• Title, Summary, Keyword: Anti-cancer mechanism

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Anti-Cancer Mechanism and Possibility of Nano-Suspension Formulation for a Marine Algae Product Fucoxanthin

  • Muthuirulappan, Srinivasan;Francis, Steffi Pulikodan
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.2213-2216
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    • 2013
  • Recently, use of natural products available from marine sources, and especially algae products, are receiving more attention. Scientific evidence for claimed nutraceutical and therapeutical effects of one such marine algae product, fucoxanthin, is discussed in this paper with a summary of the currently available literature regarding its antioxidant, anti-obesity and anticancer activities. It is safe for use in humans, but as it has poor solubility a nano-suspension mode of delivery may be adopted to improve efficacy of supplments. We conclude from ourliterature review that the marine algae product fucoxanthin has significant antioxidant, anti-obesity and anticancer activity with established mechanisms of action.

Anti-cancer Mechanism of Docosahexaenoic Acid in Pancreatic Carcinogenesis: A Mini-review

  • Park, Mirae;Kim, Hyeyoung
    • Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.1-5
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    • 2017
  • Pancreatic cancer is a highly aggressive malignant tumor of the digestive system and radical resection, which is available to very few patients, might be the only possibility for cure. Since therapeutic choices are limited at the advanced stage, prevention is more important for reducing incidence in high-risk individuals with family history of pancreatic cancer. Epidemiological studies have shown that a high consumption of fish oil or ${\omega}3-polyunsaturated$ fatty acids reduces the risk of pancreatic cancers. Dietary fish oil supplementation has shown to suppress pancreatic cancer development in animal models. Previous experimental studies revealed that several hallmarks of cancer involved in the pathogenesis of pancreatic cancer, such as the resistance to apoptosis, hyper-proliferation with abnormal $Wnt/{\beta}-catenin$ signaling, expression of pro-angiogenic growth factors, and invasion. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is a ${\omega}3-polyunsaturated$ fatty acid and rich in cold oceanic fish oil. DHA shows anti-cancer activity by inducing oxidative stress and apoptosis, inhibiting $Wnt/{\beta}-catenin$ signaling, and decreasing extracellular matrix degradation and expression of pro-angiogenic factors in pancreatic cancer cells. This review will summarize anti-cancer mechanism of DHA in pancreatic carcinogenesis based on the recent studies.

Anti-tumor Effect of Kaempferol, a Component of Polygonati Rhizoma, in Lung Cancer Cells (폐암세포주에서 황정(黃精)의 주요 성분인 Kaempferol의 항암 효능)

  • Jeong, Young-Seok;Jeong, Ji-Cheon
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.25 no.5
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    • pp.816-822
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    • 2011
  • Kaempferol, a component of Polygonati rhizoma, is one of the herbal flavonoids, which is used in therapeutic agent for anti-hypercholesterol, anti-hypertension and anti-diabetes. And it is also known to be effective in anti-cancer therapy for breast, prostate and other type of cancers. However, the anti-cancer therapeutic mechanisms are pooly understood. To address molecular mechanism underlying kaempferol-induced anti-cancer effects, we determined the effect of kaempferol on cell growth of the lung cancer cell lines, A549, H1299 and H460. From the FACS analysis, measurement of caspase activity, DAPI and tryptophan blue staining, and DNA fragmentation assay, we found that kaempferol induces apoptosis and H460 cells are most sensitive among the tested cell lines. In addition, we performed microarray to identify the genome-wide expression profiling regulated by kaempferol. Lots of cell cycle-related genes were under-expressed, whereas the genes related to TGF-beta/SMAD pathway were over-expressed in kaempferol-treated H460 cells. Additionally, kaempferol also increased expression levels of apoptosis related genes such as death receptors, FAS, TRAIL-R and TNF-R, and casepase-8 and caspase-10. Overall, our results suggest that kaempferol promotes anti-lung cancer therapeutic effects by inducing G1 arrest and apoptosis through TGF-beta/SMAD pathway and death receptors/caspase pathway, respectively.

Monitoring the Change of Protein Expression in Human Colon Cancer Cell SNU-81 treated with the Water-Extract of Coptis japonica (황련 열수추출물을 처치한 인간 대장암 세포 SNU-81에서의 단백질 발현 변화)

  • Yoo, Tae-Mo;Kim, Byung-Soo;Yoo, Byong-Chul;Yoo, Hwa-Seung
    • Journal of Pharmacopuncture
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.5-12
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    • 2009
  • Background : Anticancer effects of herbal medicine have been reported in various types of cancer, but the systematic approaches to explain molecular mechanism(s) are not established yet. Objective : To find the anticancer-effect and mechanism(s) of Water Extract of Coptis japonica (WECJ) colon cancer cell (SNU-81). Methods : We first selected 11 herbals, and anti-cancer effects of water-extracts from those herbals have been tested in human colon cancer cell line, SNU-81. Among the tested herbals, the WECJ significantly reduced proliferation of SNU-81. To establish a basis of understanding for anti-cancer mechanism, whole proteins have been obtained from SNU-81 harvested at 48 and 96 hrs after the treatment of WECJ, protein expression has been profiled by 2DE-based proteomic approach. Results : Various changes of the protein expression have been monitored, and most frequent dysregulation was found in the molecular chaperons including heat shock protein 90-alpha (Hsp90-alpha), 14-3-3 protein epsilon, T-complex protein 1 subunit alpha, protein disulfide-isomerase A3, and calreticulin. Interestingly, proliferation-associated protein 2G4 has been up-regulated, and it suggests the possible effect of Coptis japonica on ErbB3-regulated signal transduction pathway and growth control of human colon cancer cells. Conclusion : Based upon the present findings, the further study will focus on monitoring various cancer survival factors after artificial regulation of the proteins identified, and it would be the basis for the understanding of the Coptis japonica anti-cancer effect(s) at the molecular level.

Inhibitory effects of resveratrol analogs on lipopolysaccharide-induced cyclooxygenase-2 activity in RAW264.7 cells

  • Park, Eun-Jung;Min, Hye-Young;Park, Jae-Eun;Kim, Sang-Hee;Lee, Sang-Kook
    • Proceedings of the PSK Conference
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    • pp.245.1-245
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    • 2002
  • It has been known that resveratrol, a phytoalexin present in grapes mainly, has antioxidant. anti-inflammatory, and cancer chemopreventive activity. One mechanism of its anti-inflammation and cancer prevention is considered to modulate cyclooxygense-2 (COX-2) activity. Since COX-2 plays an important role in inflammation and carcinogenesis, the potential COX-2 inhibitors have been considered as anti-inflammatory or cancer chemopreventive agents. (omitted)

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Angiogenesis and vasculogenic mimicry as therapeutic targets in ovarian cancer

  • Lim, Dansaem;Do, Yeojin;Kwon, Byung Su;Chang, Woochul;Lee, Myeong-Sok;Kim, Jongmin;Cho, Jin Gu
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.53 no.6
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    • pp.291-298
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    • 2020
  • Tumor angiogenesis is an essential process for growth and metastasis of cancer cells as it supplies tumors with oxygen and nutrients. During tumor angiogenesis, many pro-angiogenic factors are secreted by tumor cells to induce their own vascularization via activation of pre-existing host endothelium. However, accumulating evidence suggests that vasculogenic mimicry (VM) is a key alternative mechanism for tumor vascularization when tumors are faced with insufficient supply of oxygen and nutrients. VM is a tumor vascularization mechanism in which tumors create a blood supply system, in contrast to tumor angiogenesis mechanisms that depend on pre-existing host endothelium. VM is closely associated with tumor progression and poor prognosis in many cancers. Therefore, inhibition of VM may be a promising therapeutic strategy and may overcome the limitations of anti-angiogenesis therapy for cancer patients. In this review, we provide an overview of the current anti-angiogenic therapies for ovarian cancer and the current state of knowledge regarding the links between microRNAs and the VM process, with a focus on the mechanism that regulates associated signaling pathways in ovarian cancer. Moreover, we discuss the potential for VM as a therapeutic strategy against ovarian cancer.

Columbianadin Inhibits Cell Proliferation by Inducing Apoptosis and Necroptosis in HCT116 Colon Cancer Cells

  • Kang, Ji In;Hong, Ji-Young;Choi, Jae Sue;Lee, Sang Kook
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.320-327
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    • 2016
  • Columbianadin (CBN), a natural coumarin from Angelica decursiva (Umbelliferae), is known to have various biological activities including anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects. In this study, the anti-proliferative mechanism of actions mediated by CBN was investigated in HCT-116 human colon cancer cells. CBN effectively suppressed the growth of colon cancer cells. Low concentration (up to $25{\mu}M$) of CBN induced apoptosis, and high concentration ($50{\mu}M$) of CBN induced necroptosis. The induction of apoptosis by CBN was correlated with the modulation of caspase-9, caspase-3, Bax, Bcl-2, Bim and Bid, and the induction of necroptosis was related with RIP-3, and caspase-8. In addition, CBN induced the accumulation of ROS and imbalance in the intracellular antioxidant enzymes such as SOD-1, SOD-2, catalase and GPx-1. These findings demonstrate that CBN has the potential to be a candidate in the development of anti-cancer agent derived from natural products.

Anti-cancer Effects of Costunolide in Estrogen Receptor Positive MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells (에스트로겐 수용체 양성 MCF-7 유방암 세포주에 대한 costunolide의 항암효과)

  • Kim, Woon Ji;Choi, Youn Kyung;Woo, Sang Mi;Park, Nam Gyu;Jung, Hye In;Kim, Yong Gook;Shin, Yong Cheol;Ko, Seong Gyu
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.27 no.3
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    • pp.306-312
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    • 2013
  • Costunolide ($C_{15}H_{20}O_2$) is a sesquiterpene lactone that was isolated from many herbal medicines and it has diverse effects (anti-viral, anti-fungal, and anti-inflammatory) according to previous reports. However, the anti-cancer effects of Costunolide and its mechanism of actions are not well known in estrogen receptor positive breast cancer. In this study, we observed that costunolide suppresses cell growth in estrogen receptor positive MCF-7 breast cancer cells as shown by MTT assay and soft agar colony formation assay. To examine the mechanism by which costunolide inhibits MCF-7 cell growth, we performed FACS analysis. We found that costunolide induced G2/M and S cell cycle arrest, and regulated cycle-related protein expression. In addition, costunolide inhibited ERK signaling pathway and induced autophagy. Therefore, costunolide might be a good and useful chemotherapy agent for estrogen receptor positive breast cancer patients.

Anti-Growth Effect of Kaempferol, a Major Component of Polygonati Rhizoma, in Hepatocarcinoma Cells (간암 세포주에서 황정(黃精)의 주요 성분인 Kaempferol의 성장 억제 효과)

  • Joo, Ye-Jin;Jeong, Ji-Cheon
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.519-526
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    • 2012
  • Recently, herbal flavonoids have been implicated for anti-cancer therapy. Flavonoids as a commonly known for their anti-oxidant activity, are contained in the herbal medicine as well as root of plants, vegetables, fruits, grains, tea, and wine. Kaempferol, a component of Polygonati rhizoma, a member of the herbal flavonoids, has been studied for anti-hypercholesterol, anti-hypertension and anti-diabetes. It is also known to be effective in anti-cancer therapy for breast, prostate and other type of cancers. However, the anti-cancer therapeutic mechanisms are pooly understood. Here, we investigated the molecular mechanism underlying kaempferol-induced anti-cancer effects using the human liver cancer cell lines, Hep3B, HepG2, and Sk-Hep-1, and human Chang liver cell as a control. As shown by the FACS analysis, measurement of caspase activity, DAPI and trypan blue staining, and DNA fragmentation assay, kaempferol induced apoptosis in the liver cancer cells with the greater potential in Hep3B cells than other liver cancer cells. In addition, we performed microarray analysis to profile the genome-wide mRNA expression regulated by kaempferol. Many of the apoptosis-related genes were significantly induced in kaempferol-treated Hep3B cells, in particular, the genes associated with MAPK cascade. Additionally, kaempferol induced the mRNA expression of genes involved in MKK7-JNK cascade, MKK3-p38 cascade, and caspase signaling pathway, which are all known to trigger apoptosis. Overall, our data suggest that kaempferol has anti-liver cancer effects by inducing apoptosis through the MKK7-JNK cascade, MKK3-p38 cascade, and caspase signaling pathways.

Downregulation of Cyclin D1 by Sophorae Flos through Proteasomal Degradation in Human Colorectal Cancer Cells

  • Lee, Jin Wook;Park, Gwang Hun;Eo, Hyun Ji;Jeong, Jin Boo
    • Korean Journal of Plant Resources
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    • v.28 no.6
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    • pp.727-733
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    • 2015
  • Although Sophorae Flos (SF) has been reported to exert an anti-cancer activity, molecular targets and mechanisms associated with anti-cancer activity of SF have been unclear. Because cyclin D1 has been regarded as an important regulator in the cell proliferation, we focused cyclin D1 and investigated the effect of SF on the cyclin D1 regulation in light of elucidating the molecular mechanism for SF’s anti-cancer activity. The treatment of SF decreased cellular accumulation of cyclin D1 protein. However, SF did not change the level of cyclin D1 mRNA. Inhibition of proteasomal degradation by MG132 attenuated SF-mediated cyclin D1 downregulation and the half-life of cyclin D1 was decreased in the cells treated with SF. In addition, a point mutation of threonine-286 to alanine attenuated SF-mediated cyclin D1 downregulation. Inhibition of ERK1/2 by a selective inhibitor, PD98059 suppressed cyclin D1 downregulation by SF. From these results, we suggest that SF-mediated cyclin D1 downregulation may result from proteasomal degradation through its threonine-286 phosphorylation via ERK1/2. SF-induced proteasomal degradation of cyclin D1 might inhibit proliferation in human colorectal cancer cells. The current study provides information on molecular events for an anti-cancer activity of SF