• Title, Summary, Keyword: Antimicrobials

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Bacteremia in Pediatric Cancer Patients : Causative Organisms and Antibiotic Sensitivities (소아 암 환자에서 발생한 균혈증 : 원인균과 항생제 감수성)

  • Kim, Yong-Han;Lee, Hyun-Dong;Hah, Jeong-Ok
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.48 no.6
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    • pp.619-623
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    • 2005
  • Purpose : Bacteremia in immunocompromised pediatric cancer patients can lead to high morbidity and mortality, if not treated early and properly. The incidence and antibiotic sensitivities to common pathogens of bacteremia in pediatric cancer patients are liable to change, according to region and time. We investigated the causative organisms and antibiotic sensitivities of bacteremia in pediatric cancer patients to assess the adequacy of empiric antimicrobial therapy. Methods : From September 1995 to August 2003, we retrospectively evaluated 58 episodes in 39 pediatric cancer patients with bacteremia treated at the Pediatric Department of Yeungnam University Hospital. We investigated and analyzed the causative organisms and the antibiotic sensitivity test results by reviewing the records of the microbiologically proven positive blood culture results. Results : The incidence of bacteremia in pediatric cancer patients in this study was 5.7 percent (58 episodes out of 1,022 occasions of blood cultures). Gram-positive organisms were isolated more often than gram-negative organisms (63.8 percent vs 36.2 percent) in the following order : Staphylococcus epidermidis (37.9 percent), Staphylococcus aureus (17.3 percent), Escherichia coli (12 percent), Streptococcus (8.6 percent), Enterobacter (6.9 percent), Klesiella (6.9 percent), Serratia (3.5 percent), Acinetobacter (3.5 percent), Proteus (1.7 percent) and Morganella morganii (1.7 percent). In antibiotic sensitivity tests, only six of 37 isolates (16 percent) of gram positive bacteria were sensitive to penicillin and 15 of 37 isolates (40 percent) were sensitive to oxacillin. All except one Staphylococcus aureus were sensitive to vancomycin and all except one Staphylococcus epidermidis were sensitive to teicoplanin among 37 isolates of gram positive bacteria. In the case of gram negative bacteria, two of 21 isolates (10 percent) and four of 21 isolates (19 percent) were sensitive to cefotaxime and ceftazidime, respectively. Only six of 21 isolates (29 percent) were sensitive to aminoglycoside, but all 21 isolates (100 percent) were sensitive to imipenem. All seven isolates tested after the year 2000 were sensitive to meropenem. Conclusion : In conclusion, we should choose the proper antimicrobials in treating pediatric cancer patients with suspected bacteremia, reflecting the increasing episodes of gram positive bacteremia and polymicrobial resistance of gram positive and negative organisms.

Analysis of Foodborne Pathogens in Food and Environmental Samples from Foodservice Establishments at Schools in Gyeonggi Province (경기지역 학교 단체급식소 식품 및 환경 중 식중독균 분석)

  • Oh, Tae Young;Baek, Seung-Youb;Koo, Minseon;Lee, Jong-Kyung;Kim, Seung Min;Park, Kyung-Min;Hwang, Daekeun;Kim, Hyun Jung
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.44 no.12
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    • pp.1895-1904
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    • 2015
  • Foodborne illness associated with food service establishments is an important food safety issue in Korea. In this study, foodborne pathogens (Bacillus cereus, Clostridium perfringens, Escherichia coli, pathogenic Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus) and hygiene indicator organisms [total viable cell counts (TVC), coliforms] were analyzed for food and environmental samples from foodservice establishments at schools in Gyeonggi province. Virulence factors and antimicrobial resistance of detected foodborne pathogens were also characterized. A total of 179 samples, including food (n=66), utensil (n=68), and environmental samples (n=45), were collected from eight food service establishments at schools in Gyeonggi province. Average contamination levels of TVC for foods (including raw materials) and environmental samples were 4.7 and 4.0 log CFU/g, respectively. Average contamination levels of coliforms were 2.7 and 4.0 log CFU/g for foods and environmental swab samples, respectively. B. cereus contamination was detected in food samples with an average of 2.1 log CFU/g. E. coli was detected only in raw materials, and S. aureus was positive in raw materials as well as environmental swab samples. Other foodborne pathogens were not detected in all samples. The entire B. cereus isolates possessed at least one of the diarrheal toxin genes (hblACD, nheABC, entFM, and cytK enterotoxin gene). However, ces gene encoding emetic toxin was not detected in B. cereus isolates. S. aureus isolates (n=16) contained at least one or more of the tested enterotoxin genes, except for tst gene. For E. coli and S. aureus, 92.7% and 37.5% of the isolates were susceptible against 16 and 19 antimicrobials, respectively. The analyzed microbial hazards could provide useful information for quantitative microbial risk assessment and food safety management system to control foodborne illness outbreaks in food service establishments.