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Effect of Carcass Traits on Carcass Prices of Holstein Steers in Korea

  • Alam, M.;Cho, K.H.;Lee, S.S.;Choy, Y.H.;Kim, H.S.;Cho, C.I.;Choi, T.J.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.26 no.10
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    • pp.1388-1398
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    • 2013
  • The present study investigated the contribution of carcass traits on carcass prices of Holstein steers in Korea. Phenotypic data consisted of 76,814 slaughtered Holsteins (1 to 6 yrs) from all over Korea. The means for live body weight at slaughter (BWT), chilled carcass weight (CWT), dressing percentage (DP), quantity grade index (QGI), eye muscle area (EMA), backfat thickness (BF) and marbling score (MS), carcass unit price (CUP), and carcass sell prices (CSP) were 729.0 kg, 414.2 kg, 56.79%, 64.42, $75.26cm^2$, 5.77 mm, 1.98, 8,952.80 Korean won/kg and 3,722.80 Thousand Korean won/head. Least squares means were significantly different by various age groups, season of slaughter, marbling scores and yield grades. Pearson's correlation coefficients of CUP with carcass traits ranged from 0.12 to 0.62. Besides, the relationships of carcass traits with CSP were relatively stronger than those with CUP. The multiple regression models for CUP and CSP with carcass traits accounted 39 to 63% of the total variation, respectively. Marbling score had maximum economic effects (partial coefficients) on both prices. In addition, the highest standardized partial coefficients (relative economic weights) for CUP and CSP were calculated to be on MS and CWT by 0.608 and 0.520, respectively. Path analyses showed that MS (0.376) and CWT (0.336) had maximum total effects on CUP and CSP, respectively; whereas BF contributed negatively. Further sub-group (age and season of slaughter) analyses also confirmed the overall outcomes. However, the relative economic weights and total path contributions also varied among the animal sub-groups. This study suggested the significant influences of carcass traits on carcass prices; especially MS and CWT were found to govern the carcass prices of Holstein steers in Korea.

Effects of vertebral number variations on carcass traits and genotyping of Vertnin candidate gene in Kazakh sheep

  • Zhang, Zhifeng;Sun, Yawei;Du, Wei;He, Sangang;Liu, Mingjun;Tian, Changyan
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.30 no.9
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    • pp.1234-1238
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    • 2017
  • Objective: The vertebral number is associated with body length and carcass traits, which represents an economically important trait in farm animals. The variation of vertebral number has been observed in a few mammalian species. However, the variation of vertebral number and quantitative trait loci in sheep breeds have not been well addressed. Methods: In our investigation, the information including gender, age, carcass weight, carcass length and the number of thoracic and lumbar vertebrae from 624 China Kazakh sheep was collected. The effect of vertebral number variation on carcass weight and carcass length was estimated by general linear model. Further, the polymorphic sites of Vertnin (VRTN) gene were identified by sequencing, and the association of the genotype and vertebral number variation was analyzed by the one-way analysis of variance model. Results: The variation of thoracolumbar vertebrae number in Kazakh sheep (18 to 20) was smaller than that in Texel sheep (17 to 21). The individuals with 19 thoracolumbar vertebrae (T13L6) were dominant in Kazakh sheep (79.2%). The association study showed that the numbers of thoracolumbar vertebrae were positively correlated with the carcass length and carcass weight, statistically significant with carcass length. To investigate the association of thoracolumbar vertebrae number with VRTN gene, we genotyped the VRTN gene. A total of 9 polymorphic sites were detected and only a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (rs426367238) was suggested to associate with thoracic vertebral number statistically. Conclusion: The variation of thoracolumbar vertebrae number positively associated with the carcass length and carcass weight, especially with the carcass length. VRTN gene polymorphism of the SNP (rs426367238) with significant effect on thoracic vertebral number could be as a candidate marker to further evaluate its role in influence of thoracolumbar vertebral number.

Estimation of Relative Economic Weights of Hanwoo Carcass Traits Based on Carcass Market Price

  • Choy, Yun-Ho;Park, Byoung-Ho;Choi, Tae-Jung;Choi, Jae-Gwan;Cho, Kwang-Hyun;Lee, Seung-Soo;Choi, You-Lim;Koh, Kyung-Chul;Kim, Hyo-Sun
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.25 no.12
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    • pp.1667-1673
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    • 2012
  • The objective of this study was to estimate economic weights of Hanwoo carcass traits that can be used to build economic selection indexes for selection of seedstocks. Data from carcass measures for determining beef yield and quality grades were collected and provided by the Korean Institute for Animal Products Quality Evaluation (KAPE). Out of 1,556,971 records, 476,430 records collected from 13 abattoirs from 2008 to 2010 after deletion of outlying observations were used to estimate relative economic weights of bid price per kg carcass weight on cold carcass weight (CW), eye muscle area (EMA), backfat thickness (BF) and marbling score (MS) and the phenotypic relationships among component traits. Price of carcass tended to increase linearly as yield grades or quality grades, in marginal or in combination, increased. Partial regression coefficients for MS, EMA, BF, and for CW in original scales were +948.5 won/score, +27.3 $won/cm^2$, -95.2 won/mm and +7.3 won/kg when all three sex categories were taken into account. Among four grade determining traits, relative economic weight of MS was the greatest. Variations in partial regression coefficients by sex categories were great but the trends in relative weights for each carcass measures were similar. Relative economic weights of four traits in integer values when standardized measures were fit into covariance model were +4:+1:-1:+1 for MS:EMA:BF:CW. Further research is required to account for the cost of production per unit carcass weight or per unit production under different economic situations.

Genetic Relationship between Carcass Traits and Carcass Price of Korean Cattle

  • Kim, Jong-Bok;Kim, Dae-Jung;Lee, Jeong-Koo;Lee, Chae-Young
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.23 no.7
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    • pp.848-854
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    • 2010
  • The objectives of this study were to estimate genetic parameters for the carcass price and carcass traits contributing to carcass grading and to investigate the influence of each carcass trait on the carcass price using multiple regression and path analyses. Data for carcass traits and carcass prices were collected from March 2003 to January 2009 on steers of Korean cattle raised at private farms. The analytical mixed animal model, including slaughter house-year-month combination, linear and quadratic slaughter age as fixed effects and random animal and residual effects, was used to estimate genetic parameters. The effects of carcass traits on the carcass price were evaluated by applying multiple regression analyses. Heritability estimates of carcass traits were $0.20{\pm}0.08$ for carcass weight (CWT), $0.33{\pm}0.10$ for back fat thickness (BFT), $0.07{\pm}0.05$ for eye-muscle area (EMA) and $0.25{\pm}0.10$ for marbling score (MS), and those of carcass prices were $0.21{\pm}0.10$ for auction price per 1 kg of carcass weight (AP) and $0.13{\pm}0.07$ for total price (CP). Genetic correlation coefficients of AP with CWT and MS were $-0.35{\pm}0.29$ and $0.99{\pm}0.04$, respectively, and those of CP with CWT and MS were $0.59{\pm}0.22$ and $0.39{\pm}0.29$ respectively. If an appropriate adjustment for temporal economic value is available, the moderate heritability estimates of AP and CP might suggest their potential use as the breeding objectives for improving the gross incomes of beef cattle farms. The large genetic correlation estimates of carcass price variables with CWT and MS implied that simultaneous selection for both CWT and MS would be also useful in enhancing income.

Puberty Related Changes in Hormonal Levels, Productive Performance, Carcass Traits, and Their Interactions in Slovakian White Gilts

  • Kolesarova, A.;Sirotkin, A.V.;Roychoudhury, S.;Capcarova, M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.182-187
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    • 2010
  • The aim of this experiment was to evaluate the levels of hormones (progesterone, IGF-I and IGFBP-3) in blood plasma, growth, carcass traits and their interactions of sexually immature (n = 18) and sexually mature (n = 17) gilts. To calculate average daily weight gain (ADG), gilts were individually weighed at the beginning of the trial and at slaughter (110${\pm}$10 days old). Blood concentrations of progesterone, IGF-I and IGFBP-3 were determined by RIA. The right hot carcass sides were dissected and the individual basic parts from carcasses were weighed to record the carcass traits. IGFBP-3, ADG and carcass traits were not affected by pubertal maturation. Compared to sexually immature gilts, mature gilts had higher blood concentrations of progesterone and IGF-I. High correlations were noted between levels of some hormonal substances, productive performance and carcass traits of sexually immature and mature gilts.

Relationships of Concentrations of Endocrine Factors at Antemortem and Postmortem Periods to Carcass Weight and Backfat Thickness in Pigs

  • Yun, J.S.;Seo, D.S.;Rhee, M.S.;Oh, S.;Kim, B.C.;Ko, Y.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.335-341
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    • 2003
  • Carcass weight and backfat thickness are two of important elements in determining the carcass trait in pigs and are studied on animal genetics, nutrition, and endocrinology. Growth factors stimulate or inhibit the proliferation and differentiation of various cells. In particular, insulin-like growth factors (IGFs), transforming growth factor (TGF)-$\beta$, and epidermal growth factor (EGF) are involved in the growth and maintenance of muscle. Also, dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S) and cortisol are known to be related to the obesity and subcutaneous fat depth in pigs. Therefore, this study was performed to relate growth factors (IGFs, TGF-${\beta}1$, and EGF) and hormones (cortisol and DHEA-S) concentrations at antemortem and postmortem periods to carcass traits including carcass weight and backfat thickness. Blood and m. Longissimus were collected in pigs at antemortem (30 days before slaughter) and postmortem periods. After slaughtered, carcass weight and backfat thickness were measured. Growth factors and hormones in serum and m. Longissimus were measured by radioimmunoassay or enzyme-linked imuunosorbent assay. Before antemortem period, serum IGF-I and -II concentrations were positively correlated with the carcass weight and backfat thickness in gilts, and the concentrations of TGF- ${\beta}1$ and cortisol in barrows show the correlation with only carcass weight. Also, the positive correlations of muscular IGFs and TGF-${\beta}1$ at postmortem 45 min with the carcass weight and backfat thickness were detected. Consequently, these results suggest that the serum and muscular endocrine factors are involved in the carcass weight and backfat thickness in pigs.

Effects of Substituting Soybean Meal for Sunflower Cake in the Diet on the Growth and Carcass Traits of Crossbred Boer Goat Kids

  • Palmieri, Adriana Dantas;Oliveira, Ronaldo Lopes;Ribeiro, Claudio Vaz Di Mambro;Ribeiro, Marinaldo Divino;Ribeiro, Rebeca Dantas Xavier;Leao, Andre Gustavo;Agy, Mariza Sufiana Faharodine Aly;Ribeiro, Ossival Lolato
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.59-65
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    • 2012
  • The present study was conducted to determine the best level of substitution of soybean meal by sunflower cake in diets for kids through the evaluation of quantitative carcass traits. Thirty-two Boer kids X 1/2 NDB (no defined breed), males, non-castrated, with 4 months of age and initial body weight of $15{\pm}3.2$ kg, were randomly assigned to individual pens. The treatments contained four substitution levels of soybean meal by sunflower cake (0, 33, 66 and 100% DM). At the end of the experimental period, the animals were slaughtered. There was no influence of the treatments on any of the mean values of the evaluated measures (p>0.05): 21.78 kg (body weight at slaughter), 8.65 kg (hot carcass weight), 8.59 kg (cold carcass weight), 40.27% (hot carcass yield), 39.20% (cold carcass yield), 7.73 $cm^2$ (rib eye area), 46.74 cm (carcass outer length), 45.68 cm (carcass internal length), 36.92 cm (leg length), 26.04 cm (leg perimeter), 48.66 cm (hind perimeter), 58.62 cm (thoracic perimeter), 0.20 (carcass compactness index), 68.48% (total muscle of the leg), 2.79% (total leg fat), 55.19% (subcutaneous leg fat), 28.82% (total bone), 81.66 g (femur weight), 14.88 cm (femur length), 0.38 (leg muscularity index), 2.53 (muscle:bone ratio) and 33.42 (muscle:fat ratio). The substitution of soybean meal by sunflower cake may be recommended up to a level of 100% without alterations to quantitative carcass traits.

EFFECT OF AGRICULTURAL BY-PRODUCT DIETS ON CARCASS CHARACTERISTICS OF FOUR TYPES OF CATTLE IN THE FEEDLOT

  • Dahlan, I.;Rahman-Haron, A.;Sukri, M.H.I.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.5 no.3
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    • pp.455-459
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    • 1992
  • Five type of formulated diet from agricultural by-products (ABP) were fed to four breedtype of cattle in feedlot. The ABP used are palm kernel cake (PKC), palm press fibre (PPF), palm oil mill effluent (POME), cocoa pod (COP), coffee pulp (COF) and pineapple waste (PAP). The formulated diets are PS (52% PKC, 15% PPF and 30% POME), PF (57% PKC, 20% PPF and 20% POME), PA (2% PKC and 55% PAP), CO (42% PKC and 55% COP) and CF (67% PKC and 30% COF) with 1% urea, 1% NaCl and 1% vitamins premix. The cattle breedtypes are Kedah-Kelantan (KK), Brahman-KK (BK), Hereford-KK (HK) and Sahiwal-Friesian (SF). The result showed that breedtype significantly affect all the carcass characteristic except dressing percentage. Each breedtype has it's specific carcass characteristics. HK cattle gave high marbling, BK has high % of carcass bone, KK has high % of carcass meat and low % of carcass fat (lean meat type) and SF has high % of carcass fat. Diet-type significantly affect the deposition of fat in the carcass. High moisture diets (PA and CO) produced significantly higher % carcass bone, the lowest % carcass fat and the highest % carcass meat (65.3%). PF, CF, PA and CO diets produced 63.4%, 59.9%, 55.3% and 54.1% carcass meat respectively.

Carcass characteristics of lambs fed diets with increasing levels of crude glycerin

  • Costa, Caio Alves da;Carvalho, Francisco Fernando Ramos de;Guim, Adriana;Andrade, Gilcifran Prestes de;Cardoso, Daniel Barros;Maciel, Michel do Vale;Silva, Gabriela Goncalves da;Nascimento, Andreza Guedes de Oliveira
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.32 no.12
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    • pp.1882-1888
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    • 2019
  • Objective: An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of increasing levels of crude glycerin (0%, 6%, 12%, and 18%) used as a substitute for corn in lamb feed on the quantitative characteristics of the carcass. Methods: A total of 40 crossbred Santa $In{\hat{e}}s$ lambs that were four months old with a mean initial weight of $21.0{\pm}0.8kg$ were randomly distributed in four treatments with ten replicates. The animals were slaughtered after 66 days of confinement. The effects of crude glycerin as a replacement for corn in the diet of the lambs on the carcass characteristics, commercial cut weight and yield and carcass measurements were studied. Results: There was an increasing linear effect for body weight at slaughter with the replacement of corn by crude glycerin. The dry matter and metabolizable energy intakes, weight of the empty body, hot carcass weight and cold carcass weight showed a quadratic effect, with maximum crude glycerin levels estimated at 10.9%, 9.8%, 10.83%, 11.78%, and 11.35%, respectively. The initial pH was not influenced by the replacement of corn for crude glycerin, while the final pH presented a quadratic effect. The other parameters of the carcass and the weights and yields of commercial cuts were not influenced. There was also no effect of the diets on carcass morphometric measurements, except for the thoracic perimeter and the carcass compactness index, which presented quadratic and linear effects, respectively. Conclusion: Crude glycerin can replace up to 18% of corn because it favours muscle tissue deposition without promoting changes in the main carcass characteristics of lambs.

The Effect of Carcass Traits on Economic Values in Hanwoo (한우의 도체 형질이 경제성에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Jung-Jae;Choi, Seung-Deok;Dang, Chang-Gwon;Kang, Suk-Nam;Kim, Nae-Soo
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.31 no.4
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    • pp.603-608
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    • 2011
  • The objective of this study was to investigate factors related to carcass traits of Hanwoo. In the statistical model developed in this study, slaughterhouse, carcass year, carcass month and sex effects were used as fixed effects and carcass traits (carcass weight, marbling score, loineye muscle area, backfat thickness and meat yield index) as covariations. The grading service data for 285,515 Hanwoo, which were evaluated by Animal Products Grading Service from 2005 to 2007, were used in this study. The partial R-square values of the fixed effects and the marbling score (MS), loineye muscle area, back-fat thickness, meat yield index and carcass weight (CW) on auction prices (AP) of the carcass and carcass price (CP) of the animals were estimated. The most important estimated trait in AP was MS. However, CW is the most important estimated trait on the CP and the MS also has secondly significant effect on the CP. In conclusion, MS as well as CW should maximize the farmer profits and establish a breeding scheme for Hanwoo.