• Title, Summary, Keyword: Antimicrobials

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Antimicrobial Resistance and Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations of Vibrio parahaemolyticus Strains Isolated from Gomso Bay, Korea (곰소만 해역 해수에서 분리한 장염비브리오(Vibrio parahaemolyticus)의 항균제 내성 및 최소발육억제농도의 구명)

  • Kim, Tae-Ok;Um, In-Seon;Kim, Hee-Dai;Park, Kwon-Sam
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.49 no.5
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    • pp.582-588
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    • 2016
  • Seventy-nine Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolates from surface seawater from Gomso Bay, west coast of Korea, were analyzed for the presence of virulence genes and their susceptibility to 30 different antimicrobials. All 79 isolates were examined for the presence of two virulence genes (tdh or trh) using polymerase chain reaction (PCR); however, no isolates possessed either the tdh or trh gene. According to a disk diffusion susceptibility test, all of the strains studied were resistant to oxacillin, penicillin, and vancomycin, followed by ticarcillin (97.5%), ampicillin (96.2%), clindamycin (86.1%), erythromycin (10.1%), streptomycin (7.6%), cefoxitin (6.3%), amikacin (2.5%), and cephalothin (2.5%). However, all of the strains were susceptible to 19 other antimicrobials including cefepime, cefotaxime, chloramphenicol, gentamycin, nalidixic acid, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, and trimethoprim. All 79 isolates (100%) were resistant to four or more classes of antimicrobials, and two strains exhibited resistance to eight antimicrobial agents. The average minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for V. parahaemolyticus for ampicillin, penicillin, ticarcillin, and vacomycin were 946.5, 1,305.9, 1,032.3, and 45.0 µg/mL, respectively.

Characteristics of antimicrobial resistant Salmonella Typhimurium isolates from chicken and pigs (닭과 돼지에서 분리한 Salmonella Typhimurium의 항생제 내성 특성 분석)

  • Moon, Ja Young;Kim, Won Kyong;Lee, Kun Hee;Na, Bang Ju;Go, Jae Cheon;Sim, Kyun Seob;Trupti A, Patil;Hur, Jin
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Service
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    • v.39 no.1
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    • pp.51-57
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    • 2016
  • Fifty and forty two Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar 52 Typhimurium (ST) strains were isolated from chicken and pigs, respectively, collected from markets throughout Korea from 2008 to 2011. The isolates were investigated for the presence of antimicrobial resistance and multi-drug patterns. All 50 ST isolates from chicken and 42 ST isolates from pigs were resistant to at least one of 13 antibiotics used in this study, 92.0% of ST isolates from chicken and 88.1% of ST isolates from pigs were resistant to three or more antimicrobials. As many as 3 isolates of ST isolates from chicken were resistant to 11 of 13 antimicrobials tested in this study. Only one isolate of ST isolates from pigs was resistant to 10 of 13 antimicrobials. The ACSSuT resistance phenotype was observed in 34% of the 50 isolates and 23.8% of the 42 isolates. Especially, 1 isolate from pigs had the ACSSuTAu. The high rate of antimicrobial-resist and multi-drug resistant (MDR) ST isolation may give rise to crucial public health problems. Therefore, control of antimicrobial use, and continuous monitoring of antimicrobial resistance and MDR patterns among Salmonella isolates in chicken and pig farms is necessary to ensure public health.

Evaluation of the Natural Antimicrobials against Yeasts in Functional Beverages to Control Quality loss (효모에 의한 기능성 음료 변질 제어를 위한 천연항균물질 항균력 평가)

  • Yeon, Ji-Hye;Lee, Ji-Young;Lee, Hee-Seok;Ha, Sang-Do;Park, Chul-Soo;Woo, Moon-Jea;Lee, Sang-Hun;Kim, Jin-Soo;Lee, Chon
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.273-276
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    • 2009
  • We investigated eight active natural antimicrobials for preservation of functional beverages that are usually degraded by yeasts rather than by bacteria due to a high sugar content and a low pH. Five strains of yeasts (S. cerevisiae, Z. bailii, P. membranaefaciens, C. albicans, and P Anomala) were tested with eight natural antimicrobial agents ($\varepsilon$-polylysine, yucca extract, vitamin $B_1$ derivative, scutellaria baicalensis extract, chitooligosaccharid, allyl isothiocyanate, sucrose-fatty acid ester, and oligosaccharide). The lowest minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were 10 ppm for oligosaccharide and sucrose-fatty acid ester against S. cerevisiae and Z. bailii, 10 ppm for allyl isothiocynate against P. membranaefaciens and C. albican, and 10 ppm for allyl isothiocynate and oligosaccharide against P. anomala. No growth were observed for five kinds of yeasts in functional beverages containing sodium benzonate at concentration of 0.015% or higher. The resistance of S. cerevisiae, Z. bailii, and P. Anomala against natural antimicrobial agents was lower than those of P. membranaefaciens and C. albican. Allyl isothiocyanate, oligosaccharide, and sucrose-fatty acid ester showed the highest antimicrobial activities among the eight tested antimicrobials. These results can be applied to develop new natural antimicrobial agents to improve microbial quality of functional beverages.

Inhibitory Effect of Organic Acids and Natural Occurring Antimicrobials Against Staphylococcus aureus Isolates from Various Origins (다양한 유래에서 분리된 황색포도상구균에 대한 유기산과 천연항균물질의 저해 효과)

  • Kim, Bo-Ram;Yoo, Jin-Hee;Jung, Kyu-Seok;Heu, Sung Gi;Lee, Sun-Young
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.449-455
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    • 2012
  • The purpose of this study is to evaluate antimicrobial effects of organic acid and some natural occurring antimicrobials against Staphylococcus aureus isolated from various origins (vegetables, peanut, pea leaf, kim-bab, person, perilla leaf, and animal) and to calculate their MIC and MBC values. Five organic acids (acetic, lactic, citric, malic, and propionic acid), three essential oils (carvacrol, thymol, and eugenol), and two other natural antimicrobials (nisin and cinnamic acid) were evaluated for their antimicrobial effects against 113 strains of S. aureus using combination treatments. Propionic acid (7%), nisin (1%), thymol (1%), carvacrol (1%) showed antimicrobial activities against S. aureus strains in agar disc diffusion test. And, carvacrol, thymol, and nisin were found to be the most effective with the lowest MIC values of 0.0313%, 0.0625%, and 0.0625% against S.aureus, respectively. Propionic acid (0.2313%) and citric acid (0.6000%) were the most effective among organic acids tested. Therefore, these five antimicrobials were selected for next combination treatments. Combination of propionic acid and citric acid were showed the strongest inhibitory effectiveness against S. aureus among combination treatments. These results suggest that organic acid such as propionic and citric acid, and natural occurring antimicrobial such as nisin, carvacrol, and thymol might be possibly used as preservatives for inhibiting S. aureus in foods.

Study of Formation Factor of Biofilm on Aluminum surface and Removal Efficiency of Biofilm by Antimicrobials (알루미늄 표면에 생물막의 형성인자 및 항균제에 의한 생물막 제거효과 분석)

  • Park, SangJun;Oh, YoungHwan;Jo, BoYeon;Lee, JaeShin;Lee, SangWha;Jeong, JaeHyun
    • Korean Chemical Engineering Research
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    • v.53 no.6
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    • pp.730-739
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    • 2015
  • 108 microorganism types (79 types of fungi and 29 types of bacteria) were isolated from 25 automobiles generating bad odor when the air conditioner was turned on, and 43 types of fungi and 23 types of bacteria were identified. The analysis of condensate generated by the air conditioners in the automobiles indicated pH 6.4~7.1, 12.5~34.2 mg/L carbon source, 0.9~18.6 mg/L nitrogen source, 0.5~27.8 mg/L ion contents, and 0.1~7.7 mg/L mineral contents. The biofilms were formed by the mesophiles under the summer temperature/humidity condition ($26^{\circ}C$, 70% R.H.), and they were regenerated when the environmental factors (nutritional contents and temperature/humidity) were appropriate even after they were artificially removed. Although the antimicrobials removed 99.9% of planktonic cells within 15 minutes, they were not effective in removing biofilm. Up to 1,950 ppmv of ethanol was observed in the automobile treated with the antimicrobials. Although the figure is lower than the acute toxicity level when inhaled by humans, the health safety of the chemical substances used in the antimicrobials needs to be reviewed.

Species and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Nonfermentative Gram-Negative Bacilli Isolated from Clinical Materials (임상 검사물에서 분리된 비발효성 그람음성 간균의 균종과 항생제 감수성)

  • Chong, Yun-Sop;Ahn, Yong-Mo;Ryu, Young-Hat;Lee, Sam-Uel Y.
    • The Journal of the Korean Society for Microbiology
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.29-34
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    • 1981
  • Species and antimicrobial susceptibility of nonfermenting gram-negative bacilli(NFB) isolated from clinical materials at Yonsei Medical Center during the period of September 1980 to August 1981 were analyzed and the following results were obtained. 1. NFB were isolated from 17.1% of sputum, 14.8% of pus, 5.0% of urine, 3.3% of throat and 1.4% of blood specimens. 2. Among the isolates 57.6% were Pseudomonas aeruginosa and 32.7% were Acinetobacter calcoaceticus. P. maltophilia and P. cepacia were 3.2% and 2.8% respectively. Other bacteria were rarely isolated. 3. The monthly isolation rates were high during the June to November period(8.8-12.0%), and low during the December to May period(4.2-8.4%). 4. Many of the isolates showed resistance to various antimicrobials. Although there were variations depending on the bacterial species, amikacin, colistin, gentamicin, tobramycin and co-trimoxazole showed more antibacterial activities than other antimicrobials.

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Distribution of antimicrobial resistances and properties of R-plasmids in E coli isolated from pigs (돼지유래 대장균의 항균제내성 분포와 R-plasmid의 성상)

  • Chung, Myeong-eun;Yeo, Sang-geon
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.34 no.4
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    • pp.759-768
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    • 1994
  • E coli strains isolated from pigs were investigated with respect to antimicrobial resistances and prevalence of R-plasmids. Also determined were properties of R-plasmids by plasmid conjugation, curing and southern hybridization using gene probes. All of 400 E coli strains were resistant to CL and SU, and 0.3% to 96.8% of the strains were resistant to most antimicrobials such as TC, PG, AM, SM, CP, GM, EM, NM, etc, while all strains were sensitive to AK. All strains were also multiply resistant to three to twelve antimicrobials. The resistances to PG, SM, TC, AM, CP, SU and ST were transferable and supposed to be mediated by R-plasmids which were opportunistic for transposition into chromosome. Plasmids bigger in size than chromosomal DNA were considered as R-plasmids and most plasmids in small size (<4Kb) proved as cryptic plasmids or nonconjugative R-plasmids. In a strain(No 99), AM resistant property was determined from both chromosomal DNA and R-plasmid DNA which is bigger in size than chromosome.

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Clinical Implications of Drug-Resistant $Streptococcus$ $pneumoniae$ as a Cause of Community Acquired Pneumonia (폐렴원인균으로서 약제내성 폐렴사슬알균 ($Drug-resistant$ $Streptococcus$ $pneumoniae$)의 현황과 임상적 의미)

  • Shin, Kyeong-Cheol
    • Yeungnam University Journal of Medicine
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.13-19
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    • 2011
  • The emergence of antibiotic-resistant pathogens is a Serious clinical problem in the treatment of infectious diseases that increase mortality, morbidity, hospitalization length, and the cost of healthcare. In particular, $Streptococcus$ $pneumoniae$ is a major etiologic pathogen of pneumonia, sinusitis, otitis media, and meningitis. As the definition of penicillin resistance to $S.$ $pneumoniae$ was recently changed, macrolide-resistant $S.$ $pneumoniae$ is a major resistant pathogen in the community. Infections caused by antibiotic-resistant strains are associated with incorrect use of antibiotics and critical clinical outcomes. For the appropriate use of antibiotics to treat infections, physicians always should have up-to-date information on the current epidemiologic status of antibiotic resistance for common pathogens and their susceptibility to antimicrobials. Appropriate selection of antimicrobials, strict control of infection, vaccination, and development of a feasible national policy of infection control are important strategies for the control of antimicrobial resistance. This review article focuses on the current status of antibiotic-resistant $S.$ $pneumoniae$ in community-acquired pneumonia in Korea.

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Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci Isolated from Bovine Mastitis Between 2003 and 2008 in Korea

  • Nam, H.M.;Lim, S.K.;Kim, J.M.;Kang, H.M.;Moon, J.S.;Jang, G.C.;Kim, J.M.;Wee, S.H.;Joo, Y.S.;Jung, S.C.
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.20 no.10
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    • pp.1446-1449
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    • 2010
  • A total of 1,444 coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) isolates from bovine mastitic milk samples collected during 2003-2008 in Korea were identified to the species level. Of 14 species identified, S. simulans, S. haemolyticus, and S. sciuri accounted for over 60% of the isolates. All the CNS isolates were tested for susceptibility to eight antimicrobials commonly used in dairy cattle. With a few exceptions, similar resistance patterns were observed among the CNS species: penicillin and ampicillin showed the lowest activity, whereas amikacin, cephalothin, and gentamicin were highly effective. About 39% (557/1,444) of the CNS isolates were pan-susceptible, whereas 12% (175/1,444) showed resistance to four or more antimicrobials tested.

Prophylactic Uses of Probiotics as a Potential Alternative to Antimicrobials in Food Animals

  • Lee, Hyeon-Yong;Xu, Hua;Lee, Hak-Ju;Lim, Tae-Il;Choi, Young-Beom;Ko, Jeong-Rim;Ahn, Ju-Hee;Mustapha, Azlin
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.191-194
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    • 2008
  • The antagonistic activity of probiotic strains (Bifidobacterium animalis BB-12, Bifidobacterium bifidum A, Bifidobacterium longum B6, Lactobacillus acidophilus ADH, Lactobacillus paracasei ATCC 25598, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG) against nalidixic acid resistant ($NA^R$) Escherichia coli O157:H7 MF1847, E. coli O157:H7 H2439, E. coli O157:H7 ATCC 43894, and E. coli O157:H7 C7927 was investigated using the agar-overlay, well diffusion, and broth culture tests. L. paracasei ATCC 25598 was the most effective probiotic strain in terms of in vitro antagonistic activity against $NA^R$ E. coli O157:H7, followed by L. rhamnosus GG, B. longum B6, and L. acidophilus ADH. The use of selected probiotic strains could be an effective pre-harvest intervention strategy to reduce the risk of $NA^R$ E. coli O157:H7 by maintaining a balanced microflora in animals and might provide many potential benefits in lieu of using antimicrobials.