• Title, Summary, Keyword: Antimicrobials

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Evaluation of Antifungal Activity of Natural Antimicrobials in Fuctional Beverage (기능성 음료의 곰팡이 제어를 위한 천연항균제 활성 평가)

  • Lee, Hee-Seok;Yeon, Ji-Hye;Ha, Sang-Do;Park, Chul-Soo;Woo, Moon-Joe;Lee, Sang-Hun;Kim, Jin-Soo;Lee, Chan
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.262-266
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    • 2009
  • Antifungal activity of seven natural antimicrobials, such as $\varepsilon$-polylysine, extract of Yucca shidigera, TLS (vitamin B1 derivative), BMB-FS, chitooligosaccharide, KDSP 001, and KDSP 002 were investigated for their applications in functional beverage. Five fungi including Aspergillus niger, Penicillium citrinum, Rhizopus oryzae, Fusarium moniliforme, and Mucor rouxii were applied as test fungi and mininum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of antimicrobials were examined. TLS exhibited the strongst antifungal activity among tested antimicrobials and the growth of all fungi was inhibited at 100 ppm. The antifungal activity of BMB-FS appeared different. The growth of Fusarium moniliforme was inhibited by BMB-FS at 100 ppm, but it exhibit antifungal activity on P. citrinum, and M. rouxii at 1000ppm. MICs of TLS appeared to be 60 ppm for four test fungi except A. niger (100 ppm). These results indicate the possible usage of TLS and BMB-FS as natural antimicrobials in functional beverage.

Drug Use Evaluation of Vancomycin in Pediatric Patients (II) -The effect of Approval for Vancomycin Use (소아환자의 Vancomycin에 대한 약물사용 평가 (II) -제한항균제로 사용규제 강화 후의 효과)

  • Lee, Jeongmin;Lee, Soonsil;Kim, Youngjoo;Shin, Wan Gyoon;Lee, Byung Koo;Lee, Hoan-Jong
    • Quality Improvement in Health Care
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.32-43
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    • 1994
  • The 'Pharmacy and Therapeutic Committee' decided to restrict the use of vancomycin which was categorized into restricted antimicrobials, among general, reserved and restricted antimicrobials. The committee also established prescribing guidelines of vancomycin in Seoul National University Hospital, May, 1991. Especially, the restricted antimicrobials should be used after approval by infectious disease specialist physician. A retrospective drug use evaluation (DUE) on vancomycin has been conducted to compare with the previous vancomycin DUE study in 1990. 'Criteria for DUE on vancomycin' was modified from Am J Hosp Pharm. Total 65 charts of patients were retrospectively reviewed from July 1991 to June 1992 in Seoul National University Children's Hospital. The justification of use was improved from 56% to 75% comparing with the previous study. In analyzing process indicators, several criteria including body temperature monitoring, WBC monitoring and use of concomitant antibiotics were well documented, but serum creatinine monitoring, culture and sensitivity test and level monitoring were infrequently performed, while the accepted level has been improved. Accepted level for appropriate initial dosage and duration of therapy were decreased. In outcome analysis, blood culture after discontinuing the drug was relatively well documented compared with the previous study. As the results, the approval vancomycin use was shown to be effective and rational in antibiotic therapy. And it is suggested that the above findings should be communicated to the medical staff, and a active intervention, such as feedback control, also be necessary for rational drug use.

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Analysis of Microorganisms and Antibiotic Resistance in Organic Dairy Farm (유기낙농가 사육환경 중 미생물 및 항생제 내성 분석)

  • Seol, Kuk-Hwan;Kim, Hyoun-Wook;Han, Ki-Sung;Lee, Mi-Jung;Jang, Ae-Ra;Oh, Mi-Hwa;Kim, Dong-Hun;Ham, Jun-Sang
    • Journal of Dairy Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.81-85
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    • 2011
  • Recently, antimicrobial resistance of microorganisms has been a major concern of its relation to food safety and national health, therefore, customer's needs to organic animal food is still increasing. In this study, we reviewed the usage of antimicrobials in animal farms and antimicrobial resistance of microorganisms isolated from organic dairy farm environments. The isolates from dairy farms were Acinetobacter sp., A. lwoffi, A. johnsonii, A. towneri, Aerococcus viridans, Aeromonas media, A. veronii, Bacillus pseudofirmus, B. pumilus, B. licheniformis, Corynebacterium glutamicum, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecium, Lysinibacillus fusiformis, Paenibacillus illinoisensis, Staphylococcus epidermidis, S. hominis, Streptococcus equinus, S. lutetiensis, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Indicator microorganisms isolated from organic dairy farms were tested for susceptibility to 20 types of antimicrobials. E. coli (ATCC 25922) isolated from dairy farm fence showed resistance to 8 types of antimicrobials, such as oxacillin, penicillin, vancomycin, etc., and E. faecium isolated from feces showed resistance to 9 types of antimicrobials, such as cephalothin, oxacillin, streptomycin, etc., respectively. However, these results showed less antimicrobial resistance compare with customary dairy farm.

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Change of Antimicrobial Use Density According to Application of Computerized Management Program for Restriction of Antimicrobials Use in a University Hospital (일개 대학병원에서 제한 항생제 전산 프로그램 운용에 따른 항생제 사용량 변화)

  • Lee, Bo Young;Kim, Chun Soo;Ryu, Seong Yeol;Kwon, Ki Yung;Lim, Jung Geun;Lim, Tae Jin;Min, Byung Woo;Ryoo, Nam Hee;Cha, Soon Do
    • Pediatric Infection and Vaccine
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.155-162
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    • 2006
  • Purpose : Appropriate use of antimicrobials is an essential factor to treat infectious diseases and prevent acquisition of antimicrobial resistant pathogens. This study was undertaken to search that application of computerized management program for restriction of antimicrobials use in a hospital is helpful to decrease antimicrobial use density. Methods : Antibiotics utilization committee decided to restrict the use of 16 antimicrobials(14 expensive drugs having fear of drug resistance by pathogens and additional two drugs with inappropriate using tendency). Retrospective evaluation of antimicrobial user numbers between May and July of 2004 and 2005(study group) was conducted to compare with previous use density during same period of 2002 and 2003(control group). Results : Inpatients number of control group($823.5{\pm}37.1$ persons) was more than study group($809.2{\pm}39.3$ persons, P<0.001), but, outpatients number and hospitalized duration were equal in two groups. Antimicrobial user number/100 inpatients per day of glycopeptides and antifungal agents was equal in two groups, and study group was significantly higher density than control group in the use of carbapenems, piperacillin-tazobactam and quinolones(P<0.001). But study group was significantly lower density than control group in the use of drugs with inappropriately using tendency and expensive cephalosporins having broad antimicrobial spectrum(P<0.001). Conclusion : Application of computerized management program for restriction of antimicrobials use in a hospital is effective to decrease the use density of antimicrobials with inappropriately using tendency, but it is an insufficient measures for the restricted use of other antimicrobials on the whole.

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Analysis of synthetic Antimicrobials in Livestock Products by MSPD Method (MSPD법에 의한 축산물 중 합성항균제 동시분석)

  • 김재관;도영숙;박준조;황혜정
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.344-354
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    • 1998
  • This study was conducted to evaluate the MSPD and HPLC method about simultaneous determination for residual synthetic antimicrobials of sixteen species such as sulfonamide etc. in livestock products. Elution solvent used in HPLC was ethylacetate:acetonitrile (4:1), and mobile phases for solvent A and B were water:methanol:acetonit rile:phosphric acid (700:250:50:0.2) and 100% acetonitrile respectively. The detector and absorbency used in HPLC was UV 266 nm. This study showed the reduction effect of 99.1% for organic solvents, 94% for experimental steps, 95% for analytical time and manpower and 98.9% for costs compared with korea food standard method. The average recovery rates for chicken, bovine, pork and milk were 67.7% 96.2%, 67.7%~96.6%, 70.0%~96.2%, and 13.8%~97.8%.

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Antimicrobial Coating Agent (항균 코팅제)

  • Ko, Jong-Sung
    • Journal of the Korean Applied Science and Technology
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.96-115
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    • 2013
  • This article describes the concept and the trend of antimicrobial coating agents, which will help to establish the direction of the research and development on antimicrobial coating agent. Antimicrobial agents are compounds that inhibit or kill microorganisms. They are classified into inorganic, metallic, low molecular weight organic, natural organic, and polymeric compounds. Antimicrobial coatings are applied to the surface of daily necessities, medical devices, industrial products, electrical appliances, fabrics, and interior building materials, etc. Conventional antibiotics penetrate microbes without damaging bacterial cell walls, leading to drug resistance which polymeric antimicrobials can prevent by disrupting cell walls. Most polymeric antimicrobials are focused on cationic polymers. Improvement in the selectivity and durability of antimicrobials and reduction of their toxicity will come true by more reasonable design of molecular structures and their combination in coating system.

Antimicrobial Resistance of Vibrio Strains from Brackish Water on the Coast of Gyeongsangnamdo (경남연안 기수지역에서 분리된 비브리오균의 항균제 내성)

  • Oh, Eun-Gyoung;Son, Kwang-Tae;Ha, Kwang-Soo;Yoo, Hyun-Duk;Yu, Hong-Sik;Shin, Soon-Bum;Lee, Hee-Jung;Kim, Ji-Hoe
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.42 no.4
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    • pp.335-343
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    • 2009
  • Antimicrobial resistance patterns of Vibrio species isolated from brackish water in Geoje, Tongyeong and Goseong, Gyeongsangnamdo province into which streams, sewage and leachate all flowed. Only 19 strains (10.7%) of 177 V. parahaemolyticus were susceptible to 15 antimicrobials. 146 strains (69.5%) proved resistant against more than one antimicrobial and 12 strains (6.8%) were multi-drug resistant. The resistance rate of 152 strains were 85.9% against AM and 26.6% against RA, 16.4% against AN, 13.6% against Sand 13.0% against TMP. 86 strains of 129 V. cholerae non-O1 (66.7%) were susceptible to antimicrobials and 31 strains (24.0%) were resistant to more than one antimicrobial and 12 strains (9.3%) were multi-drug resistant. The antimicrobial resistance rate of 129 strains against 15 antimicrobials, with the exception of C, CIP, E and GM, i.e. 11 antimicrobials, was 0.7-16.2%, 16.2% of 129 strains proved resistant against RA and 13.9% against AM, 9.3% against TMP, 7.7% against SXT and 6.9% against TE. 19 of 49 strains of V. mimicus (38.8%) were susceptible to antimicrobials and 31 strains (61.2%) were resistant against more than one antimicrobial; none of the strains were multi-drug resistant. 15 strains of V. mimicus were resistant against only RA, AmC and TE. The resistance rate was 59.2% against RA (highest) 4.1% against AmC and 2.0% against TE.

Study on antimicrobial resistance of Escherichia coli isolated from domestic beef on sale (유통되는 쇠고기에서 분리한 대장균의 항생제 내성 조사.연구)

  • Kim, Hong-Tae;Lee, Woo-Won;Jung, Kyung-Tae;Lee, Seung-Mee;Son, Eun-Jung;Lee, Gang-Rok;Kim, Geum-Hyang;Lee, Dong-Soo;Lee, Keun-Woo
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Service
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.17-29
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    • 2008
  • In this study, antimicrobial resistance of E coli isolated from domestic beef on sale in Busan and Gyeongnam province was investigated from March to October 2007. A total of 600 beef samples were collected for the monitoring of antimicrobial resistance, and 92 (15.3%) strains of E coli were isolated. Antimicrobial resistance test was carried out by agar disc diffusion method with 17 antimicrobials. In general, E coli isolates showed the highest antimicrobial resistance to doxycycline (73.9%), followed by tetracycline (70.7%) andcefazolin (63.0%). Then they showed higher resistance to several antimicrobials like norfloxacin (48.9%). However, They had low antimicrobial resistance to amikacin (4.3%), colistin (1.1%). Of 92 isolates, 82 (89.1%) were resistant to more than 2 antimicrobials. Among 17 antimicrobials examined, tetracyclines were the most resistant, followed by cephalosporins, quinolone. The resistance was seemed to be correlated to amounts of antimicrobial use. In the result of this study, we suggest that there be need to regulate the abuse of antimicrobial on food-producing animals in Korea because the concern on antimicrobial resistant is gradually increased worldwide.

Effects of Olaquindox and Cyadox on Immunity of Piglets Orally Inoculated with Escherichia coli

  • Ding, Mingxing;Yuan, Zonghui;Wang, Yulian;Zhu, Huiling;Fan, Shengxian
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.18 no.9
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    • pp.1320-1325
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    • 2005
  • A 2${\times}$3 factorial arrangement of treatments was used to determine the effects of olaquindox and cyadox on immune response of Landrace${\times}$Large-White geld piglets that had been orally given 10$^{10}$ CFU of Escherichia coli (E. coli, O$_{139}$:K$_{88}$). Factors included (1) E. coli inoculation or control, and (2) no antimicrobials, 100 mg/kg olaquindox and 100 mg/kg cyadox in the basal diet respectively. E. coli inoculums were orally administered 7 days after the diets were supplemented with olaquindox and cyadox. The effects of the two antimicrobials were assessed in terms of: (1) average daily gain (ADG), (2) systemic immune response (the number of white blood cells and lymphocytes, leukocyte bactericidal capacity, lymphocyte proliferation response to PHA, immunoglobulin concentrations, and total serous hemolytic complement activity), and (3) intestinal mucosal immunity including the number of intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) and immunoglobulin A secreting cells (ASCs) in the intestinal lamina propria. E. coli inoculation reduced ADG (p<0.05) during the period of d 0 to d 14 after the challenge while the antimicrobial supplementations improved ADG (p<0.01) during the experiment. ADG in cyadox-supplemented pigs was higher (p<0.05) than that in olaquindox-supplemented pigs. The antimicrobials decreased IEL and ASC counts in the jejunum and ileum (p<0.01) while E. coli inoculation caused them to increase (p<0.01). Jejunal ASCs in the cyadox-supplemented pigs were lower (p<0.05) than those in the olaquindox-supplemented. E. coli elicited increase (p<0.05) in white blood cell counts, leukocyte bactericidal capacity, lymphocyte proliferation rate, serous IgA concentrations, and serous hemolytic complement activity. The antimicrobials decreased the measured systemic immune parameters, but not significantly (p>0.05). The data suggest that olaquindox and cyadox suppress E. coli-induced immune activation, especially intestinal mucosal immune activation, which may be involved in the observed growth promotion.