After 13 days in the ICU, Acinetobacter baumannii and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) were isolated on transtracheal aspirate (TTA) and meropenem was initiated. However, it was revealed a multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MDR-AB) species, resistant to carbapenem. Patient was administered colistin but expired due to septic shock on day 84. Discussion: Systemic immunosuppressive therapy can result in infections that may compromise patient's survival. MDR-AB has emerged as a serious cause of nosocomial infections in immunocompromised patients. MDR-AB is resistant to most standard antimicrobials and therapeutic options are limited. Conclusion: We report our recent experience with a fatal MDR-AB pneumonia in a patient with ILD, who had to be treated with high dose glucocorticoids and immunosuppressnts.

Antimicrobial resistance and frequency of BlaTEM in Escherichia coli isolated from non-diarrheic and diarrheic piglets (정상돈과 설사돈에서 분리한 대장균의 항균제 내성 및 BlaTEM 분포 조사)

  • Byun, Jae Won;Kim, Ha Young;Jung, Byeong Yeal;Bae, You Chan;Lee, Wan Kyu
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.52 no.2
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    • pp.133-139
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    • 2012
  • Antimicrobial resistance is one of the most concerns in pig industry. Escherichia (E.) coli have been used for the indicator to monitor the antimicrobial resistance. In this study, 321 E. coli from diarrheic and non-diarrheic piglets were tested for antimicrobial resistance and frequency of $Bla_{TEM}$. In non-diarrheic piglets, they were resistant to oxytetracycline (93%), streptomycin (92%) and sulfadiazine (90%) but susceptible to ceftiofur (99%), colistin (97%), and enrofloxacin (82%). The isolates from diarrheic piglets were resistant to enrofloxacin (72.9%), ceftiofur (17.6%), and colistin (11.3%), whereas the resistance was 1%, 18% and 3% in case of non-diarrheic piglets, respectively. The resistance for amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (54.1%) and ceftiofur (22%) was high in isolates from post-weaning piglets. The resistance for colistin was 15.2% in nursery piglets. Seventy-three percent of isolates from diarrheic piglets showed high multidrug resistance profile (more than 13 antimicrobials) compared to those from non-diarrheic pigs in which 71% of isolates showed moderate multidrug resistance profile (7 to 12 antimicrobials). The frequency of $Bla_{TEM}$ in E. coli from non-diarrheic and diarrheic piglets was 57% and 69%, respectively. The results might provide the basic knowledge to establish the strategies for treatment and reduce antibiotic resistance of E. coli in piglets.

Prevalence of antimicrobial resistance and integrons in extended-spectrum β-lactamases producing Escherichia coli isolated from Nakdong and Gumho river (낙동강과 금호강에서 분리된 광범위 베타 락탐 분해효소 생성 Escherichia coli 내 항균제 내성 및 integrons의 분포)

  • Cho, Jae-Keun;Kim, Hwan-Deuk;Kwon, Soon-Hyo;Kim, Jin-Hyun;Jang, Sung-Il;Park, Choi-Kyu;Kim, Ki-Seuk
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Service
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    • v.37 no.1
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    • pp.19-27
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    • 2014
  • This study was conducted to investigate the antimicrobial resistance, presence of ${\beta}$-lactamase genes and integrons in 83 ESBL-producing Escherichia coli isolated from Nakdong river and Geumho river in Daegu. Among the ${\beta}$-lactam antimicrobials, all isolates were resistant to ampicillin, cephalothin, cefamandole and cefotaxime, followed by piperacillin (98.8%), ampicillin/sulbactam (86.7%), aztreonam (60.2%) and cefepime (59.0%), whereas resistance to piperacillin/tazobacram, ticarcillin/clavulanic acid and cefoxitin was less than 30%. Many of the ESBL-producing Escherichia coli were also resistant to non-${\beta}$-lactams antimicrobials such as nalidixic acid (83.1%), sulfonamides (72.3%), ciprofloxacin (62.7%) and gentamicin (38.6%). All isolates showed resistance to seven or more antimicrobial agents. The most frequently detected gene was $bla_{TEM+CTX-M}$ (49.4%), followed by $bla_{CTX-M}$ (27.7%), $bla_{TEM}$ (6.0%) and $bla_{OXA}$ (1.2%). But $bla_{SHV}$ was not found. Class 1 integrons were found in 61.4% (51 isolates) of isolates, however, class 2 and 3 integrons were not detected. The results showed water from Nakdong river and Geumho river is contaminated with ESBL-producing E. coli isolates. These results suggest the need for further investigation of antibiotic resistant bacteria to prevent public health impacts in the water environment.

Antimicrobial Resistance and Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations of Vibrio parahaemolyticus Strains Isolated from Seawater and Commercial Fisheries (해수 및 시판 수산물에서 분리한 장염비브리오균(Vibrio parahaemolyticus)의 항균제 내성 및 최소발육억제농도의 규명)

  • Cho, Eui-Dong;Kim, Hee-Dai;Park, Kwon-Sam
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.52 no.6
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    • pp.587-595
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    • 2019
  • Eighty-three Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolates from surface seawater in Gomso Bay on the west coast of Korea, and commercial fisheries from Gunsan fisheries center were analyzed for the presence of virulence genes and susceptibility to 30 different antimicrobials. All 83 isolates were examined for the presence of two virulence genes (tdh or trh) using polymerase chain reaction; however, neither gene was found in any of the isolates. A disk diffusion susceptibility test, showed that all of the strains studied were resistant to clindamycin, oxacillin, ticarcillin, and vancomycin, and also revealed varying levels of resistance to ampicillin (98.8%), penicillin G (95.2%), streptomycin (20.5%), cefoxitin (14.5%), amikacin (6.0%), cephalothin (4.8%), and erythromycin (3.6%). However, all of the strains were susceptible to 19 other antimicrobial agents, including cefepime, cefotaxime, chloramphenicol, gentamycin, nalidixic acid, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, and trimethoprim. All 83 isolates (100%) were resistant to five or more classes of antimicrobials, and two strains exhibited resistance to ten antimicrobial agents. The average minimum inhibitory concentrations against V. parahaemolyticus of clindamycin, oxacillin, ticarcillin, and vancomycin were 55.9, 98.3, 499.3, and 44.3 ㎍/mL, respectively. These results provide new insight into the necessity for seawater sanitation in Gomso Bay and commercial fisheries, and provide evidence to help reduce the risk of contamination by antimicrobial-resistant bacteria.

The Infinity War: How to Cope with Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae

  • Yoo, Jin-Hong
    • Journal of Korean Medical Science
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    • v.33 no.40
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    • pp.255.1-255.18
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    • 2018
  • Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are now spread worldwide. In Korea, the number of CRE isolation is rapidly increasing, and impending endemicity is a concern. To cope well with CRE, thorough infection control, such as active surveillance, early detection, strict contact precaution, cleaning the environment, and antibiotic stewardship is very important. Therapeutic options include polymyxin, tigecycline, fosfomycin or the combination of them with carbapenem, which is currently the mainstay of treatment. In addition, various combination regimens with new carbapenemase inhibitors such as avibactam, vaborbactam, or relebactam, and other classes of antimicrobials such as plazomicin and siderophore cephalosporin are in the process of evaluation.

Antimicrobial Activity of Basil, Oregano, and Thyme Essential Oils

  • Sakkas, Hercules;Papadopoulou, Chrissanthy
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.27 no.3
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    • pp.429-438
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    • 2017
  • For centuries, plants have been used for a wide variety of purposes, from treating infectious diseases to food preservation and perfume production. Presently, the increasing resistance of microorganisms to currently used antimicrobials in combination with the appearance of emerging diseases requires the urgent development of new, more effective drugs. Plants, due to the large biological and structural diversity of their components, constitute a unique and renewable source for the discovery of new antibacterial, antifungal, and antiparasitic compounds. In the present paper, the history, composition, and antimicrobial activities of the basil, oregano, and thyme essential oils are reviewed.

Prevention of Invasive Candida Infections in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (신생아 집중치료실에서 침습 칸디다 감염의 예방)

  • Kim, Chun Soo
    • Pediatric Infection and Vaccine
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.15-22
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    • 2011
  • Invasive Candida infections (ICI) have become the third most common cause of late-onset infection among premature infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Risk factors include birth weight less than 1,000 g, exposure to more than two antimicrobials, third generation cephalosporin exposure, parenteral nutrition including lipid emulsion, central venous catheter, and abdominal surgery. Candida colonization of the skin and gastrointestinal tract is an important first step in the pathogenesis of invasive disease. Strict infection control measures against the infection should be done in the NICU. The following practices are likely to contribute to reducing the rate of ICI: (1) restriction of broad-spectrum antibiotics, antacids and steroid; (2) introduction of early feeding and promoting breast milk. Fluconazole prophylaxis may be an effective control measure to prevent Candida colonization and infections in individual units with high incidence of fungal infection. In addition, there is a need of further data including the development of resistant strains and the effect on long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes of infants exposed to drugs before the initiation of routine application of antifungal prophylaxis in the NICU.

Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Causative Agents of Mastitis Isolated from Mammary Glandular Tissues of Slaughtered Holstein Cows (도태 유우의 유선조직에서 분리된 세균의 항균제 감수성)

  • 김혜라;이정치;김상기;윤병철;서계원;이정길;이채용
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.129-132
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    • 2004
  • Causative agents of mastitis were isolated from glandular tissues of 101 culled Holstein cow udders and tested with antimicrobials by standardized disc diffusion method. Pathogens most commonly isolated were coagulase-negative staphylococci (43.9%) and streptococci (21.4%). Most of the udders (88.5%) showed mixed infections with more than two species of bacteria. Antimicrobial sensitivity tests revealed that 90.0% and 84.5% of the isolated organisms were susceptible to amoxicillin and gentamicin, while most organisms were resistant to erythromycin. Coliforms were resistant to ampicillin, cephalothin, cefazolin, erythromycin, kanamycin, neomycin, penicillin and tetracycline and streptococci to erythromycin, kanamycin, neomycin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and tetracycline.