• Title, Summary, Keyword: Antibody Production

Search Result 720, Processing Time 0.044 seconds

Effects of Polyclonal Antibodies to Abdominal and Subcutaneous Adipocytes on Ruminal Fermentation Patterns and Blood Metabolites in Korean Native Steers (한우 복강 및 피하지방 감소 다클론 항체가 반추위 발효패턴 및 혈액 대사물질에 미치는 영향)

  • Choi, Chang-Weon;Baek, Kyung-Hoon;Kim, Sung-Jin;Oh, Young-Kyoon;Hong, Seong-Koo;Kwon, Eung-Gi;Song, Man-Kang;Choi, Chang-Bon
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
    • /
    • v.51 no.3
    • /
    • pp.231-240
    • /
    • 2009
  • Sixteen ruminally cannulated Korean native steers (Hanwoo; $626.2\pm47.72$ kg) were used to investigate the effects of polyclonal antibodies against abdominal (AAb) and subcutaneous adipocyte membrane proteins (SAb) on ruminal fermentation patterns and blood metabolites. The body weight (BW) of Hanwoo was decreased 2-weeks after AAb and SAb injection, BW reduction was also observed in control and non-immunized serum groups, indicating that stress induced by other factors (e.g. blood sampling etc.) rather than antibodies injection may affect the BW reduction. Antibodies treatment did not affect (P > 0.05) rumen pH, volatile fatty acids and ammonia-N concentration. The ranges were similar with typical ranges of those in Hanwoo. Compared with control, blood urea N concentration was decreased in AAb group and increased (P < 0.05) in SAb group before antibodies treatment. However, none of the groups were significantly (P > 0.05) affected at 2- or 4-weeks after the treatment. Concentration of plasma glucose in the non-immunized serum group was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than the other groups at 0-week after treatment. However, antibodies treatment did not affect the concentration of plasma glucose. Concentration of plasma triglyceride showed no difference (P > 0.05) between the groups and ranged from 11.4 to 19.9 mg/dl, which is the perfect range of plasma triglyceride of Hanwoo fed concentrate based diets. In conclusion, these results may indicate that the present AAb and SAb have safety in nutritional physiological metabolism in Hanwoo. Further study on in vivo fat reduction of the antibodies against abdominal and subcutaneous adipocytes PMPs of Hanwoo is required for inedible fat-reduced high quality beef production.

Understanding Biotechnology: An Analysis of High School Students' Concepts (생명공학의 기본 개념에 대한 고등학생의 이해도 조사 및 개념 분석)

  • Chung, Young-Lan;Kye, Bo-Ah
    • Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education
    • /
    • v.18 no.4
    • /
    • pp.463-472
    • /
    • 1998
  • Biotechnology is the process of using biological system for the production of materials. Genetic engineering, a subset of biotechnology, is the process of altering biological systems by the purposeful manipulation of DNA It is a new field in biology and no topic in biology is more likely to impact our personal lives and is therefore more worthy of our attention and understanding. The purpose of this study was to investigate students' understanding of the concepts of biotechnology, and a test tool which is made up of 20 basic questions was developed for the study. The subject of this study was high school students and the sample size was 486. In order to find out the source of students' misunderstanding, we also analysed high school textbooks and teachers were given the same tool applied to students. Two-way ANOVA was used for the analysis. Major findings of this study are as following; 1. Mean score of students was 41, and there was a significant difference between the scores of boys and girls(p<0.05). Female students scored higher than male students. The variables "region" and "major" had no significant influence. 2. Students' the most misunderstood concepts were "monoclonal antibody" and "gene cloning". Many students thought that a plamid DNA originally has a useful DNA in it, which is apparently wrong. 3. Mean score of teachers was 82, and the variabes of gender and career did not have statistically significant influence on the result(p>0.05). 4. Teachers got the lowest scores on the concepts of "gene therapy", "the accomplishment of biotechnology in agriculture and medicine", and "plasmid DNA". The results of item analysis implied that teachers' misunderstanding might be a part of the sources of students' misunderstaning. 5. Out of 18 basic concepts selected in the study, only 10 concepts were explained well enough in most textbooks. The results of item analysis indicated that textbooks also could be a part of the source of students' misunderstanding.

  • PDF

The Priming Effect of IFN-$\gamma$ and Numbers of IFN-$\gamma$ Receptors in Patients with Chronic Refractory Tuberculosis (난치성 결핵 환자의 단핵구에서 IFN-$\gamma$ 활성화 효과 및 IFN-$\gamma$ 수용체의 숫적 변화에 대한 연구)

  • Lee, Jae-Cheol;Yoo, Chul-Gyu;Lee, Choon-Taek;Kim, Young-Whan;Han, Sung-Koo;Shim, Young-Soo
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
    • /
    • v.47 no.3
    • /
    • pp.304-310
    • /
    • 1999
  • Background: IFN-$\gamma$ plays an important role in host response to intracellular organisms such as mycobacterium. Human infection with mycobacterium leads to a wide variety of outcomes, ranging from asymptomatic infection to widespread and rapidly fatal disease. Recent reports suggest that alteration of the function of IFN-$\gamma$ caused by a defective IFN-$\gamma$ receptor gene can explain different host response to mycobacterium. In this study, we investigated the role of IFN-$\gamma$ in the development of chronic refractory tuberculosis. Methods: The LPS-induced TNF-$\alpha$ production with or without IFN-$\gamma$ priming was compared by using monocytes taken from recently diagnosed tuberculosis, chronic refractory tuberculosis patients and controls. And the IFN-$\gamma$ receptor was measured by indirect fluorescent antibody technique to know whether change in the priming effect of IFN-$\gamma$ is related to IFN-$\gamma$ receptor deficiency or not. Results: The ratio of TNF-$\alpha$ produced in response to stimulation with INF-$\gamma$ and LPS to LPS alone was $13.5{\pm}7.6$ in controls, $10.8{\pm}6.4$ in recently diagnosed tuberculosis patients and $6.7{\pm}3.9$ in chronic refractory tuberculosis patients. The priming effect of IFN-$\gamma$ significantly decreased in chronic refractory tuberculosis patients compared with that in controls(p=0.002). However, IFN-$\gamma$ receptor deficiency was detected in one of chronic refractory tuberculosis patients. Conclusion: The decrease of the priming effect of IFN-$\gamma$ may play an important role in the development of chronic refractory tuberculosis, and in some patients, this may be related to the IFN-$\gamma$ receptor deficiency.

  • PDF

Effect of Dietary Supplement of Fermented Clay Mineral on the Growth Performance and Immune Stimulation in Broiler Chickens (점토 광물질 발효 산물 급여가 육계의 생산성 및 면역 증강에 미치는 영향)

  • Joo, E.J.;Jung, S.J.;Son, J.H.;Cho, J.K.;Youn, B.S.;Nam, K.T.;Hwang, S.G.
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
    • /
    • v.34 no.3
    • /
    • pp.231-236
    • /
    • 2007
  • A feeding trial was conducted to study the effects of dietary supplement of fermented clay mineral (FCM) on the growth performance and immune stimulation in broiler chickens. A total of 36,800 broilers, (of) Ross strain-208, were randomly allotted into 2 experimental (diet) groups. Control group was fed the basal diet (corn-soybean meal based), and treatment group was fed the natural clay mineral that was fermented with aboriginal microorganisms at $37^{\circ}C$ for 72 h. Feed and water were provided ad libitum throughout the experiment for 5 weeks of experimental feeding period. Daily weight gain of treatment group fed 0.3% fermented clay mineral was significantly increased in comparison with control group. Feed intake of treatment group was significantly increased 21.4% (p<0.05), and feed efficiency was also increased 2.7% compared to control group. Especially, growth rate and production index of treatment group were significantly higher as much as 4.4% and 4.8%, respectively, than those of control group (p<0.05). By the feeding of dietary 0.3 % FCM, the antibody productions against Newcastle Disease and Infectious Bursal Disease antigens were shown to increase 13.8 % and 15.7 %, respectively, more than control group chickens. From these results, it appears that the supply of fermented clay mineral at 0.3 % level in the broiler chicken diet could enhance the growth performance and immune stimulation of broiler chickens.

Recent Trends of Immunologic Studies of Herbal Medicine on Rheumatoid Arthritis (류마티스 관절염에 대한 한약의 면역학적 연구동향)

  • Choi, Do-young;Lee, Jae-dong;Back, Yong-hyeon;Lee, Song-shil;Yoo, Myung-chul;Han, Chung-soo;Yang, Hyung-in;Park, Sang-do;Ryu, Mi-hyun;Park, Eun-kyung;Park, Dong-seok
    • Journal of Acupuncture Research
    • /
    • v.21 no.4
    • /
    • pp.177-196
    • /
    • 2004
  • Objective : Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disease that pathogenesis is not fully understood and one of the most intractable musculoskeletal diseases. The concern in the immunopathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis has been increased since 1980's and many immunotherapeutic agents including disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) were developed and became the mainstay of treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. However, the cure of the disease has hardly been achieved. In oriental medicine, rheumatoid arthritis is related to Bi-Zheng(痺證), that presents pain, swelling, andlor loss of joint function as major clinical manifestations, and also known to be deeply involved in suppression of immune function related to weakness of Jung-Ki(正氣). The herbal medicine, empirically used, could be a potential resource of development of new immunotherapeutic agents for rheumatoid arthritis. Methods : We developed a search strategy using terms to include "rheumatoid arthritis and herbal medicine" combined with "Chinese medicine" and/or "Oriental medicine". The search was focused on experimental studies of herbal medicine (January 1999 to May 2004), which is known to have effects on immune function of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Computerized search used Internet databases including KISS and RISS4U (Korea), CNKI (China), MOMJ (Main Oriental Medicine Journal, Japan), and PubMed. The articles were selected from journals of universities or major research institutes. Results : The literature search for experimental studies on effects of herbal medicine on immunity of rheumatoid arthritis retrieved a total of 21 articles (Korea; 8, China ; 12, Japan ; 1). Of 21 articles, 10 were related to single-drug formula, 2 to drug interaction, and 9 to multi-drug formula. Single-drug formula was mainly used for aqua-acupuncture and researches on active components. Studies of drug interaction emphasized harmony of Ki-Hyul(氣血) and balance of Han-Yeul(寒熱). Multi-drug regimen was mainly found among formulas for Bo-Ki-Hyul(補氣血) and Bo-Sin(補腎). Conclusion : Studies on rheumatoid arthritis were performed both in vitro and in vivo in vitro study, LPS-stimulated splenocytes and synoviocytes were treated with herbal medicine, resulting in proliferation and activation of immune cells and suppression of cytokine activities in vivo study CIA animal model demonstrated that herbal medicine decreased antibody production and improved function of immune cells. In cellular and molecular study herbal medicine showed profound effects on the level of mRNA expression of certain cytokines related to immune function. This study revealed that herbal medicine has significant immune modulatory action and could be used for recovery of immune dysfunction of rheumatoid arthritis patients.

  • PDF

Photoprotection and Anti-inflammatory Effects of Chinese Medical Plants (약용식물추출물의 광보호 효과와 항염증 효과 연구)

  • Jin-Hwa, Kim;Sung-Min, Park;Gwan-Sub, Sim;Bum-Chun , Lee;Hyeong-Bae, Pyo
    • Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Scientists of Korea
    • /
    • v.30 no.2
    • /
    • pp.227-233
    • /
    • 2004
  • Chronic exposure to solar radiation, particularly ultraviolet (UV) light, causes a variety of adverse reactions on human skin, such as sunburn, photoaging and photocarcinogenesis. Free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS) caused by UV exposure or other environmental facts play critical roles in cellular damage. And, repeated-UV irradiation activated the expression of the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) and induced skin irritation. Therefore, the development of effective and safe photoprotectants that can reduce and improve the skin damage has been required. The purpose of this study was to investigate the photo-protective effect of several chinese medical plants (Juniperus chinensis) on the UV -induced skin cell damages. We tested free radical and superoxide scavenging effect in vitro. Fluorometric assays of the proteolytic activities of MMP-1 (collagenase) were performed using fluorescent collagen substrates. UVA induced MMP-1 synthesis and activity were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and gelatin-based zymography in skin fibroblasts. We also examined anti-inflammatory effects by the determination test of proinflammatory cytokine, interleukin 6 in HaCaT keratinocytes. Expression of prostaglandin E$_2$ (PGE$_2$) after UVB irradiation was measured by competitive enzyme immunoassay(EIA) using PGE$_2$ monoclonal antibody. In the human skin we tested anti-irritation effect on the SLS-induced damage skin after appling the extract containing emulsion. We found that Juniperus chinensis extract had potent radical scavenging effect by 98% at 100$\mu\textrm{g}$/mL. The extract of Juniperus chinensis showed strong inhibitory effect on MMP-1 activities by 97% at 100 $\mu\textrm{g}$/mL and suppressed the UVA induced expression of MMP-1 by 79% at 25$\mu\textrm{g}$/mL. This extract also showed strong inhibition on MMP-2 activity in UVA irradiated fibroblast by zymography. In the test of proinflammatory cytokines of human keratinocytes Juniperus chinensis extract decreased expression of interleukin 6 about 30%. The amount of PGE$_2$ by HaCaT keratinocytes was significantly increased at the doses of above 10 mJ/$\textrm{cm}^2$ of UVB (p < 0.05). At the concentrations of 3.2-25$\mu\textrm{g}$/mL of this extract, the production of PGE$_2$ by HaCaT keratinocytes (24 h after 10mJ/$\textrm{cm}^2$ UVB irradiation) was significantly inhibited in culture supernatants (p < 0.05). In SLS-induced skin irritation model in vivo, we found to reduce skin erythema and improve barrier recovery after appling Juniperus chinensis extract containing emulsion when compared to irritated non-treated and placebo-treated skin. Our results suggest that Juniperus chinensis extract can be effectively used for the prevention of UV and SLS-induced adverse skin reactions and applied as anti-aging and anti-irritation cosmetics.

Antioxidative and Antiallergic Effect of Persimmon Leaf Extracts (감잎(Diospyros kaki Thunb) 추출물의 항산화 및 항알레르기 효과)

  • Yoo, Ki-Hwan;Jeong, Jong-Moon
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
    • /
    • v.38 no.12
    • /
    • pp.1691-1698
    • /
    • 2009
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the antioxidative and antiallergic effects of persimmon leaf extract. Antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects of the crude persimmon leaf extract (PLE) and the partially purified persimmon leaf extract (PPLE) were determined in in vitro assays by using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and superoxide anion radicals, and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) and cyclooxygenase (COX). Total phenols and total flavonoid levels of PLE and PPLE were $230.0{\pm}19.6$ mg/g and $475.5{\pm}38.7$ mg/g, and $34.8{\pm}6.5$ mg/g and $78.8{\pm}3.6$ mg/g, respectively. DPPH and superoxide radical-scavenging activities ($SC_{50}$) of the PLE and PPLE were $23.8{\pm}3.2$ ppm and $10.0{\pm}1.3$ ppm, and $47.6{\pm}3.4$ ppm and $22.4{\pm}3.3$ ppm, respectively. Inhibitory activities ($IC_{50}$) of PLE and PPLE against 5-LO, COX-1 and COX-2 were $77.1{\pm}11.7$, $38.6{\pm}7.0$ ppm, $47.4{\pm}7.7$, $25.3{\pm}6.3$ ppm, and $129.5{\pm}5.5$, $84.5{\pm}2.3$ ppm, respectively. Moreover, two extracts inhibited dose-dependently NO production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells, and also effectively inhibited the cutaneous anaphylaxis reaction activated by anti-dinitrophenyl IgE antibody in mice. These results suggest that PLE and PPLE may be useful for phytochemical materials for prevention and treatment of radical-mediated pathological and allergy diseases.

Biosynthesis of recombinant human prominiinsulin in E. coli and plant systems (대장균과 식물시스템에서 재조합 인간 prominiinsulin 생합성 분석)

  • Choi, Yu Jin;Park, Su Hyun;Kim, Ji Su;Wi, Soo Jin;Park, Ky Young
    • Journal of Plant Biotechnology
    • /
    • v.40 no.3
    • /
    • pp.169-177
    • /
    • 2013
  • Recently, the number of people with diabetes is rapidly increasing, coupled with the fact that the insulin market is remarkably increasing. Therefore, molecular farming for plant-derived pharmaceutical protein production is reported as becoming more attractive than ever. In this study, we carried out experiments step by step for development of recombinant insulin constructs, which were transformed into E. coli system, in vitro transcription and translation system, and tobacco cells. At first, recombinant proinsulin protein was successfully produced in in vitro transcription and translation system with wheat germ extract. After which, recombinant construct of prominiinsulin encoded a fusion protein of 7.8 kDa with trypsin cleavage sites at N terminus and C terminus of minimized C-peptide was tried to in vitro expression using E.coli culture. After purification with His-tag column, the resulting recombinant prominiinsulin protein was processed with trypsin, and then checked insulin biosynthesis by SDS-PAGE and western blot analysis with anti-insulin monoclonal antibody. The immunoreactive product of trypsin-treated miniinsulin was identical to the predicted insulin hexamer. The construct of 35S promoter-driven preprominiinsulin recombinant gene with signal peptide region for ER-targeting and red fluorescence protein gene [N terminus ${\rightarrow}$ tobacco E2 signal peptide ${\rightarrow}$ B-peptide (1-29 AA) ${\rightarrow}$ AAK ${\rightarrow}$ A-peptide (1-21 AA) ${\rightarrow}$ RR ${\rightarrow}$ His6 ${\rightarrow}$ KDEL ${\rightarrow}$ C terminus] was transformed into BY-2 tobacco cells. A polypeptide corresponding to the 38-kDa molecular mass predicted for fusion protein was detected in total protein profiles from transgenic BY-2 cells by western analysis. Therefore, this recombinant preprominiinsulin construct can be used for generation of transgenic tobacco plants producing therapeutic recombinant insulin.

Production of Red-spotted Grouper Nervous Necrosis Virus (RGNNV) Capsid Protein Using Saccharomyces cerevisiae Surface Display (Saccharomyces cerevisiae 표면 발현을 이용한 붉바리 신경괴사 바이러스 외피단백질의 생산)

  • Park, Mirye;Suh, Sung-Suk;Hwang, Jinik;Kim, Donggiun;Park, Jongbum;Chung, Young-Jae;Lee, Taek-Kyun
    • Journal of Life Science
    • /
    • v.24 no.9
    • /
    • pp.995-1000
    • /
    • 2014
  • The studies of marine viruses in terms of viral isolation and detection have been limited due to the high mutation rate and genetic diversity of marine viruses. Of the modern methods currently used to detect marine viruses, serological methods based on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) are the most common. They depend largely on the quality of the antibodies and on highly purified suitable antigens. Recently, a new experimental system for using viral capsid protein as an antigen has been developed using the yeast surface display (YSD) technique. In the present study, the capsid protein gene of the red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV) was expressed and purified via YSD and HA-tagging systems, respectively. Two regions of the RGNNV capsid protein gene, RGNNV1 and RGNNV2, were individually synthesized and subcloned into a yeast expression vector, pCTCON. The expressions of each RGNNV capsid protein in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain EBY100 were indirectly detected by flow cytometry with fluorescently labeled antibodies, while recognizing the C-terminal c-myc tags encoded by the display vector. The expressed RGNNV capsid proteins were isolated from the yeast surface through the cleavage of the disulfide bond between the Aga1 and Aga2 proteins after ${\beta}$-mercaptoethanol treatment, and they were directly detected by Western blot using anti-HA antibody. These results indicated that YSD and HA-tagging systems could be applicable to the expressions and purification of recombinant RGNNV capsid proteins.

The Lung Expression of Proinflammatory Cytokines, TNF-$\alpha$ and Interleukin 6, in Early Periods of Endotoxemia (내독소혈증 유발 급성폐손상에서 폐장내 Proinflammatory Cytokines 발현에 관한 고찰)

  • Moon, Seung-Hyug;Kim, Yong-Hoon;Park, Choon-Sik;Lee, Shin-Je
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
    • /
    • v.45 no.3
    • /
    • pp.553-564
    • /
    • 1998
  • Background: The immediate hoot response to LPS is the production of proinflammatory cytokines that act as intercellular mediators in inflammatory reactions, including acute lung injury. These "early response" cytokines transmit signals from recognition cells to target or effector cells. This host response is further amplified by the expression of leukocyte chemoattractants, growth factors, and adhesion molecules, resulting in an array of proinflammatory events. This experiment was performed to define the lung origin of proinflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-$\alpha$, IL 6 in early periods of endotoxin induced acute lung injury (ALI). Method: The healthy male Sprague-Dawley, weighted 150 - 250g, were divided into saline control (NC) and endotoxemia-induced ALI (ETX-), and leukopenic endotoxemia-induced ALI (CPA-ETX-Group) which was induced by cyclophosphamide, 70 mg/kg i.p. injection. Acute lung injury was evoked by LPS, 5 mg/kg, intravenously administered. Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed at 0, 3, 6 h after LPS-treated to estimate the influx of phagocytes and concentration of total protein, and cytokines as TNF-$\alpha$ and IL 6 by a bioassy using MIT method. We also examined the localization of TNF-$\alpha$ and IL 6 protein in endotoxemia-challenged lung tissue by immunohistochemical stain (IH). Results: The total cell, macrophage and PMN count in BALF were elavated in ETX group compared to NC(p<0.05). In CPA-ETX group, total cell and macrophage count in BALF were not changed compared to NC. but PMN count was markedly reduced and it took part in less than 0.1 % of total BAL cells (p<0.01). The protein concentration in BALF were significantly increased in ETX and CPA-ETX group Compared to NC (p<0.05), but there was significant difference between ETX- and CPA-ETX group only at 6 h (p<0.05). This observation suggested that even if PMNs are involved in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury, their role cannot be viewed as essential The concentration of TNF-$\alpha$ and IL 6 in BALF was significantly increased in the ETX- and CPA-ETX group compared to NC. There was no difference between ETX- and CPA-ETX group. In IH, anti-TNF-$\alpha$- and anti-IL 6 antibody was strongly localized at interstitial monocytes and alveolar macrophages in endotoxemia-challenged lung tissue. From above point of view, activated alveolar macrophage/monocyte considered as a prominent source of proinflammatory cytokines in endotoxemia-challenged lung injury. Conclusion: The prominent source of proinflammatory cytokines in early periods of endotoxemia-induced lung injury will be the activated resident macrophages like an alveolar macrophage and interstitial monocytes. The pulmonary macrophage/monocyte will impact the initiation and continuance of lung injury without PMNs's certain inflammatory role, particularly in endotoxemia-induced acute lung injury.

  • PDF