• Title, Summary, Keyword: Anodic polarization

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Cryogenic fracture behaviors and polarization characteristics according to sensitizing heat treatment on structural material of the nuclear fusion reactor (핵 융합로 구조재료의 예민화 열처리에 따른 극저온 파괴거동 및 분극특성)

  • Kwon, Il-Hyun;Chung, Se-Hi
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.311-320
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    • 1998
  • The cryogenic fracture behaviors of austenitic stainless steel HN2 developed for nuclear fusion reactor were evaluated quantitatively by using the small punch(SP) test. The electrochemical polarization test was applied to study thermal aging degradation of HN2 steel. The X-ray diffraction(XRD) analysis was conducted to detect carbides and nitrides precipitated on the grain boundary of the heat treated HN2 steel. The mechanical properties of the HN2 steel significantly decreased with increasing time and temperature of heat treatment or with decreasing testing temperature. The integrated charge(Q) obtained from electrochemical polarization test showed a good correlation with the SP energy(ESP) obtained by means of SP tests. From the results observed in the x-ray diffraction and anodic polarization curve, it was known that the material the grain boundary. Combining SP test and electrochemical polarization test, it could be useful tools to non-destructively evaluate the cryogenic fracture behaviors and the aging degradation for cryogenic structural material.

AN ELECTROCHEMICAL STUDY BY USING A POTENTIOSTAT ON THE CORROSION OF AMALGAMS IN SALIVA (Potentiostat를 이용한 타액에서의 아말감부식에 대한 전기화학적 연구)

  • Son, Yoon-Hee;Um, Chung-Moon
    • Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.534-548
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    • 1994
  • The purpose of this study is to observe the corrosion characteristics of seven dental amalgams (CAULK FINE CUT, CAULK SPHERICAL, OPTALLOY II, DISPERSALLOY, HI VERALOY, TYTIN, VALIANT) through the anodic polarization curve obtained by using a potentiostat. After each amalgam alloy and Hg being triturated, the triturated mass was inserted into the cylindrical metal mold, and condensed by hydrolic pressure(160 kg/$cm^2$). Each specimen was removed from the metal mold. 24 hours after condensation, specimens were polished with the emery paper and stored at room temperature for 1 week. The anodic polarization curves were employed to compare the corrosion behaviours of the amalgam in 0.9% saline solution, Fusayama's artificial saliva, and stimulated parotid saliva at $37^{\circ}C$ with 3-electrode potentiostat. After the immersion of specimen in electrolyte for 1 hour, the potential scan was begun. The potential scan range was. -1700m V ~ + 400m V(vs. S. C. E) in the working electrode and the scan rate was 50m V /sec. The results were as follows, 1. The corrosion potential, the potential of anodic current peak, and transpassive potential in the stimulated parotid saliva shifted to more anodic direction than those in saline solution, and the current density in the stimulated parotid saliva was lower than that in saline solution. Those in Fusayama's artificial saliva was similar to those in stimulated parotid saliva. 2. The anodic polarization profiles in Fusayama's artificial saliva and stimulated parotid saliva indicated a region of slow slope current density, which is extending from the corrosion potential to the potential of anodic current peak, but that in 0.9% saline solution indicated no region of slow slope. 3. The corrosion potentials for CAULK FINE CUT, CAULK SPHERICAL, and OPT ALLOY II had the similarity in 0.9% saline solution, Fusayama's artificial saliva and stimulated parotid saliva, but those for high coper amalgam and VALIANT had no similarity. 4. The current density for TYTIN amalgam in stimulated parotid saliva was the lowest among the others. 5. As for current density, there was no significant difference between palladium enriched VALINAT and other high copper amalgams.

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Electrochemical Corrosion Damage Characteristics of Alumium Alloy and Stainless Steel with Sea Water Concentration (알루미늄 합금 및 스테인리스강의 해수 농도 변화에 따른 전기화학적 부식 손상 특성)

  • Park, Il-Cho;Kim, Young-Bok;Kim, Seong-Jong
    • Journal of the Korean institute of surface engineering
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    • v.50 no.4
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    • pp.259-265
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    • 2017
  • 5000 series aluminium alloys and austenitic stainless steels have excellent corrosion resistance and sufficient strength, which are widely used as materials for marine equipment and their parts in the marine environment. The corrosion characteristics of materials are important factors for selecting the appropriate material due to fluid component changes in the estuarine and coastal areas where seawater and fresh water are mixed. Therefore, for 5083 Al alloy, STS304 and STS316L widely used in the marine environment, anodic polarization experiments were performed to compare the corrosion damage characteristics of each material by three kinds of solutions of 100 % tap water, 50 % tap water+50 % natural seawater and 100 % natural seawater. As a result of the anodic polarization experiments, aluminum alloy (5083) caused locally corrosion on the surface in the tap water, and corrosion damage occurred all over the surface when the seawater was included. Stainless steels (STS304 and STS316L) presented almost no corrosion damage in tap water, but they grew pitting corrosion damage with increasing seawater concentration. STS316L showed better corrosion resistance than STS304.

Evaluation on Damage Behavior of Al-4.5%Mg-0.6%Mn Al Alloy with Potentiostatic Experiment Time (Al-4.5%Mg-0.6%Mn 알루미늄 합금의 정전위 시간 변수에 따른 손상거동 평가)

  • Kim, Seong-Jong;Woo, Yong-Bin;Han, Min-Su;Jang, Seok-Ki
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Marine Environment & Safety
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    • v.18 no.6
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    • pp.569-576
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    • 2012
  • In general, aluminum alloys forms the passive film($Al_2O_3$, $Al_2O_3{\cdot}3H_2O$) in neutral solution. However, the passive film created on the surface will be destroyed by chloride ions contained in sea water so the corrosion will occur. In this study, in order to solve the problem of corrosion under a seawater environment, potentiostatic protection techniques were applied to Al-4.5%Mg-0.6%Mn aluminum alloy in seawater. At polarization experiments, active state were observed at anodic polarization and concentration polarization by reduction of dissolves oxygen and activation polarization were found at anodic polarization. As a results of potentiostatic experiment, calcareous deposit were created much more as applying time increase from the turning point of the concentration polarization and activation polarization and crevice corrosion was partially observed between calcareous deposit and surface of base metal. Overall potentiostatic anodic polarization experiment was difficult to apply potentiostatic corrosion protection technology by occurrence of active state, whereas potentiostatic cathodic polarization experiment examined optimum corrosion protection condition of -1.1 V~-0.75 V within the range of concentration polarization considered various applying time.

The Study on the Behavior of Polarization curve of Reinforcement with Oxidation Layer (산화피막이 있는 철근의 분극곡선의 거동에 대한 연구)

  • 한정섭
    • Journal of Ocean Engineering and Technology
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.60-66
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    • 2000
  • In order to study for corrosion behavior of reinforcing steel with oxidation layer. Experiments were done with various NaCl concentrations and with immersion time in simulated concrete pore solution(SPS) the characteristics of corrosion behavior were measured by polarization resistance method and cyclic potentiodynamic method. reinforcements were coated by epoxy except corrosion without oxidation layer and it also showed two anodic-nose. by the result of potention dynamic test the potential curve shift to low with time and anodic-nose was appeared with 3% NaCl solution after 15 days. By result of cyclic Potentiodynamic test the type of corrosion was different accoding to concentration.

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Electrochemical Evaluation on Corrosion Resistance of Anti-corrosive Paints

  • Moon, Kyung-Man;Lee, Myung-Hoon;Kim, Yun-Hae
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Marine Engineering
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    • v.33 no.3
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    • pp.387-394
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    • 2009
  • It has been observed that coated steel structures are rapidly deteriorated than designed lifetime due to acid rain caused by air pollution etc.. Therefore improvement of corrosion resistance of anti-corrosive paint is very important in terms of safety and economic point of view. In this study corrosion resistance for five kinds of anti-corrosive paints including acryl, fluorine and epoxy resin series were investigated with electrochemical methods such as corrosion potential, polarization curves, impedance and cyclic voltammogram measurements etc.. There were somewhat good relationships between values measured by electrochemical methods such as corrosion current density obtained by cathodic and anodic polarization curves, value of impedance estimated with AC impedance, and polarization resistance on the cyclic voltammogram, for example, corrosion current density was decreased with increasing of values of impedance and polarization resistance on the cyclic voltammogram. However their relationships between corrosion current density and corrosion potential were not well coincided each other. Consequently it is considered that although a corrosion potential of F101 of fuoric resin series shifted to negative direction than other anti-corrosive paints, its corrosion resistance, indicating on the cathodic and anodic polarization curves, AC impedance curves and cyclic voltammogram, was the most superior to other paints, whereas A100 containing arcylic resin showed a relatively poor corrosion resistance compared to other paints.

AN ELECTROCHEMICAL STUDY ON THE OXIDATION' AND REDUCTION OF DENTAL AMALGAM (치과용 아말감의 산화환원에 관한 전기화학적 연구)

  • Yi, In-Bog;Lee, Myong-Jong
    • Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.431-445
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    • 1993
  • The purpose of this study was to observe corrosion characteristics of six dental amalgams and was to analyse corrosion products electrochemically. After each amalgam alloy and Hg was triturated as the direction of the manufacturer by using mechanical amalgamator, the triturated mass was inserted into the cylinderical metal mold ($12{\times}10mm$) and was condensed with 160kg/$cm^2$ by using the hydrolic press. The specimen was removed from the mold and was stored at room temperature for 1 week, and was polished with amalgam polishing kit. The anodic and cathodic polarization curve was obtained by using cyclic voltammetric method with 3-electrode potentiostat in saline for each amalgam and Ag, Sn, Cu plate specimen at $37{\pm}0.5^{\circ}C$. The potential sweep range was -1.7V~0. 4V(vs SCE) in working electrode and scan rate was 50mV/s and the exposed surface area of each specimen to the electrolytic solution was $0.79cm^2$. The results were as follows. 1. In anodic-cathodic polarization curve of amalgam specimens, two anodic current rising areas and two cathodic current peaks were obtained at the low Cu amalgam(CF, CS) specimen and three anodic current rising areas and three cathodic current peaks were obtained at the high Cu amalgam (TY, DS, HV) specimen. 2. As this compared with the anodic and cathodic current peak potentials of Sn, Cu and Ag specimen, the first cathodic current peak I c was caused by the reduction of divalent tin salt, second cathodic current peak IIIc results from the reduction of quadravalent tin salt, and third cathodic current peak me results from the reduction of copper salt. 3. As reverse potential sweeping was done repeatedly, anodic current was decreased slightly in all amalgam specimens.

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AN ELECTROCHEMICAL STUDY ON THE CORROSION BEHAVIOUR OF AMALGAMS IN THE SALINE SOLUTIONS WITH FLUORIDE COMPOUNDS (불소화합물을 첨가한 생리식염수에서 아말감의 부식거동에 관한 전기화학적 연구)

  • Yun, Chong-Hun;Kwon, Hyuk-Choon;Um, Chung-Moon
    • Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.396-412
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    • 1997
  • The purpose of this study is to observe the corrosion characteristics of five dental amalgams(CAULK FINE CUT, OPTALLOY II, DISPERSALLOY, TYTIN, and VALIANT) in the solutions with fluoride compound through the anodic polarization curve obtained by using a potentiostat. After each amalgam alloy and Hg being triturated, the triturated mass was inserted into the cylindrical metal mold, and condensed by hydraulic pressure(160 kg/$cm^2$). Each specimen was removed from the metal mold. Specimens were polished with the silicone carbide grinding paper 24 hours after condensation and stored at room temperature for 1 week. The anodic polarization curves were employed to compare the corrosion behaviours of the amalgams in 0.9 % saline solution and in the saline solutions with 2.2 ppm, 0.05 %, 2 % NaF, and 8 % $SnF_2$ at $37^{\circ}C$ with 3-electrode potentiostat. After the immersion of specimen in electrolyte for 30 minutes, the potential scan was begun. The potential scan range was -1500m V to + 800m V(vs. S.C.E.) in the working electrode and the scan rate was 50 mV/sec. The results were as follows, 1. The corrosion potential, the potential of anodic current peak, and transpassive potential in the saline solutions with NaF shifted to lower direction than those in normal saline solution, and the current density in the saline solutions with NaF was higher than that in normal saline solution. The differences were increased as the concentrations of NaF became higher. 2. The corrosion potential and transpassive potential in the saline solution with $SnF_2$ shifted to higher direction than those in normal saline solution, and the current density in the saline solution with $SnF_2$ was higher than that in normal saline solution after the corrosion potential. The anodic polarization curves in the saline solution with $SnF_2$ had no outstanding anodic current peak. 3. The corrosion potentials for high-copper amalgams were much higher than those for CAULK FINE CUT and OPTALLOY II in normal saline solution, but, as the concentrations of fluoride compound became higher, the differences in corrosion potentials between them were decreased. The corrosion potentials had the similarity in the saline solution with 2% NaF or 8% $SnF_2$. 4. The current density for TYTIN was the lowest among the others in normal saline solution and in the saline solution with 2.2 ppm or 0.05 % NaF. 5. There was no significant difference in current density between Pd-enriched VALIANT and other high-copper amalgams.

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A Kinetic Study of the Aluminum Electrode in Molten 60 Mole Percent $AlCl_3$-40 Mole Percent NaCl at 453${\circ}K$ (용융 (60 몰% $AlCl_3$-40 몰% NaCl) 염 속에서의 알루미늄전극의 반응속도론적 연구)

  • G. F. Uhlig;T. N. Andersen;S. Johns;H. Eyring
    • Journal of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.18 no.6
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    • pp.400-407
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    • 1974
  • Steady-state anodic and cathodic polarization curves were developed for the Al electrode in 60 mole %$AlCl_3$-40 mole % NaCl at $180^{\circ}C$$453^{\circ}K$). Ohmic resistance contributed substantially to the anodic polarization at current densities greater than 50 mA/$CM^2$ even with capillary tip placed close to the electrode. This could not be rationalized from the resistivity of the melt, which would lead to a much smaller polarization. It was therefore concluded that a layer of high resistance $AlCl_3$ (or $AlCl_3$-rich melt) formed close to the anode surface. From the IR-corrected anodic Tafel and Allen-Hickling plots an apparent anodic charge-transfer coefficient of ${\alpha}_a$ = (2.3 RT/F)(d log i/d${\eta}$) = $1.5{\pm}0.25$ was obtained. At cathodic current densities greater than approximately 30 mA/$cm^2$, slow ion diffusion and dendrite growth both interfered with the measurement of kinetic parameters.

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Anodic Oxidation of Silicon in EPW Solution (EPW 용액에서의 실리콘 양극 산화막 형성에 관한 연구)

  • Bu, Jong-Uk;Kim, Seon-Mi;Kim, Seung-Hui;Kim, Seong-Tae;Gwon, Suk-In
    • Journal of the Korean Vacuum Society
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    • v.2 no.2
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    • pp.181-187
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    • 1993
  • We have studied the anodic oxidation of silicon in the anisotropic etchant of EPW(Ethylenediamine, Pyrocatechol and Water) solution using the cyclic polarization technique. The samples have been characterized by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy(XPS) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). The results of cyclic polarization experiments show that the anodic oxides formed on p- and n-type silicon wafers break down at the same potential while breakdown does not occur up to open circuit potential in the case of $p^+$-Si. Strong etch-resistance of $p^+$-XPS. SIMS depth profiles suggest that the critical concentration of boron for etch-stop to occur appears to be much higher than what is widely believed.

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