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Effect of errors in pedigree on the accuracy of estimated breeding value for carcass traits in Korean Hanwoo cattle

  • Nwogwugwu, Chiemela Peter;Kim, Yeongkuk;Chung, Yun Ji;Jang, Sung Bong;Roh, Seung Hee;Kim, Sidong;Lee, Jun Heon;Choi, Tae Jeong;Lee, Seung-Hwan
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.33 no.7
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    • pp.1057-1067
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    • 2020
  • Objective: This study evaluated the effect of pedigree errors (PEs) on the accuracy of estimated breeding value (EBV) and genetic gain for carcass traits in Korean Hanwoo cattle. Methods: The raw data set was based on the pedigree records of Korean Hanwoo cattle. The animals' information was obtained using Hanwoo registration records from Korean animal improvement association database. The record comprised of 46,704 animals, where the number of the sires used was 1,298 and the dams were 38,366 animals. The traits considered were carcass weight (CWT), eye muscle area (EMA), back fat thickness (BFT), and marbling score (MS). Errors were introduced in the pedigree dataset through randomly assigning sires to all progenies. The error rates substituted were 5%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%, and 80%, respectively. A simulation was performed to produce a population of 1,650 animals from the pedigree data. A restricted maximum likelihood based animal model was applied to estimate the EBV, accuracy of the EBV, expected genetic gain, variance components, and heritability (h2) estimates for carcass traits. Correlation of the simulated data under PEs was also estimated using Pearson's method. Results: The results showed that the carcass traits per slaughter year were not consistent. The average CWT, EMA, BFT, and MS were 342.60 kg, 78.76 ㎠, 8.63 mm, and 3.31, respectively. When errors were introduced in the pedigree, the accuracy of EBV, genetic gain and h2 of carcass traits was reduced in this study. In addition, the correlation of the simulation was slightly affected under PEs. Conclusion: This study reveals the effect of PEs on the accuracy of EBV and genetic parameters for carcass traits, which provides valuable information for further study in Korean Hanwoo cattle.

A STANDARD METHOD FOR JOINTING CAMEL CARCASSES WITH REFERENCE TO THE EFFECT OF SLAUGHTER AGE ON CARCASS CHARACTERISTICS IN NAJDI CAMELS. I. WHOLESALE CUT WEIGHT

  • Abouheif, M.A.;Basmaeil, S.M.;Bakkar, M.N.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.97-102
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    • 1990
  • A procedure to standardize camel carcass fabrication is proposed. This includes a definitive method of jointing the carcass into wholesale neck, shoulder, brisket, rib, plate, loin, flank, rump and leg cuts. Carcass cutout data were collected from the right sides of 21 Najdi male camels averaging 8, 16 and 26 months of age in order to determine the influence of age on the weight of each wholesale cut. The weight of body, empty body, hot carcass, cold carcass, hump fat, kidney, pelvic and heart fat (KPH) and each wholesale cut increased (p < .01) with age. Except for percent shrinkage and wholesale rump weight, all studied traits increased (p < .01) linearly as the age increased. This change was most pronounced in wholesale flank and plate cuts, increasing by 4.2 and 3.4 times, respectively, while the rump and shoulder cuts changed the least, increasing by 1.8 and 1.9 times, respectively. Allometric growth coefficients indicated that as the camel grew, the weight of rib, brisket, plate and flank cuts increased relatively more rapidly than did cold carcass or empty body weight and that the weight of wholesale shoulder, neck, leg and rump increased less rapidly than did cold carcass or empty body weight.

Genetic Parameter Estimates of Carcass Traits under National Scale Breeding Scheme for Beef Cattle

  • Do, ChangHee;Park, ByungHo;Kim, SiDong;Choi, TaeJung;Yang, BohSuk;Park, SuBong;Song, HyungJun
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.29 no.8
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    • pp.1083-1094
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    • 2016
  • Carcass and price traits of 72,969 Hanwoo cows, bulls and steers aged 16 to 80 months at slaughter collected from 2002 to 2013 at 75 beef packing plants in Korea were analyzed to determine heritability, correlation and breeding value using the Multi-Trait restricted maximum likelihood (REML) animal model procedure. The traits included carcass measurements, scores and grades at 24 h postmortem and bid prices at auction. Relatively high heritability was found for maturity ($0.41{\pm}0.031$), while moderate heritability estimates were obtained for backfat thickness ($0.20{\pm}0.018$), longissimus muscle (LM) area ($0.23{\pm}0.020$), carcass weight ($0.28{\pm}0.019$), yield index ($0.20{\pm}0.018$), yield grade ($0.16{\pm}0.017$), marbling ($0.28{\pm}0.021$), texture ($0.14{\pm}0.016$), quality grade ($0.26{\pm}0.016$) and price/kg ($0.24{\pm}0.025$). Relatively low heritability estimates were observed for meat color ($0.06{\pm}0.013$) and fat color ($0.06{\pm}0.012$). Heritability estimates for most traits were lower than those in the literature. Genetic correlations of carcass measurements with characteristic scores or quality grade of carcass ranged from -0.27 to +0.21. Genetic correlations of yield grade with backfat thickness, LM area and carcass weight were 0.91, -0.43, and -0.09, respectively. Genetic correlations of quality grade with scores of marbling, meat color, fat color and texture were -0.99, 0.48, 0.47, and 0.98, respectively. Genetic correlations of price/kg with LM area, carcass weight, marbling, meat color, texture and maturity were 0.57, 0.64, 0.76, -0.41, -0.79, and -0.42, respectively. Genetic correlations of carcass price with LM area, carcass weight, marbling and texture were 0.61, 0.57, 0.64, and -0.73, respectively, with standard errors ranging from ${\pm}0.047$ to ${\pm}0.058$. The mean carcass weight breeding values increased by more than 8 kg, whereas the mean marbling scores decreased by approximately 0.2 from 2000 through 2009. Overall, the results suggest that genetic improvement of productivity and carcass quality could be obtained under the national scale breeding scheme of Korea for Hanwoo and that continuous efforts to improve the breeding scheme should be made to increase genetic progress.

The Breed and Sex Effect on the Carcass Size Performance and Meat Quality of Yak in Different Muscles

  • Zhang, Li;Sun, Baozhong;Yu, Qunli;Ji, Qiumei;Xie, Peng;Li, Haipeng;Wang, Li;Zhou, Yuchun;Li, Yongpeng;Huang, Caixia;Liu, Xuan
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.36 no.2
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    • pp.223-229
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    • 2016
  • The carcass size performances and the meat quality of Gannan and Sibu yak were determined using M. supraspinatus (SU), M. longissimus thoracis (LT) and M.quadriceps femoris (QF). It is found that Sibu yak had significantly higher carcass weight (CW) than Gannan yak with difference of nearly 40 kg, as well as significantly higher eye muscle area (EMA), carcass thorax depth (CTD), round perimeter (RP), etc. The carcass performances of steer yak were significantly higher than heifer yak except meat thickness at round (MTR) (p<0.05). The results show that both yak breed and gender had significant effects on carcass performances. It could be seen that the variation of carcass size performances from breeds is as large as from gender (50.22% and 46.25% of total variation, respectively) through principal component analysis (PCA). Sibu yak had significantly higher L*, b*, WBSF, cooking loss and Fat content, while Gannan yak had significantly higher a*, press loss, protein content and moisture (p<0.05). Yak gender and muscle had insignificant effects on meat colour and water holding capacity (p>0.05). The variation of meat quality of yak from breed is up to 59.46% of total variation according to PCA. It is shown that the difference between breeds, for Gannan yak and Sibu yak, plays an important role in carcass size performance and meat quality.

Genetic Polymorphisms of the Bovine NOV Gene Are Significantly Associated with Carcass Traits in Korean Cattle

  • Kim, B.S.;Kim, S.C.;Park, C.M.;Lee, S.H.;Cho, S.H.;Kim, N.K.;Jang, G.W.;Yoon, D.H.;Yang, B.S.;Hong, S.K.;Seong, H.H.;Choi, B.H.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.26 no.6
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    • pp.780-787
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    • 2013
  • The objective of this study was to investigate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the bovine nephroblastoma overexpressed (NOV) gene and to evaluate whether these polymorphisms affect carcass traits in the Korean cattle population. We resequenced to detect SNPs from 24 unrelated individuals and identified 19 SNPs within the full 8.4-kb gene, including the 1.5-kb promoter region. Of these 19 SNPs, four were selected for genotyping based on linkage disequilibrium (LD). We genotyped 429 steers to assess the associations of these four SNPs with carcass traits. Statistical analysis revealed that g.7801T>C and g.8379A>C polymorphisms in the NOV gene were associated with carcass weight (p = 0.012 and 0.008, respectively), and the g.2005A>G polymorphism was associated with the back fat thickness (BF) trait (p = 0.0001). One haplotype of the four SNPs (GGTA) was significantly associated with BF (p = 0.0005). Our findings suggest that polymorphisms in the NOV gene may be among the important genetic factors affecting carcass yield in beef cattle.

Relationship of Slaughter Age and Carcass Traits of Hanwoo Cattle

  • Panjono, Panjono;Kang, Sun-Moon;Lee, Ik-Sun;Kim, Yeong-Jong;Lee, Sung-Ki
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.29 no.5
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    • pp.550-556
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    • 2009
  • Two experiments were carried out to investigate the relationship of slaughter age and carcass traits of Hanwoo cattle. A total number of 11,284 heads of cattle (4,624 bulls, 6,120 steers, and 540 females) were used in the experiment (Exp.) 1. In the Exp. 2, 3,887 heads of steers slaughtered at age of 24-36 mon were used. After 24 h post-slaughter chilling, the carcasses were weighed and evaluated by an official grader of carcass traits according to the Korean carcass grading standard. Backfat thickness was the main variable in yield index and grade whereas marbling score was the main variable in carcass quality grade. Meat color was an important factor affecting carcass quality grade of bulls; fat color was an important factor affecting those of steers and females; and maturity was an important factor affecting that of females. After 24-mon-old, extension of slaughter age did not automatically increase the quantity and quality of meat. However, 29 mon of age can be regarded as the optimum time to slaughter steers to attain the highest take home money for farmers.

Use of natural ingredients in Japanese quail diet and their effect on carcass and meat quality - A review

  • Vargas-Sanchez, Rey David;Ibarra-Arias, Felix Joel;Torres-Martinez, Brisa del Mar;Sanchez-Escalante, Armida;Torrescano-Urrutia, Gaston Ramon
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.32 no.11
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    • pp.1641-1656
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    • 2019
  • The present paper reviews the findings of different research studies on the effect of natural ingredients in the Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) diet on carcass characteristics and meat quality. The results show a relationship between the type and concentration of ingredients used in diets and carcass characteristics and meat quality. The inclusion of medicinal herbs (thyme, black seed, and mint), plants (canola), seeds (chickpea), spices (cinnamon and coriander), worms (earthworms), bee products (propolis), phytochemicals (lycopene), and edible fungi (common mushrooms) in the diet improved carcass quality characteristics compared to the control diets (basal diets). The inclusion of medicinal herbs (spearmint and green tea), spices (cinnamon), vegetables (tomato), plants (verbena and canola), seeds (marijuana), and edible fungi (oyster mushrooms) improved meat quality. In conclusion, the use of ingredients of natural origin in the diet of Japanese quail improves carcass quality characteristics and meat quality.

EFFECT OF DIETARY PROTEIN AND ENERGY LEVELS ON GROWTH AND CARCASS YIELD PERFORMANCES OF SPENT STARCROSS HENS

  • Salah Uddin, M.;Tareque, A.M.M.;Rahman, M.A.;Howlider, M.A.R.;Jasimuddin Khan, M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.237-248
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    • 1992
  • The effect of 16 different dietary rations, computed by the combinations of 13, 16, 19 or 22% CP and 2600, 2800, 3000 or 3100 kcal ME/kg, on growth performances and carcass yield of Starcross layers were assessed in two similar experiments. In both experiments, the body weight, eviscerated carcass yield, edible carcass yield, length of digestive tract and shank length increased but the feed intake decreased linearly with the increase of dietary CP and ME levels. The liver and gizzard weights as percentages of live weight tended to be increased with the increase of dietary CP and ME levels. The carcass dry matter, crude protein, fat, ash and energy content were not influenced by the dietary CP and ME levels. Dietary CP levels had positive correlations with all the parameters (except feed and energy intake and carcass dry matter). However, the dietary ME levels were positively correlated with all the parameters (except feed and energy intake; carcass dry matter and ash) in both experiments. The higher values were noted for all the parameters (except gizzard and carcass fat percentages) studied in Experiment 1 compared to those observed in Experiment 2.

Effects of Carcass Weight and Back-fat Thickness on Carcass Properties of Korean Native Pigs

  • Kim, Gye-Woong;Kim, Hack-Youn
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.37 no.3
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    • pp.385-391
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    • 2017
  • Our study analyzed the carcass properties of 170 Korean native pigs in relation to carcass weight and back-fat thickness to provide general data for the production and distribution of high quality pig meat. The 70-74 kg group showed highest yield (73.41%). The ${\geq}80kg$ group showed the highest thickest back-fat (24.13 mm) (p<0.05). The ${\geq}80kg$ group showed the best quality grade (1.00). Back-fat thickness showed significant differences in the weight among groups (p<0.05). The ${\geq}25mm$ group showed the highest carcass weight (75.93 kg). The thickest back-fat group (${\geq}25mm$) showed the highest yield (73.03%). There were significant differences in back-fat thickness among groups (p<0.05), and the ${\geq}25mm$ group showed the highest thickness back-fat (27.60 mm). We found a strong positive correlation between carcass weight and back-fat thickness (r=0.346) as well as meat quality grade (r=0.739). Backfat thickness had a relatively strong positive correlation with meat quality grade (r=0.444). Therefore, there are required to manage the breeding through selection of excellent native species for increasing their carcass weight and enhance meat quality.

Genetic correlation between live body measurements and beef cutability traits in Hanwoo steers

  • Choy, Yun Ho;Lee, Jae Goo;Mahboob, Alam;Choi, Tae Jeong;Rho, Seung Hee
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.30 no.8
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    • pp.1074-1080
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    • 2017
  • Objective: The growth, carcass and retail cut yield records on 1,428 Hanwoo steers obtained through progeny testing were analyzed in this study, and their heritability and genetic relationships among the traits were estimated using animal models. Methods: Two different models were compared in this study. Each model was fitted for different fixed class effects, date of slaughter for carcass traits and batch of progeny test live measurement traits, and a choice of covariates (carcass weight in Model 1 or backfat thickness in Model 2) for carcass traits. Results: The differences in body composition among individuals were deemed being unaffected by their age at slaughter, except for carcass weight and backfat thickness. Heritability estimates of body size measurements were 0.21 to 0.36. Heritability estimates of retail cut percentage were high (0.56 from Model 1 and 0.47 from Model 2). And the heritability estimates for loin muscle percentage were 0.36 from Model 1 and 0.42 from Model 2, which were high enough to consider direct selection on carcass cutability traits as effective. The genetic correlations between body size measurements and retail cut ratio (RCR) were close to zero. But, some negative genetic correlations were found with chest girths measured at yearling (Model 1) or at 24 months of age or with chest widths. Loin muscle ratio (LMR) was genetically negatively correlated with body weights or body size measurements, in general in Model 1. These relationships were low close to zero but positive in Model 2. Phenotypic correlation between cutability traits (RCR, LMR) and live body size measurements were moderate and negative in Model 1 while those in Model 2 were all close to zero. Conclusion: Therefore, the body weights or linear body measurements at an earlier age may not be the most desirable selection traits for exploitation of correlated responses to improve loin muscle or lean meat yield.