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Effects of Dietary Xanthophylls and See Weed By-Products on Growth Performance, Color and Antioxidant Properties in Broiler Chicks (Xanthophylls과 해조 부산물 첨가 급여가 육계의 사양성적, 육색 및 항산화 특성에 미치는 영향)

  • 김창혁;이성기;이규호
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.128-134
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    • 2004
  • This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary pigment sources on the performance, color and antioxidant properties in broiler chick. Experimental diet was formulated to have isocalories and isonitrogen during the experiment period. Total xanthophylls content in the experimental diet was formulated to have 30ppm. Experimental trials were done for five weeks with six treatment groups; T1 (Control), T2 (Olo Glo, natural yellow pigment), T3 (Kern Glo, natural red pigment), T4 (canthaxanthin, synthetic red pigment), T5 (asthaxanthine, natural red pigment), and T6 (seaweed by-products). Body weight gain and feed intake were significantly lower (p<0.05) in T6 group than in other treatments. Mortality was lower in T2, T3 and T4 than in control, but higher (p<0.05) in T5 and T6. The sources of pigments did not have any effects on the dressed carcass and abdominal fat pad (p>0.05). The gizzard weight was significantly lower in T6 (p<0.05) than in others. Pigmentation of leg skin was significantly lower (p<0.05) in control and T6. Effects of dietary pigments was greater with red pigments than with yellow pigments, and those were also greater with natural pigments than with synthetic ones. The peroxide value (POV), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and pH values of chicken meat were increased (p<0.05) in all treatments at 12 day storage, and was higher (p<0.05) in pigments supplementation group. No differences of CIE L$\^$*/(lightness) and b$\^$*/(yellowness) were not found by storage days and xanthophylls sources. The a$\^$*/(redness) after 12 day storage was significantly (p<0.05) decreased in all treatments, but those of T4 and T5 were higher than those of others. These results showed that feeding of xanthophylls sources to chick could improve color intensity and inhibit lipid oxidation of leg meat.

Effect of Supplementation of Complex Probiotics on Performances, Physio-chemical Properties of Meat and Intestinal Microflora in Broiler (복합생균제의 급여가 육계의 생산성, 육의 이화학적 특성 및 장내 미생물에 미치는 영향)

  • Yu, D.J.;Na, J.C.;Kim, T.H.;Kim, S.H.;Lee, S.J.
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.46 no.4
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    • pp.593-602
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    • 2004
  • A feeding trial was carried out to investigate the effect of supplemental complex probiotics on performances, physio-chemica1 properties of meat and inetestinal microflora in broiler chicks. Four hundred eighty broiler chickens, one days old with mixed sexes were fed one of four diets containing 0, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.4% complex probiotics for 7 weeks. There were four replicates with thirty chicks per pen. Diet contained ME 3,100, 3,l00kcal/kg, and CP 22.0, 20.0% for starting and finishing period, respectively. Body Weight gain of chicks fed the complex probiotics tended to increase from the frist week and all complex probiotics higher than control from the 4th week. Chickens fed the diets containing 0.2% probiotics had higher(P<0.05) than those fed the other levels from the 4th week to 5th week. Feed conversion also improved significantly(P<0.05) in the supplemental 0.2% probiotics from the 4th week to 5th week. In physio-chemica1 properties of meat, carcass rate increased significantly(P<0.05) in the supplemental 0.4% probiotics compared to that of control at 7 weeks overall means and abdominal fat pad rate increased significantly(P< 0.05) in the supplemental 0.2% probiotics compared to that of control. Cooking loss decreased significantly(P<0.05) in the supplemental all probiotics. But shear force increased significantly(P<0.05) in the supplemental 0.4% probiotics. The number of ileum and cecum Lactobacillus spp. tended to increase in the supplemental complex probiotics at 7 week of age, but was not significantly different. As the result, supplemental complex probiotics increased performance and physio-chemica1 properties of meat and the number of intestinal Lactobacillus of broiler chicks.

Effects of Dietary Supplementation of Yacon(Polymnia sonchifolia) By-products and Pine Needle Powder on Growth Performance and Meat Quality of Chicken Thigh Meat (야콘 부산물과 솔잎 분말을 사료에 첨가 급여한 육계의 생산성 및 닭 다리육의 품질에 미치는 영향)

  • Park, Chang-Ill;Kim, Young-Jik
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.40 no.3
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    • pp.187-195
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    • 2013
  • This study was investigated the effects of dietary supplementation of Yacon by-products and pine needle powder on growth performance, carcass characteristics, pH, TBARS (thiobarbituric acid reactive substance), WHC (water holding capacity), shear force, and meat color of chicken thigh meat. Broiler chicks were fed diets for five weeks containing 0% Yacon by-products and pine needle powder (Control), 0.5% Yacon by-products powder (T1), 1.0% Yacon by-products powder (T2), 0.5% pine needle powder (T3), and 1.0% pine needle powder (T4). There was no significant difference in growth performance among treatments, but mortality was decreased in diets by the supplementation of Yacon by-products and pine needle powder than that of control. The chicken fed control diet had higher cholesterol. LDL-cholesterol. triglyceride compared to those chicken fed Yacon by-products and pine needle powder regardless of concentrations, and HDL-cholesterol of control was lower than treatment. The pH and TBARS were significantly decreased by the supplementation of Yacon by-products and pine needle powder compared to the control (P<0.05), especially, pine needle powder group was significantly more effective in improving freshness compared to other test groups (P<0.05). The WHC and shear force were not significantly different. CIE $L^*$ and $a^*$ value of test groups showed significantly higher value compare to the control, however, no difference in the CIE $b^*$ values was observed among test groups. In conclusion, a supplementation of Yacon by-products and pine needle powder were effective in decreasing pH, TBARS, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol and increasing HDL-cholesterol concentration. Pine needle powder supplementation was most effective (T3 and T4).

Effects of Dietary Supplementation of Bacteriophage CP on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, Blood Profiles, Carcass Characteristics and Fecal Microflora in Broilers (육계 사료 내 박테리오파지 CP의 첨가가 생산성, 영양소 소화율, 혈액특성, 도체특성 및 분내 미생물 조성에 미치는 영향)

  • Baek, Hee Yeob;Kim, Jae Won;Kim, Jung Un;Kim, In Ho
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.40 no.4
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    • pp.283-290
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    • 2013
  • This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary bacteriophage CP supplementation on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood profiles, visceral organ weight, meat quality and fecal microflora in broilers. A total of 340 1-d-old ROSS 308 broilers (mixed gender) with an initial average body weight (BW) of $41.14{\pm}0.17g$ were randomly allotted to 4 treatments with 5 replicate pens per treatment and 17 broilers per pen for 31 days. Dietary treatments were: 1) CON, control diet, 2) CP05, CON + 0.05% bacteriophage CP, 3) CP10, CON + 0.10% bacteriophage CP and 4) CP15, CON + 0.15% bacteriophage CP. During d 15 to d 31, broilers fed CP15 diet had higher (P<0.05) body weight gain and feed intake than broilers fed CON diet. Overall, body weight gain in CP10 and CP15 treatment groups was greater (P<0.05) than that in CON treatment and feed intake was higher (P<0.05) in CP15 treatment than that in CON. Apparent total tract nutrient digestibility and blood characteristics did not differ (P>0.05) among treatments. The water holding capacity of breast meat increased (P<0.05) in broiler fed the diets containing bacteriophage CP compared with those fed the CON diet. Other meat characteristics such as pH value, breast muscle color ($L^*$, $a^*$, $b^*$) and drip loss were unaffected by dietary supplementation of bacteriophage CP. The weight of bursa of Fabricius increased (P<0.05) in CP05 when compared with CON. No significant difference was observed (P>0.05) among treatments in visceral weight and fecal microflora concentrations of Lactobacillus spp., Clostridium perfringens, Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with 0.10 and 0.15% bacteriophage CP could improve the growth performance.

Effects of Dietary Supplementation of Bacteriophage on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, Blood Profiles, Carcass Characteristics and Fecal Microflora in Broilers (육계 사료 내 Bacteriophage의 첨가가 생산성, 영양소 소화율, 혈액 특성, 도체 특성 및 분내 미생물 조성에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Seung Cheol;Kim, Jae Won;Kim, Jung Un;Kim, In Ho
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.40 no.1
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    • pp.75-81
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    • 2013
  • This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of bacteriophage SE supplementation on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood profiles, visceral organ weight, meat quality and excreta microflora in broilers. A total of 340 1-d-old ROSS 308 broilers (mixed gender) with an initial average body weight (BW) of $41.71{\pm}0.16$ g were randomly allotted to 4 treatments with 5 replicate pens per treatment and 17 broilers per pen for 31 days. Dietary treatments were: 1) CON, control diet, 2) SE05, CON+0.05% bacteriophage, SE 3) SE10, CON+0.10% bacteriophage SE, and 4) SE15, CON+0.15% bacteriophage SE. During d 15 to 31, broilers fed SE15 diet had a higher (P<0.05) body weight gain than broilers fed CON diet. Overall, body weight gain in SE10 and SE15 was greater (P<0.05) than that in CON. Apparent total tract nutrient digestibility and blood characteristics did not differ (P>0.05) among treatments. The water holding capacity was increased (P<0.05) in SE15 compared with CON. Other meat quality in terms of pH value, breast muscle color ($L^*$, $a^*$, $b^*$) and drip loss were unaffected by dietary supplementation with bacteriophage SE. The visceral weight of bursa of Fabricius was increased (P<0.05) in broilers fed the bacteriophage SE incorporated diets compared with those fed the CON diet. No difference (P>0.05) was observed in visceral weight of liver, spleen, breast muscle, abdominal fat, gizzard and excreta concentrations of Lactobacillus, Clostridium perfringens, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with 0.10 and 0.15% bacteriophage SE could improve the growth performance, breast muscle water holding capacity and bursa of Fabricius visceral weight in broilers.

Effects of Sesame Meal on Growth Performances and Fatty acid Composition, Free Amino Acid Contents, and Panel Tests of Loin of Hanwoo Steers (참깻묵이 거세 한우의 비육성적과 등심의 지방산 조성, 유리 아미노산 함량 및 관능평가에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Sung Il;Cho, Bong Rae;Choi, Chang Bon
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.55 no.5
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    • pp.451-460
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    • 2013
  • The feed value of sesame meal, a main agricultural by-product from the northern area of Gyeongsangbuk-do province, was assessed in Hanwoo steers. A total of twelve Hanwoo steers (average BW = 412.08 kg) were allocated into a Control (fed no sesame meal) or Treatment (fed sesame meal from 14.6 months of age) group, considering BW and ages, and the animals were fed for a total of 480 days. The final BW, total gain and ADG for the Control and Treatment groups were 741.17 kg and 762.67 kg, 331.84 kg and 347.84 kg, and 0.69 kg and 0.72 kg, respectively, showing better performances in sesame meal-fed animals. Feed requirements during the whole experimental period improved by feeding sesame meal (15.31 and 14.87 for Control and Treatment group, respectively). Hanwoo steers fed sesame meal also showed a 22.83 kg heavier cold carcass weight (424.17 kg and 447.00 kg in the Control and Treatment group, respectively), and 2.41% improved dressing percentages (58.60% and 57.22% for the Control and Treatment group, respectively). The area of the M. longissimus dorsi was $91.83cm^2$ and $88.33cm^2$ in the Control and Treatment group, respectively. The final yield of A and B grade meat were 50 : 50% and 33.3 : 66.7% from the Control and Treatment group, respectively. The average marbling score was 4.83 and 5.50, and the numeric values for quality grade was 2.17 and 2.67 for the Control and Treatment group, respectively, showing better beef quality in sesame meal-fed Hanwoo steers. In fact, there were two animals with beef quality $1^{{+}{+}}$ in the sesame meal-fed group. The melting point of lipid extracted from the M. longissimus dorsi of Hanwoo steers was significantly (p<0.05) lower in the Treatment group ($28.28^{\circ}C$) compared to the Control group ($30.65^{\circ}C$). The composition of saturated fatty acids, $C_{14:0}$ (myristic acid) and $C_{16:0}$ (palmitic acid), were significantly lower in sesame meal-fed animals, 4.70% and 2.20% for myristic acid, and 30.55% and 27.12% for palmitic acid, in the Control and Treatment group, respectively. In contrast, there were no significant differences in C18:0 (stearic acid) composition between the groups. The composition of a representative unsaturated fatty acid, $C_{18:1}$ (oleic acid), was significantly higher in Treatment animals (49.89%) than Control animals (44.29%) (p<0.05). The ratio of total monounsaturated fatty acids / saturated fatty acids; M/S) was 1.10 and 1.36 for the Control and Treatment groups, respectively, showing remarkably higher ratios in sesame meal-fed group. The content of glutamic acid, related to beef flavor, was significantly higher in the Treatment group (3.35 mg/100 g) compared to the Control group (1.88 mg/100g) (p<0.05). The tenderness score, evaluated by an eight-point scale in the panel test, and overall palatability (based on juiciness, flavor, oiliness, and umami) were significantly higher in the Treatment group (5.67 and 5.23, respectively) than the Control group (3.83 and 4.60, respectively) (p<0.05). In conclusion, the current results imply that sesame meal could serve as a good supplement for Hanwoo steers for producing high quality beef.

Use of Chicken Meat and Processing Technologies (가금육의 이용과 가공기술)

  • Ahn, Dong-Uk
    • Proceedings of the Korea Society of Poultry Science Conference
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    • pp.67-88
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    • 2003
  • The consumption of poultry meat (chicken and turkey) grew the most during the past few decades due to several contributing factors such as low price. product research and development. favorable meat characteristics, responsive to consumer needs, vertical integration and industry consolidation, new processing equipments and technology, and aggressive marketing. The major processing technologies developed and used in chicken processing include forming/restructuring, tumbling, curing, smoking, massaging, injection, marination, emulsifying, breading, battering, shredding, dicing, and individual quick freezing. These processing technologies were applied to various parts of chicken including whole carcass. Product developments using breast, thigh, and mechanically separated chicken meat greatly increased the utilization of poultry meat. Chicken breast became the symbol of healthy food, which made chicken meat as the most frequent menu items in restaurants. However, the use of and product development for dark meat, which includes thigh, drum, and chicken wings were rather limited due to comparatively high fat content in dark meat. Majority of chicken are currently sold as further processed ready-to-cook or ready-to-eat forms. Major quality issues in chicken meat include pink color problems in uncured cooked breast, lipid oxidation and off-flavor, tenderness PSE breast, and food safety. Research and development to ensure the safety and quality of raw and cooked chicken meat using new processing technologies will be the major issues in the future as they are now. Especially, the application of irradiation in raw and cooked chicken meat products will be increased dramatically within next 5 years. The market share of ready-to-eat cooked meat products will be increased. More portion controlled finished products, dark meat products, and organic and ethnic products with various packaging approaches will also be introduced.

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Effect of Root Powder Addition of Bupleurum falcatum on Broiler Productivity, Serum Contents and Development of Organs (자호(紫胡)뿌리 분말 첨가전료(添加錢料)가 육계(肉鷄)에 생산성(生産性)과 장기발육(臟器發育) 및 체액조성(體液造成)에 미치는 효과(效果))

  • Cho, Seong-Koo
    • Korean Journal of Medicinal Crop Science
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    • v.3 no.3
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    • pp.187-194
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    • 1995
  • The male broiler chichens (Hibreed Ross P. S 120 birds) were experimented for 6 weeks in cage. while experimental diets were feded to addition 0, 0, 0. 2, 0. 5 and 1.0% levels with Root Powder of Bupleurum Falcatum Linne (RPBFL). The results were as following; The tast of RPBFL added diets was favorite as the feed intake of RPBFL diets were increased than control diet. Body weight gain (1. 845g) in 1. 0% RPBFL diet was higher enhenced by 226g/per bird than control (1. 619g). was effected above 14%. Feed re­quierment was the lowest by 2. 02 in control, and was significantly enhenced to 1. 81 in 1. 0% RPBFL diet (P<0. 01). The amounts of carcass ratio were significantly defferent effected from the broilers feding diet added with 1. 0% RPBFL (P<0. 01). Greater amounts of chest meat was produced by 253g from the broilers fed diet added 1. 0% RPBFL, was enhenced 42g than the control broilers. The chest meat vs live body weight ratio was increaced in 1. 0% added diet. According to the tendency be increased' of the RPBFL levels, the drumst­ick weight was enhenced with 1. 0% RPBFL diet. The ratio of the drumstick vs live body weight was im­proved in 1. 0% RPBFL diet. The weights of liver. spleen, heart and gizzard were heavied according to live body weight, then was improved in 1. 0% RPBFL diet. Fat accumulation (abdominal and gizzard sur­rounding) was greater abserved by 50. 12g from the broiler fed ration with 1. 0% RPBFL. Content of total serum protein was high concetration in control, then was decrased by RPBFL level. Total serum cholesterol and triglyceride contents were increased in proportion to fat accumulation ratio.

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