• Title, Summary, Keyword: Antimicrobials

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Antimicrobials, Gut Microbiota and Immunity in Chickens

  • Lee, Kyung-Woo;Lillehoj, Hyun S.
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.38 no.2
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    • pp.155-164
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    • 2011
  • The use of antimicrobials will be soon removed due to an increase of occurrence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria or ionophore-resistant Eimeria species in poultry farms and consumers' preference on drug-free chicken meats or eggs. Although dietary antimicrobials contributed to the growth and health of the chickens, we do not fully understand their interrelationship among antimicrobials, gut microbiota, and host immunity in poultry. In this review, we explored the current understanding on the effects of antimicrobials on gut microbiota and immune systems of chickens. Based on the published literatures, it is clear that antibiotics and antibiotic ionophores, when used singly or in combination could influence gut microbiota. However, antimicrobial effect on gut microbiota varied depending on the samples (e.g., gut locations, digesta vs. mucosa) used and among the experiments. It was noted that the digesta vs. the mucosa is the preferred sample with the results of no change, increase, or decrease in gut microbiota community. In future, the mucosa-associated bacteria should be targeted as they are known to closely interact with the host immune system and pathogen control. Although limited, dietary antimicrobials are known to modulate humoral and cell-mediated immunities. Ironically, the evidence is increasing that dietary antimicrobials may play an important role in triggering enteric disease such as gangrenous dermatitis, a devastating disease in poultry industry. Future work should be done to unravel our understanding on the complex interaction of host-pathogen-microbiota-antimicrobials in poultry.

Trends in antimicrobial sales for livestock and fisheries in Korea during 2003-2012 (국내 가축 및 수산에서 항생제 판매 추이(2003-2012))

  • Lim, Suk-Kyung;Lee, Jeong-Eun;Lee, Hye-Sook;Nam, Hyang-Mi;Moon, Dong-Chan;Jang, Geum-Chan;Park, Yeon-Ju;Jung, Yun-Gu;Jung, Suk-Chan;Wee, Sung-Hwan
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.54 no.2
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    • pp.81-86
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    • 2014
  • In this study, trends in the sales of antimicrobials for use in livestock facilities and fisheries from 2003 to 2012 were investigated with regard to antimicrobial group, antimicrobial usage, and animal species. The overall amount of antimicrobials sold each year from 2003 to 2007 was 1,500 tons, after which they decreased, with the lowest sales being 936 tons in 2012. The total volume of antimicrobials used for feed additives decreased markedly by 94% from 2003 to 2012, which was mainly attributed to banning of feed additives. However, antimicrobial consumption through self prescription by farmers for disease prevention and treatment increased by 25% from 2003 to 2012. The largest volume of antimicrobials sold was for use in pigs (48~57%), followed by poultry (18~24%), fisheries (11~25%), and cattle (5~8%). Tetracycline was the highest selling antimicrobial, followed by penicillins and sulfonamides, although the overall sale of all three antimicrobials gradually decreased over the study period. This study demonstrated that the total consumption of antimicrobials has gradually decreased since 2008. Nevertheless, usage by nonprofessionals increased, which can ultimately cause emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance. Thus, early establishment of veterinary prescription guidelines for prudent use of antimicrobials is urgently needed in Korea.

Effect of Commercial Antimicrobials in Combination with Heat Treatment on Inactivation of Bacillus cereus Spore

  • Shin, Hye-Won;Lim, Yoon-Hee;Lee, Jong-Kyung;Kim, Yun-Ji;Oh, Se-Wook;Shin, Chul-Soo
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.603-607
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    • 2008
  • Thirteen commercial antimicrobial products were examined to assess the sporicidal activity against Bacillus cereus spores at room temperature, 60 and $85^{\circ}C$. Neither the antimicrobials showed detectable antimicrobial activity against the B. cereus spores nor induced spore germination after the treatment at 0.5 or 1.0%(w/v, v/v) commercial antimicrobial agents at room temperature for 0.5 to 4 hr. However, when the antimicrobials such as chitosan, lactic acid, fermented pollen, grapefruit extract were applied with heat at $85^{\circ}C$ for 30 min, more than 1 log CFU/mL spores were additionally inactivated compared to only heat treatment without antimicrobials. Imposition of $60^{\circ}C$ to B. cereus spores with the higher concentration of 5.0%(v/v) lactic acid or 2.5%(w/v) thiamine dilaurylsulfate for the longer time incubation of 24 hr resulted in 3 log CFU/mL spore inactivation. This work showed that low concentrations of commercial antimicrobials by themselves did not inactivate B. cereus spores. However, when physical processes such as heat were combined together, antimicrobials showed a synergistic effect against B. cereus spores.

Concurrent Use of Sulfonylureas and Antimicrobials of the Elderly in Korea: A Potential Risk of Hypoglycemia (고령자에서 Sulfonylureas와 항균제의 병용투여 현황)

  • Lee, Sera;Ock, Miyoung;Kim, Hyunah
    • Korean Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
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    • v.28 no.3
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    • pp.188-193
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    • 2018
  • Background: Previous studies have noted that the simultaneous use of sulfonylureas and antimicrobials, which is common, could increase the risk of hypoglycemia. In particular, an age of 65 years or older is a known risk factor for sulfonylurea-related hypoglycemia in hospitalized patients. Therefore, we performed this study to determine the potential risk of hypoglycemia from the concurrent use of antimicrobials and sulfonylureas. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study on the National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort from 2013. The eligibility criteria included patients of 65 years of age or older taking a sulfonylurea with 25 different antimicrobials. Different risk ratings of severity in drug-drug interactions (potential DDIs), level X, D, or C in Lexi-$Interact^{TM}$ online, and contraindicated, major, or moderate severity level in $Micromedex^{(R)}$ were included. SAS version 9.4 was used for data analysis. Results: A total of 6,006 elderly patients with 25,613 prescriptions were included. The largest age group was 70 to 74 (32.7%), and 39.7% of patients were men. The mean number of prescriptions was 4.3 per patient. The most frequently used antimicrobials were levofloxacin (6,583, 25.7%), ofloxacin (6,549, 25.6%), fluconazole (4,678, 18.0%), and ciprofloxacin (2,551, 9.8%). Among sulfonylureas, glimepiride was prescribed most frequently, followed by gliclazide, glibenclamide, and glipizide. Conclusion: Of the antimicrobials with a high potential of hypoglycemia, levofloxacin, ofloxacin, fluconazole, and ciprofloxacin were used frequently. Thus, the monitoring of clinically relevant interactions is required for patients concurrently administered sulfonylureas and antimicrobials.

Effects of Antimicrobials on Methane Production in an Anaerobic Digestion Process (혐기소화공정에서 항생항균물질이 메탄생성에 미치는 영향)

  • Oh, Seung-Yong;Park, Noh-Back;Park, Woo-Kyun;Chun, Man-Young;Kwon, Soon-Ik
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.295-303
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    • 2011
  • BACKGROUND: Anaerobic digestion process is recently adapted technology for treatment of organic waste such as animal manure because the energy embedded in the waste can be recovered from the waste while the organic waste were digested. Ever increased demand for consumption of meat resulted in the excessive use of antimicrobials to the livestocks for more food production. Most antimicrobials administered to animals are excreted through urine and feces, which might highly affect the biological treatment processes of the animal manure. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of antimicrobials on the efficiency of anaerobic digestion process and to clarify the interactions between antimicrobials and anaerobes. METHODS AND RESULTS: The experiment was consisted of two parts 1) batch test to investigate the effects of individual antibiotic compounds on production of methane and VFAs(volatile fatty acids), and removal efficiency of organic matter, and 2) the continuous reactor test to elucidate the effects of mixed antimicrobials on the whole anaerobic digestion process. The batch test showed no inhibitions in the rate of methane and VFAs production, and the rate of organic removal were observed with treatment at 1~10 mg/L of antimicrobials while temporary inhibition was observed at 50 mg/L treatment. In contrast, treatment of 100 mg/L antimicrobials resulted in continuous decreased in the rate of methane production and organic removal efficiency. The continuous reactor test conduced to see the influence of the mixed antimicrobials showed only small declines in the methane production and organic matter removal when 1~10 mg/L of combined antimicrobials were applied but this was not significant. In contrast, with the treatment of 50 mg/L of combined antimicrobials, the rate of organic removal efficiency in effluent decreased by 2~15% and the rate of biogas production decreased by 30%. CONCLUSION(s): The antimicrobials remained in the animal manure might not be removed during the anaerobic digestion process and hence, is likely to be released to the natural ecosystem. Therefore, the efforts to decline the usage of antimicrobials for animal farming would be highly recommended.

Simultaneous detection for synthetic antimicrobials in muscle by high performance liquid chromatography-mass selective detector (HPLC-MSD) (HPLC-MSD 를 이용한 식육 중 합성항균제의 동시분석)

  • Hong In-Suk;Choi Yoon-Hwa;Kwon Taek-Boo;Lee Jung-Hark
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Service
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    • v.29 no.3
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    • pp.317-330
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    • 2006
  • This study was conducted to develop the analytical method about simultaneous determination for synthetic antimicrobials in muscle by high performance liquid chromatography - mass selective detector (HPLC- MSD). Solid phase extraction (SPE), matrix solid phase dispersion (MSPD) and liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) have been adapted as pretreatment procedures for HPLC- MSD. Among various solvent tested, methanol was chosen for extraction of synthetic antimicrobials in muscles. For the optimized response, the values of various MS parameters including fragment voltage, drying gas flow, nebulizer pressure, drying gas temperature were verified. The average recovery rates using MSPD and SPE for muscles of bovine and pork were 78.9-127.1% and 78.3-121.7%, respectively. This method was verified the satisfactory performance for fourteen synthetic antimicrobials excepting carbadox in muscle of pork as detection limit of $0.05{\mu}g/g$ on API/ES SIM mode.

Concomitant use of corticosteroid and antimicrobials for liver abscesses in patients with chronic granulomatous disease

  • Shin, Kyung-Sue;Lee, Mu Suk
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.59 no.4
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    • pp.196-201
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    • 2016
  • Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a rare inherited disorder caused by defective nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase enzyme and characterized by recurrent bacterial and fungal infections. Although liver abscess is a common manifestation of CGD, its management in CGD patients is not well-defined. In addition, the generalized guidelines for treating liver abscesses do not necessarily apply to CGD patients. Corticosteroids are commonly used to control granulomatous complications, such as inflammatory gastrointestinal and genitourinary lesions, in patients with CGD, Corticosteroids have also been used in combination with antimicrobials to treat refractory infections in patients with CGD. Because corticosteroids are capable of suppressing symptomatic inflammation, all potential infections must be adequately controlled prior to corticosteroid initiation. We report 3 typical CGD cases with liver abscesses refractory to conventional treatments that were successfully treated with the concomitant use of corticosteroid and antimicrobials. It remains unclear whether corticosteroid therapy is required for liver abscesses in CGD refractory to conventional treatments. However, based on our observations, use of corticosteroids in combination with optimal antimicrobials should be considered for refractory liver abscesses in CGD.

Knowledge, attitudes and practices toward antimicrobial usage: a cross-sectional study of layer and pig farm owners/managers in Chiang Mai, Lamphun, and Chonburi provinces, Thailand, May 2014 to February 2016

  • Nuangmek, Aniroot;Rojanasthien, Suvichai;Patchanee, Prapas;Yano, Terdsak;Yamsakul, Panuwat;Chotinun, Suwit;Tadee, Pakpoom
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.58 no.1
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    • pp.17-25
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    • 2018
  • This study aimed at determining the current knowledge, attitude, and practices (KAP) of layer and pig farmers to antimicrobial usage and its consequences. Description of such KAP could provide insights useful for promoting the rational use of antimicrobials in livestock. From May 2014 to February 2016, a survey involving 251 respondents in Chiang Mai, Lamphun, and Chonburi provinces, Thailand, was conducted by using a validated questionnaire. More than half (51.0%) of the respondents incorrectly believed that antimicrobial drug efficacy could not be reduced by using sub-recommended dosages, 61.2% had misconceptions about non-therapeutic antimicrobial use, and 66.9% inaccurately felt that antimicrobials were also effective for virus and fungi. Over half (50.6-55.2%) did not see the need to follow instructions or advice of veterinarians. Moreover, only 10.4% regularly relied on responses to drugs sensitivity tests when evaluating the effectiveness of antimicrobials. Overall, assessment of KAP regarding antimicrobial usage indicated that the majority of respondents had low levels of knowledge of antimicrobials, neutral rather than positive attitudes, and employed poor practices in the use of antimicrobials. The results indicate improvements in KAP could be helpful in developing more effective interventions by farmers, reduce antibiotic usage, and slow the growth of antimicrobial resistance.

Interaction of Enrofioxacin-Colistin Combination and LPS-Neutralization of the Different Antibiotic Classes In Vitro (시험관내에서 Enrofloxacin과 Colistin의 병용투여시 상호작용과 항균물질들의 독소중화능)

  • 박승춘;김민규;윤효인;오태광
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.13 no.1_2
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    • pp.111-116
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    • 1997
  • In the present study, we investigated the neutralization activity of various antimicrobials against lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as well as interaction between two antimicrobials (enrofioxacin and coilstin) using checkerboard method. The neutralization activity of antimicrobials used in the test was assayed by means of LAL chromogenic test after reaction of LPS with colistin, enorfioxacin, ampicillin, polymyxin B, oxytetracycline, streptomycin, and erythromycin. As the results, the neutralization activity of coltstin and polymixin B had a more stronger than that of tested other antimicrobials. In bacterial culture broth, the best neutralization activity of the antibiotics was also shown to coltstin and polymixin B. Meanwhile, It was shown to have synergism between enorfloxacin and coltstin on the basts of FIC (fractional inhibition concentration). The FIC of enorfioxacin-colistin combinations was 0.50-1.03 to Staphylococcus aureus R-209, 1.03-1.06 to Salmonella typhimurium, 0.75-1.25 to Bordetella Bronchtseptica and 1.02-1.25 to E. coli K88ab. On the basts of the above results, the present study may be of clinical usefulness in the choice of an antibiotic therapy for severe sepsts in animals.

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Study on antimicrobial resistance of Escherichia coli isolated from domestic beef on sale (2) (유통되는 쇠고기에서 분리한 대장균의 항생제 내성 조사.연구 (2))

  • Kim, Hong-Tae;Jung, Kyung-Tae;Lee, Dong-Soo;Lee, Keun-Woo
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Service
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    • v.32 no.1
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    • pp.93-102
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    • 2009
  • In this study, antimicrobial resistance of E. coli isolated from domestic beef on sale in Busan and Gyeongnam province was investigated from March to October 2008. A total of 400 beef samples were collected for the monitoring of antimicrobial resistance, and 39 (9.8%) strains of E. coli were isolated. Antimicrobial resistance test was carried out by agar disc diffusion method with 17 antimicrobials. In general, E. coli isolates showed the highest antimicrobial resistance to tetracycline (85.3%), followed by doxycycline (76.5%), streptomycin (61.8%) and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (61.8%). Then they showed higher resistance to several antimicrobials like kanamycin and neomycin (55.9%). However, They had low antimicrobial resistance to amikacin (8.8%), amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (2.9%). Of 39 isolates, 31 (79.5%) were resistant to more than 2 antimicrobials. Among 17 antimicrobials examined, tetracyclines were the most resistant, followed by aminoglycosides, sulfonamides. The resistance was seemed to be correlated to amounts of antimicrobial use. In the result of this study, we suggest that there be need to regulate the abuse of antimicrobial on food-producing animals in Korea because the concern on antimicrobial resistant is gradually increased worldwide.