• Title, Summary, Keyword: Animal carcass

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Effects of Flaxseed Diets on Fattening Response of Hanwoo Cattle : 1. Performance and Carcass Characteristics

  • Kim, C.M.;Kim, J.H.;Chung, T.Y.;Park, K.K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.17 no.9
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    • pp.1241-1245
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    • 2004
  • Two separate trials were conducted to determine effects of dietary level of whole flaxseed (WFS; 0, 10 and 15%) on feed intake, weight gain, and carcass yield and quality of Korean Hanwoo cattle. The daily gains of bulls (Trial 1) were not different among treatment groups, but those of cows (Trial 2) fed WFS 15% were higher (p<0.01) than others. Feed intake of both bulls and cows tended to decrease as dietary level of WFS increased. However, feed conversion ratio (feed/gain) of bulls tended to be improved by dietary inclusion of WFS and was significantly improved (p<0.01) in cows by increasing level of WFS. Neither carcass weight nor dressing percentage were affected by WFS level. Back fat thickness of bulls was decreased (p<0.01) by dietary inclusion of WFS and the same trend was observed in cows without statistical significance. Loin-eye area of bulls was not different among treatment groups but was significantly higher (p<0.01) in cows fed WFS. Carcass yield and quality were not improved by WFS addition. The results indicate that WFS is an acceptable fat source in diets of finishing beef cattle to increase energy density without any adverse effects.

Using Linear Body Measurements of Live Sheep to Predict Carcass Characteristics for Two Iranian Fat-tailed Sheep Breeds

  • Kiyanzad, M.R.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.17 no.5
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    • pp.693-699
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    • 2004
  • Live animal selection programs that favor animals with a minimum amount of carcass fat are used for improving breeding flocks of sheep. To predict carcass characteristics of live sheep using body measurements in breeding flocks, 200 male and female lambs of two fat-tailed Iranian sheep breeds (Moghani and Makui) were used. Depth of soft tissue over the 12th rib of the live animals was measured with ultrasound (ULGR) and with hypodermic needle (NGR). The height at withers (HW), body length (BL), circumference of heart girth (CH) and width of hooks (WH), were measured. All animals were slaughtered; carcasses were cut into joints and dissected. Breed had a significant effect on all of the live easurements. The Moghani breed showed a higher value for HW, CH, ULGR and NGR, compared to that of Makui. Except for soft tissue depths; ULGR, NGR and GR, the male lambs showed higher values in live and carcass measurements than females. Percentages of carcass, total fat and intermuscular fat in females were higher than that of male lambs. In spite of the higher amount of subcutaneous and intermuscular fat in female (which is usually used for their physiological need, such as pregnancy and lactation), the male lambs had a heavier fat-tail than females. There was a wide range of variation of percentage of total carcass fat and total chemical fat content of carcass in the two breeds. Eventually this wide variation could be use by animal breeders for selection of animals with a lesser amount of carcass fat. Live weight of lambs showed a relatively low correlation with percentage of carcass lean, total fat and subcutaneous and intermuscular fat. Total lean meat was predicted with relatively high coefficients of determination in the two breeds ($R^2$=0.61 and 0.89, respectively). Live weight and carcass traits were predicted using simple measurements, but with $R^2$ ranging from 0.53 to 0.93.

Validation of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms Associated with Carcass Traits in a Commercial Hanwoo Population

  • Sudrajad, Pita;Sharma, Aditi;Dang, Chang Gwon;Kim, Jong Joo;Kim, Kwan Suk;Lee, Jun Heon;Kim, Sidong;Lee, Seung Hwan
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.29 no.11
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    • pp.1541-1546
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    • 2016
  • Four carcass traits, namely carcass weight (CW), eye muscle area (EMA), back fat thickness (BF), and marbling score (MS), are the main price decision parameters used for purchasing Hanwoo beef. The development of DNA markers for these carcass traits for use in a beef management system could result in substantial profit for beef producers in Korea. The objective of this study was to validate the association of highly significant single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified in a previous genome-wide association study (GWAS) with the four carcass traits in a commercial Hanwoo population. We genotyped 83 SNPs distributed across all 29 autosomes in 867 steers from a Korean Hanwoo feedlot. Six SNPs, namely ARS-BFGL-NGS-22774 (Chr4, Pos:4889229), ARS-BFGL-NGS-100046 (Chr6, Pos:61917424), ARS-BFGL-NGS-39006 (Chr27, Pos:38059196), ARS-BFGL-NGS-18790 (Chr10, Pos:26489109), ARS-BFGL-NGS-43879 (Chr9, Pos:39964297), and BTB-00775794 (Chr20, Pos:20476265), were found to be associated with CW, EMA, BF, and MS. The ARS-BFGL-NGS-22774, BTB-00775794, and ARS-BFGL-NGS-39006 markers accounted for 1.80%, 1.72%, and 1.35% (p<0.01), respectively, of the phenotypic variance in the commercial Hanwoo population. Many genes located in close proximity to the significant SNPs identified in this study were previously reported to have roles in carcass traits. The results of this study could be useful for marker-assisted selection programs.

Genetic Analysis of Direct and Maternal Effects for Calf Market and Carcass Weights in Japanese Black Cattle

  • Kitamura, C.;Yasuda, Y.;Kobayashi, T.;Nomura, T.;Shimada, K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.12 no.6
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    • pp.843-845
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    • 1999
  • To evaluate direct and maternal effects on calf market weight (CMW) and carcass weight (CW) in Japanese Black cattle under an animal model, genetic parameters were estimated using 51,320 records of CMW and 11,944 records of CW, respectively. Direct and maternal heritabilities, and direct-maternal genetic correlation were estimated to be 0.22, 0.06 and 0.27 for CMW, and 0.23, 0.12 and -0.40 for CW, respectively. Correlation coefficient between maternal breeding values for CMW and CW was 0.521 for 157 sires appeared in both CMW and CW data sets. These results suggest that the maternal genetic effect on pre-weaning growth carries over to carcass weight. Maternal breeding values for both calf market weight and carcass weight could be used as the indicator traits of maternal ability in Japanese Black cattle.

Effect of Potato By-products Based Silage on Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Fatty Acid Composition of Carcass Fats in Holstein Steers

  • Pen, B.;Oyabu, T.;Hidaka, S.;Hidari, H.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.490-496
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    • 2005
  • Ten 18.5-month old Holstein steers were allocated into two diet groups of five and fed either concentrates as control group or potato by-products based silage (PBS) as experimental group for six months to investigate the effect of PBS on growth performance, carcass characteristics and fatty acid composition of carcass fats. The PBS diet consisted, in a DM basis, of 74.5% PBS, 16% hay, and 9.5% soybean milk residue (SMR). The control diet consisted, in a DM basis, of 82.5% concentrates and 17.5% hay. There were no significant differences in the overall average daily gain (ADG), dry matter intake (DMI), feed efficiency, yield score and meat quality score of dressed carcass between the two diet groups. There were no statistical differences in DM, crude protein (CP), and ether extract (EE) of beef and melting point of all adipose tissues from steers fed both diets. The PBS-fed steers tended to have lower Warner Bratzler shear (WBS) values than in the concentrate-fed steers (13.0 vs. 17.7 lb, p<0.1). At both sampling times 3 and 6 months of feeding period, PBS-fed steers had higher proportions of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), especially linoleic (C18:2) acids in subcutaneous fat than in control group (p<0.05). PBS-fed steers had significantly higher proportions of PUFA, especially C18:2 fatty acids than in concentrate-fed steers in carcass fats (p<0.05). In conclusion, feeding PBS to fattening steers has shown to have the same potential as concentrate feeding in terms of effect on the growth performance, feed efficiency, and carcass characteristics. Interestingly, PBS also seems preferable to concentrates because it increased the proportion of C18:2 fatty acid composition of carcass fats which is valuable for beef consumers.

Effects of Beak Trimming, Stocking Density and Sex on Carcass Yield, Carcass Components, Plasma Glucose and Triglyceride Levels in Large White Turkeys

  • Sengul, Turgay;Inci, Hakan;Sengul, Ahmet Y.;Sogut, Bunyamin;Kiraz, Selahattin
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.35 no.6
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    • pp.715-720
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    • 2015
  • This study was conducted to determine the effects of beak trimming, stocking density (D) and sex (S) on live weight (LW), carcass yield and its component, and plasma glucose (PG) and triglyceride levels in Large White turkeys. To accomplish this aims, totally 288 d old large white turkey chicks (144 in each sex) were used. Beaks of 77 male and female poults were trimmed when 8 d old with an electrical beak trimmer. The birds were fed by commercial turkey rasion. Experiment was designed as 2 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with 3 replications in each group. Beak trimming and stocking density did not affect live weight, carcass composition and its components. The higher LW and carcass weight observed in trimmed groups. As expected, male birds are heavier than female, and carcass percentage (CP) would be adverse. However, in this study, CP of male was higher in trimmed, in 0.25 m2/bird. (D) × sex (S) interaction had an effect on both CP and thigh weights (p<0.05). Significantly D × S was observed in LW, CP and PG. The weight of carcass and its some components were higher in male. S × D interaction had an effect on plasma glucose level (p<0.05). Triglyceride level was affected (p<0.05) by sex. Significant relationships were found between percentage of thighs (r=0.447, p<0.01) and percentage of breast (r=0.400, p<0.01). According to this study, it can be said that trimming is useful with density of 0.25 m2/bird in turkey fattening.

Estimation of Genetic Correlations and Selection Responses for Carcass Traits between Ultrasound and Real Carcass Measurements in Hanwoo Cows

  • Son, Jihyun;Lee, Deukhwan
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.55 no.6
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    • pp.501-508
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    • 2013
  • This study was conducted to determine genetic correlations among carcass traits measured by ultrasound and real carcass measurements and to estimate indirect selection responses for real carcass traits based on ultrasound measurements in Hanwoo cows. To accomplish this, 22,080 ultrasound measurement records from 17,926 cows collected from 2001 to 2012 and 11,907 carcass records obtained from fattened cattle from 2008 to 2012 were used. Genetic parameters were estimated based on eye muscle area (EMA), backfat thickness (BF) and marbling score (MS) measured by ultrasound-scanning of live cows and using the official technique on chilled bovine half-carcasses after slaughtering. Heritability and genetic correlation for carcass traits were estimated using a mixed model equation that consisted of environmental effects as fixed parameters and additive genetic effects and residual effects as random parameters, assuming that traits were different between ultrasound and carcass measurements. This statistical method was applied to the average information restricted maximum likelihood method. The heritability of EMA, BF and MS measured by ultrasound were 0.33, 0.61 and 0.46, respectively, while the heritability estimates of the corresponding traits based on carcass measurements were 0.29, 0.40 and 0.38, respectively and the genetic correlation between ultrasound and carcass traits for EMA, BF and MS were 0.41, 0.78 and 0.67, respectively. The genetic correlation between ultrasound and carcass traits was highly positive. Additionally, the selection response for marbling score was estimated to be 0.42 per generation if the cows were selected based on the ultrasound scan marbling score with an assumed selection intensity of 0.8. Overall, these results indicate that the ultrasound scan technique would be applicable to judging cow selection for genetically improved meat quality.

Effect of Methionine Supplementation on Performance and Carcass Characteristics of Awassi Ram Lambs Fed Finishing Diets

  • Obeidat, Belal S.;Abdullah, Abdullah Y.;Awawdeh, Mofleh S.;Kridli, Rami T.;Titi, Hosam H.;Qudsieh, Rasha I.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.21 no.6
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    • pp.831-837
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    • 2008
  • The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of ruminally-protected methionine supplementation (0, 7, or 14 g/head/d) on nutrient intake, digestibility, growth performance, carcass, and meat characteristics of Awassi ram lambs fed finishing diets. Twenty four Awassi ram lambs ($16.8{\pm}1.17kg$ body weight) were randomly assigned to 3 treatment diets (8 lambs/treatment) and housed in individual pens. Lambs were given an adaptation period of 7 days before the intensive feeding period that lasted for 86 days. On day 74 of the trial, a digestibility experiment was performed. At the end of the trial (d 86), all lambs were slaughtered to evaluate carcass characteristics and meat quality. Increasing the level of methionine supplementation did not improve (p>0.05) performance nor feed conversion ratio. Nutrient intake and digestibilities were not influenced (p>0.05) by methionine supplementation. There were no differences in final weight, hot and cold carcass weights, dressing percentages or any of the measured non-carcass components. Tissues and fat depth measurements together with all meat quality attributes measured on longissimus muscle of the loin cut were not affected by methionine supplementation. The only meat quality parameters affected were redness (a*) and the hue angle being higher for the control group (p<0.05). These results suggest that methionine supplementation is not likely to produce any production benefits in nutrient digestibilities, performance or carcass characteristics of ram lambs fed a high performance diet.

Effects of Dietary Supplemental $Megazone^{(R)}$ on Growth Performance, Nutrients Digestibility, Blood Characteristics, Meat Quality and Carcass Traits in Weaning-to-Finishing Pigs

  • Kim, Y.H.;Wang, Y.;Cho, J.H.;Chen, Y.J.;Kim, H.J.;Yoo, J.S.;Min, B.J.;Lee, S.J.;Park, J.C.;Jung, H.J.;Kim, I.H.
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.447-453
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    • 2006
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effects of $Megazone^{(R)}$ (a mineral mix) supplementation on growth performance, nutrients digestibility, blood characteristics, meat quality and carcass traits in weaning-to-finishing pigs. A total of 48 crossbred $(Landrace{\times}Yorkshire{\times}Duroc)$ pigs with initial body weight (BW) of $4.46{\pm}0.18kg$ were used in a 21 wks trial. Pigs were blocked by weight and allotted to two dietary treatments in a completly randomized design. There were 6 pens per treatment. Dietary treatments included: 1) Control (CON: basal diet) and 2) MT (basal diet+0.8% $Megazone^{(R)}$). Through the entire experimental period, there were no effects of dietary $Megazone^{(R)}$ supplementation on growth performance nutrients digestibility, blood characteristics and meat quality traits (p>0.05). Market weight and backfat thickness also had no differences between the two treatments (p>0.05). However, carcass weight and carcass ratio in MT treatment were improved significantly compared with CON treatment (p<0.05). In conclusion, supplmentation of $Megazone^{(R)}$ can increase carcass weight and carcass ratio in weaning-to-finishing pigs, however, it has no effects on growth performance, nutrients digestibility, blood characteristics and meat quality traits.

Carcass Characteristics and Profitability Analysis Based on Slaughter Age of Hanwoo Steers

  • Lee, Sang-Cheol;Choi, Hyun-Ho;Shin, Jeong-Seop;Kim, Kyoung-Hoon;Oh, Young-Kyoon;Cheon, Dong-Won
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.55 no.4
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    • pp.315-323
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    • 2013
  • This study analyzed optimal slaughter ages and carcass traits to investigate factors that affect farm incomes. Carcass characteristics and economical analysis of 81 Hanwoo steers previously tested (Expt. 1) and 5,826 steers from Gangwon-Do, area A (Expt. 2) were used. In Expt. 1, the strongest relationship was between the slaughter age and the carcass weight based on the $R^2$ value, and the weakest relationship was between the slaughter age and the marbling score based on the $R^2$. The slaughter age, marbling score, and rib-eye area of steers slaughtered from 26 to 31 months of age had a positive effect on income, but back fat thickness had a negative effect. In the economical analysis of Expt. 1, the optimal time for slaughter was 31 months of age. In Expt. 2, composed of steers slaughtered from 26 to 35 months of age in farms site of area A, the income was highest from steers slaughtered at 28 months of age, after which the income decreased. From the results of Expt. 1 and 2, it is evident that the optimal slaughter age of Hanwoo steers is affected by the genetic differences of calves, the feeding program and management, fattening skills, or carcass price. In order to improve the income of individual farms, the slaughter age must be precisely decided by understanding the exact relationship between the feeding cost of Hanwoo steers and slaughter results, such as carcass weight, yield grade and quality grade.