• Title, Summary, Keyword: Anthelmintics

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Studies on the efficacy of anthelmintics to goats infected with internal parasites (내부기생충 감염 흑염소의 각종 구충제 효능에 관한 연구)

  • 박노찬;도재철;김수웅;송해범
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Service
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.439-449
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    • 1998
  • From September 1997 to August 1998, Korean indigeous goats infected with internal parasites were examined for efficacy of anthelminthics by fecal egg counts. Efficacy of anthelmintic drugs against gastointestinal Haemonchus contortus in goats were effective with Ivermectin(94.9%), Piperazine(92.8%), Levamisole(88.3%), Albendazole(68.2%), respectively. Albendazole was effective against goats with Haemonchus contortus in 3 herds, but not effective in 1 herds. Efficacy of anthelmintic drugs against gastointestinal Paramphistomim sp in goats were effective with Ivermectin(95.3%), Piperazine(93.3%), Albendazole(92.9%), Levamisole(91.1%), respectively. Efficacy of anthelmintic drugs against Eimeria sp in goats were effective with Toltrazuril(92.6%), Diclazuril(90.4% ), Nicarbazin (87.5%), Amprolium(70.0%), respectively. Amprolium was effective against goats with Eimeria sp in 3 herds, but not effective in 1 herds.

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STUDIES ON THE EFFICACY OF FOUR ANTHELMINTICS AGAINST STRONGYLE INFECTIONS OF SHEEP IN NORTH SUMATRA, INDONESIA

  • Dorny, P.;Romjali, E.;Feldman, K.;Barubara, A.;Pandey, V.S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.8 no.4
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    • pp.347-352
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    • 1995
  • Studies on anthelmintic efficacy in sheep were carried out on a large breeding farm and on 7 smallholder farms in the North-Sumatra province, Indonesia. The efficacy in reducing strongyle infections in sheep, of albendazole on all farms and of febantel, levamisole and ivermectin on the breeding farm, was estimated by means of faecal egg count reduction tests. High efficacy (> 95%) was found with all the anthelmintics tested and on all farms. The results are discussed in relation to the current parasite control programme.

Effect of Cassava Hay in High-quality Feed Block as Anthelmintics in Steers Grazing on Ruzi Grass

  • Wanapat, Metha;Khampa, S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.19 no.5
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    • pp.695-698
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    • 2006
  • Six, one-year old dairy steers were randomly divided into two groups according to a Completely randomized design (CRD) to receive high-quality feed block (HQFB) without cassava hay and drenching (HQFB1+Ivomex) and HQFB with cassava hay (HQFB2) as block licks while grazing on Ruzi grass pasture. During the eight weeks, fecal parasitic egg counts dramatically declined for both treatment groups with 63.2 and 27.6% reduction from initial period for HQFB1+Ivomex and HQFB2, respectively. However, digestion of coefficients of nutrients particularly OM, were significantly higher in HQFB2 than, those in HQFB1+Ivomex, in addition, ADG of animals in HQFB2 tended to be higher than the group on HQFB1. It was, hence concluded that cassava hay could not only provide as a protein source but also serve as an anthelmintic in ruminants.

Preparation of Alkyl and Aryl-thionocarbamate and their Anthelmintic action (Alkyl 급 Aryl thionocarbamate 류의 합성과 그 구충작용에 관한 연구)

  • 국채호
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.7 no.2_3
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    • pp.58-66
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    • 1963
  • Alkyl-phenylthionocarbamates already have been investigated as anthelmintics. Especially ethyl-phenylthionocarbamate is noted for its anthelmintic action. Author studied methods for synthesizing Alkyl-phenylthionocarbamates, Alkyl-p-phenetyl thionocarbamates, Alkyl-cyclohexylthionocarbamates, 5 kinds for each. For alkyl radical $-CH_{3}$, $-C_{2}H_{5}$, -n-propyl, -isobuthyl, -n-buthyl, being chosen. Compounds VIII, X, XIII, XIV, and XV are new compounds. At the sametime author prepared 4 kinds of Arylthionocarbamates, among which XVII, and XIX being new compounds. (Table I) The anthelmintic action of these thionocarbamates has been examined through kymographic records indicating the action of neuromuscular preparation of Eisenia foetida Savigny in the various concentration fo above compounds: -Trendelenburg method. Santonine as the criterion of the estimation. (Table. II) 1. Compounds I-X could be prepared by method A or method B. method A in sealed tube brought on better yield and purity. 2. Compounds XI-XV couldn't be prepared by method A but by method B. 3. Arylthionocarbamates XVI, XVII, XVIII, and XIX couldn't be prepared by method A or method B but by method C. 4. Analyzed N. contained in all compounds. Analyzed C.H. and N. contained in unknown compounds, VIII, X, XIII, XIV, XV, XVII, and XIX. 5. Examination of anthelmintic action has been done under the advice of Prof. J.S.Oh medical college, Seoul Nat. University. 6. Compounds VI-X showed little action. 7. Compounds XVI-XIX showed almost no action. 8. Compounds XI-XV showed stronger action than compounds I-V, which was reported already as a usable anthelmintics. 9. Compounds XI, XII, XIII and XIV showed strongest actions, stronger than santonine as recorded on kymographion of the Trendelenburg method. Provided that, the toxity of these compounds found mild enough for human system, these compounds will serve as anthelmintics of greater powers than compounds I-V. 10. In Alkylthionocarbamates, R'NH-radical more influence on the anthelmintic action than ester radical(-OR).

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Aquatic Toxicities of Major Antimicrobial and Anthelmintic Veterinary Pharmaceuticals and their Potential Ecological Risks

  • Oh, Su-Gene;Kim, Jung-Kon;Park, So-Young;Lee, Min-Jung;Choi, Kyung-Ho
    • Proceedings of the Korean Environmental Health Society Conference
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    • pp.173-177
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    • 2004
  • The acute toxicities of two major anti-pathogenic veterinary medicines, i.e., ciprofloxacin and enrofloxacin, and six benzimidazole anthelmintics, i.e., albendazole, thiabendazole, flubendazole, febantel, fenbendazole, and oxfendazole, were evaluated with a marine bacterium, Vibrio fischeri, and invertebrate Daphnia magna. These veterinary medical products have been widely used for farm animals, but their impact on aquatic fauna has seldom been investigated. In general, daphnids responded as much as 3 orders of magnitude more sensitively to the tested pharmaceuticals than the microbes. For Daphnia, the most toxic product among the tested anthelmintics was fenbendazole, followed by flubendazole > albendazole ${\approx}$ febantel > thiabendazole > oxfendazole. Daphnids' EC50 values obtained from 48 to 96 hrs of fenbendazole exposure ranged from 2.7 to 6.3 ug/L. The mixture toxicity of the test pharmaceuticals was generally additive in nature and was well predicted by a concentration addition model. Using the predicted no effect concentrations (PNECs) of the benzimidazole derivatives estimated from this study, and predicted environmental concentrations (PECs) of these pharmaceuticals, the risk quotients of each anthelmintics were calculated. Most of the test anthelmintic compounds resulted in risk quotients greater than 1. Especially, risk quotient for fenbendazole was 2,791, which strongly indicates this compound might cause severe ecological consequences, should no future action be taken. This study is the first report on the aquatic toxicities and potential ecological risk of major anthelmintic and antimicrobial veterinary products in Korea. The result of this study provides information necessary for conducting more detailed ecological risk assessment of pharmaceutical products in ambient water and guiding proper management decision.

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In vitro anthelmintic evaluation of common Indian Ayurvedic anthelmintic drugs: Krimimudgar Ras, Kriminol and Vidangasava against intestinal helminths

  • Chen, Risa Parkordor;Yadav, Arun K.
    • CELLMED
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    • v.8 no.3
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    • pp.15.1-15.5
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    • 2018
  • Helminthiasis is one of the most common worm diseases which causes a range of adverse health problems in humans. Ayurveda is one of the most prominent and ancient systems of traditional medicines in India. Most Ayurvedic drugs used against intestinal helminths have been developed by traditional wisdom and therefore lack a proper validation through controlled studies. The aim of the present study was to scientifically validate the in vitro efficacy of three common Indian Ayurvedic anthelmintic drugs, viz. Krimimudgar Ras, Kriminol and Vidangasava in relation to the synthetic broad-spectrum anthelmintic drugs, praziquantel and albendazole. The in vitro testing of Ayurvedic anthelmintics was done against an intestinal cestode, Raillietina sp. and a nematode, Syphacia obvelata, employing 10 mg/ml, 30 mg/ml and 50 mg/ml concentrations of each medicine. The anthelmintic efficacy was judged on the basis of paralysis and mortality time of worms after exposing to these Ayurvedic drugs. Of the three tested Ayurvedic medicines, Krimimudgar ras (KR) showed the most prominent efficacy, against both the cestode and nematode parasites. At 50 mg/ml concentration, KR caused mortality of cestodes in $7.53{\pm}0.15hr$, and of nematodes in $7.61{\pm}0.19hr$. Vidangasava was found to be comparatively less effective against the tested helminth parasites. The results of this study indicate that Ayurvedic formulations do possess significant anthelmintic effects, however, an evidence-based research is required to validate all currently used Ayurvedic anthelmintics, using proper controlled studies.

Egg Positive Rates and Risk Factors of Enterobius Vermicularis Infection among Kindergarteners in Ulsan, South Korea (울산 지역 유치원 어린이의 요충 충란 양성 실태와 관련 요인 분석)

  • Kim, Dong-Hee;Yu, Hak-Sun;Son, Hyun-Mi;Kang, In-Soon;An, Hye-Gyung
    • Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion
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    • v.27 no.3
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    • pp.49-57
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    • 2010
  • Objectives: This study was conducted to investigate the occurrence and possible risk factors of enterobiasis among children in kindergartens. Methods: A total of 3,921 children were examined from 36 kindergartens in Ulsan, Korea. The parents were asked to complete questionnaires and to detect Enterobius vermicularis infection using the anal swab technique. Results: The overall rate of being positive for E. vermicularis egg was 7.8% ranged from 0 to 29.0%. The infection rate was related to age, gender, thumb sucking, pre-medication of anthelmintics, employment status of mother and number of siblings. The risk factors significantly associated with E. vermicularis infection were gender(OR 1.628), thumb sucking(OR 1.643), pre-medication of anthelmintics(OR 0.614), employment status of mother(OR 0.574) and number of siblings(OR 0.388). Conclusion: We propose that E. vermicularis infection screening among children in kindergartens should be continued on a regular basis. In addition, more intensive control program should be developed and applied to children.

Matrix solid phase dispersion isolation and high performance liquid chromatographic determination of five benzimidazole anthelmintics in bovine muscle, liver and omasum (시료고체상분산처리와 액체크로마토그라피를 이용한 소의 근육, 간 및 천엽에서의 벤지미다졸계 구충제 잔류분석)

  • Kim, Chung-Hui;Kim, Gon-Sup;Park, Jung-Hee;Hah, Dae-Sik;Ryu, Jae-Doo;Son, Sung-Gi;Heo, Jung-Ho;Jung, Myung-Ho;Kim, Jong-Shu
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.42 no.2
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    • pp.171-181
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    • 2002
  • Simultaneous multiresidue analysis using liquid chromatography determination for five benzimidazole anthelmintics(thiabendazole, oxibendazole, albendazole, mebendazole and fenbendazole) in bovine muscle, liver and omasum has been described. Blank or benzimidazole-fortified samples(0.5g) were blended with bulk $C_{18}$($40{\mu}m$, 18% load, endcapped, 2g). A column made from the resultant $C_{18}$/animal tissue matrix was first washed with hexane($8m{\ell}$), following which the benzimidazoles were eluted with acetonitrile($8m{\ell}$). Analytes of extracted sample were determined by liquid chromatography with UV detector at 290nm. Correlation coefficients of standard curves for individual benzimidazole isolated from fortified samples, using internal standardization, were linear($0.991{\pm}0.007$ to $0.996{\pm}0.005$) with average relative percentage recoveries from $62.1{\pm}3.8(%)$ to $92.3{\pm}7.5(%)$ for the concentration range($0.2{\sim}6.4{\mu}g/g$), respectively. Recoveries rates of TBZ, MBZ in liver, OBZ, MBZ in muscle and TBZ, MBZ in omasium from fortified benzimidazole were 92.%, 87.3%, 74.5%, 82.7%, 75.2% and 83.5% at condition II, respectively. Condition II showed higher recoveries rates than condition I. These results indicated that the matrix solid phase dispersion(MSPD) methodology is acceptable for the determination of 5 benzimidazole anthelmintics and may also suitable for other matrixes of food animal origin.

Field Trials on the Efficacy of New Broad-Spectrum Anthelmintics - 2. Anthelmintic Efficacy of Ivermectin Against Gastrointestinal Nematodes, Trematodes and Cestode in Korean Native Goats (반추수의 내부기생충에 대한 신종 광범위구충제의 구충효과 : 2. Ivermectin의 구충효과)

  • Lee Soon-Sun;Cho Hee-Taek;Suh Myung-Deuk
    • Journal of the korean veterinary medical association
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    • v.23 no.11
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    • pp.723-728
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    • 1987
  • This study was conducted to evaluate the anthelmintic efficacy of Ivermectin(Ivomec) against naturally infected gastrointestinal nematoeds, trematodes and cestode in Korean Native goats. Ivermectin was injected at a dose rate 0.2mg/kg of body weight subcu

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