• Title, Summary, Keyword: Animal Performances

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The Effects of Different Housing with Automatic Feeder on Sow Performances and Growth Performances of Piglets during Gestation (자동급이기를 활용한 군사 사양이 모돈의 번식능력과 자돈의 성장능력에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Jun-Yeob;Jeon, Jung-Hwan;Kim, Hycuk-Joo;Song, Jun-Ik
    • Journal of Animal Environmental Science
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.141-148
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    • 2013
  • This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of different housing systems on the performances of sows and their piglets during gestation. A total of 90 sows (Landrace ${\times}$ Yorkshire) were employed into 3 experimental farms to give 3 treatments, stall housing, group housing in either slatted floor or litter floor. Individual sow was used as an experimental unit. Group housed sows were fed with electronic sow feeder during gestation. Performance measures were taken on sows and piglets. Back-fat thickness and body condition score of sows were not affected by housing systems for pregnant sows. There was no difference of estrus interval of pregnant sows between housing systems. The lower number of still-birth was observed in group housing type. The number of wounded sows in slatted floor was remarkably increased compared with sows in litter floor. This study showed that the housing systems could fairly impact sow and piglet performances.

Current Level of Reproductive Performances in Japanese Black Cows

  • Uchida, Hiroshi;Kobayasi, Jin;Inoue, Tatsushi;Suzuki, Keiichi;Oikawa, Takuro
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.15 no.8
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    • pp.1098-1102
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    • 2002
  • A set of 313,169 reproduction records of Japanese Black cows calving between 1987 and 1996 were collected in nation widely Japan to investigate the current level of reproductive performances and the factors influencing the performances such as calving interval, first calving age, services per conception, calving difficulty, non-gestation period and gestation length. All the records of reproductive performances are outcome of artificial insemination. The means of first calving age, calving interval, non-gestation period and gestation length were 25.0 months, 389.9, 101.9 and 287.5 days, respectively. Services per conception were 1.41 and degree of calving difficulty was 1.07, which suggests most of the calving, did not need assistance. There were chronological tendencies that first calving age became younger while calving interval became longer. Differences in reproductive performance were found for seasons and calving numbers. Calving interval became shorter towards the fourth calving but became longer afterwards. The cows calving in May had the shortest calving interval followed by those in April and June and first calving age had a similar tendency. The cows with the standard body condition score showed more favourable reproductive performances compare with those with rather fatty or thin body condition scores.

IMPROVEMENT AND UTILIZATION OF GENETIC RESOURCES IN NATIVE CHICKEN : RECIPROCAL CROSS BETWEEN TAIWAN COUNTRY CHICKEN AND SINGLE COMB WHITE LEGHORN

  • Lee, Yen-Pai;Huang, Hwei-Huang
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.2 no.2
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    • pp.103-114
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    • 1989
  • Reciprocal crosses were conducted between three strains of Taiwan Country chickens, developed in the National Chung-Hsing University, and two strains of Single Comb White Leghorns, developed in the Taiwan Livestock Research Institute. Traits studied were growing performances, laying performances, egg quality traits and traits concerning disease resistance, including resistance to Marek's disease virus and immune responses to Newcastle disease virus vaccine and to sheep red blood cell. Results indicated that laying performances of Taiwan country chickens were much inferior to White Leghorns, but they matured earlier, their eggs had better shell strength and larger proportion of yolk, and their general disease resistance was much better than White Leghorns. Heterosis were found in laying performances and egg quality traits. The heterosis in laying traits was so large that the hybrid laid as many eggs and as large eggs as did pure strains of White Leghorns. Strategies on the improvement of native chickens and the utilization of genetic merits of native chickens were also discussed.

The Breed and Sex Effect on the Carcass Size Performance and Meat Quality of Yak in Different Muscles

  • Zhang, Li;Sun, Baozhong;Yu, Qunli;Ji, Qiumei;Xie, Peng;Li, Haipeng;Wang, Li;Zhou, Yuchun;Li, Yongpeng;Huang, Caixia;Liu, Xuan
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.36 no.2
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    • pp.223-229
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    • 2016
  • The carcass size performances and the meat quality of Gannan and Sibu yak were determined using M. supraspinatus (SU), M. longissimus thoracis (LT) and M.quadriceps femoris (QF). It is found that Sibu yak had significantly higher carcass weight (CW) than Gannan yak with difference of nearly 40 kg, as well as significantly higher eye muscle area (EMA), carcass thorax depth (CTD), round perimeter (RP), etc. The carcass performances of steer yak were significantly higher than heifer yak except meat thickness at round (MTR) (p<0.05). The results show that both yak breed and gender had significant effects on carcass performances. It could be seen that the variation of carcass size performances from breeds is as large as from gender (50.22% and 46.25% of total variation, respectively) through principal component analysis (PCA). Sibu yak had significantly higher L*, b*, WBSF, cooking loss and Fat content, while Gannan yak had significantly higher a*, press loss, protein content and moisture (p<0.05). Yak gender and muscle had insignificant effects on meat colour and water holding capacity (p>0.05). The variation of meat quality of yak from breed is up to 59.46% of total variation according to PCA. It is shown that the difference between breeds, for Gannan yak and Sibu yak, plays an important role in carcass size performance and meat quality.

The effects of dietary supplementation with 3-nitrooxypropanol on enteric methane emissions, rumen fermentation, and production performance in ruminants: a meta-analysis

  • Kim, Hanbeen;Lee, Hyo Gun;Baek, Youl-Chang;Lee, Seyoung;Seo, Jakyeom
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.62 no.1
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    • pp.31-42
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    • 2020
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of 3-nitrooxypropanol (NOP) on gas production, rumen fermentation, and animal performances depending on animal type using a meta-analysis approach. A database consisted of data from 14 studies, 18 experiments and 55 treatments. The supplementation of NOP linearly decreased methane (CH4) emissions [g/kg dry matter intake (DMI)] regardless of animal type and length of experimental period (beef, p < 0.0001, R2 = 0.797; dairy, p = 0.0003, R2 = 0.916; and long term, p < 0.0001, R2 = 0.910). The total volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentration and the proportion of acetate, based on beef cattle database, were significantly decreased with increasing NOP supplementation (p = 0.0015, R2 = 0.804 and p = 0.0003, R2 = 0.918), whereas other individual VFAs was increased. Based on the dairy database, increasing levels of NOP supplementation linearly decreased proportion of acetate (p = 0.0284, R2 = 0.769) and increased that of valerate (p = 0.0340, R2 = 0.522), regardless of significant change on other individual VFAs. In animal performances, the DMI, from beef cattle database, tended to decrease when the levels of NOP supplementation increased (p = 0.0574, R2 = 0.170), whereas there was no significant change on DMI from dairy cattle database. The NOP supplementation tended to decrease milk yield (p = 0.0606, R2 = 0.381) and increase milk fat and milk protein (p = 0.0861, R2 = 0.321, p = 0.0838, R2 = 0.322). NOP is a viable candidate as a feed additive because of its CH4 mitigation effects, regardless of animal type and experiment period, without adverse effects on animal performances.

Production Performances of Japanese Quail Parent Stock under Open Housing System

  • Hossain, Muhammad Belal;Sen, Provas Chandra;al Noman, Md. Abdullah;Islam, Ariful;Ghosh, Sumon;Islam, Shariful;Chakma, Shovon;Paul, Ashit Kumar
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.115-119
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    • 2015
  • The study was carried out to assess the production performances of Japanese quail parent stock raised under open housing system and the study was conducted in a local farm with 2000 Japanese parent stock quail birds (Coturnix coturnix japonica). Observed body weight gain was recorded in each weekend up to 7 weeks of their age; birds gained weight 15.73, 31.45, 47.20, 90.80, 125.27, 153.14 and 175.20 grams, respectively. There have been observed sharp decline of fertility and hatchability of birds with increase of their age. Optimum fertility was recorded at third week and optimum hatchability at fifth week of their age. Average flock uniformity was found 83.68%. The hen day egg production of the flock was recorded 81, 83, 85, 86, 89, 89, 89, 89 and 88% in each weekend, respectively. It may therefore be concluded that Japanese quail parent stock performs well under open housing system in Bangladesh and future study can be taken to better understand their production performances.

The Effects of Different Farrowing Space on Lactating Sow Performances and Growth Performances of Piglets (분만 면적의 차이가 분만돈의 생산성과 자돈의 성장능력에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Jun-Yeob;Jeon, Jung-Hwan;Park, Kyu-Hyun;Song, Jun-Ik
    • Journal of Animal Environmental Science
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.157-164
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    • 2012
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effect of different farrowing space, narrow and wide, on the sow performances and piglet growth performances. The $1.5m^2$ of narrow farrowing space was determined as the size of farrowing crate. The $3.0m^2$ of wide space for farrowing sow was the same of farrowing pen to allow the behavior freedom of sow. Baby piglets in the wide farrowing space was protected from crushing of sow by installation of safety bar. The pregnant sows used in this study were stall-housed during gestation and moved to each farrowing spaces on 8 d before parturition. Feed intake, backfat thickness and body condition score of sow were not affected by both farrowing spaces. However, the changes in backfat thickness and body condition score between farrowing and weaning in wide farrowing space were lower (p<0.05) than in narrow farrowing space. The return to estrus of sow was remarkably decreased in wide farrowing space compared to sows in narrow farrowing space. The lower number of stillbirth and higher mortality of piglets were observed in wide farrowing space. From the results, although wide farrowing space could be practically acceptable in terms of sow performances, possible cause of mortality of piglets should be scrutinized through observation of piglet and sow behaviors.

EFFECT OF DIFFERENT DIETARY PROTEIN AND ENERGY LEVELS ON THE PERFORMANCES OF STARCROSS PULLETS

  • Uddin, M. Salah;Tareque, A.M.M.;Howlider, M.A.R.;Khan, M. Jasimuddin
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.4 no.4
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    • pp.361-368
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    • 1991
  • In two experiments 640 starcross replacement pullets between 25 and 154 days of age were fed ad libitum on either of 16 diets formed by the combination of $4CP{\times}4ME$ levels to study the interaction of CP and ME on growth performances. In both experiments, feed intake decreased, but protein intake, energy intake, live weight gain and feed conversion efficiency increased and sexual maturity hastened with the increase of dietary protein and/or energy level. The protein conversion efficiency decreased with the increase of dietary protein level. The energy conversion efficiency, however, did not show any relationship with dietary energy level. There was a greater improvement of growth performance due to simultaneous increase of dietary protein and energy level than that of increasing protein or energy alone.

Nutritional Values of Red Pepper Seed Oil Meal and Effects of Its Supplementation on Performances and Physiological Responses of Broiler Chicks

  • An, B.K.;Im, H.J.;Kang, C.W.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.20 no.6
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    • pp.971-975
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    • 2007
  • Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the feeding values of red pepper seed oil meal (RPSOM) and to investigate its dietary supplementation on broiler performances. In Exp. 1, nutritional values of RPSOM were evaluated by analyzing chemical composition and determining true metabolizable energy (TME), nitrogen corrected TME (TMEn) and true available amino acid (TAAA). RPSOM contained 22.50% of CP, 4.75% of ether extract, 27.70% of crude fiber, 4.73% of crude ash and 49.97 ppm of xanthophylls. The contents of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin were 34 mg and 31 mg/100 g DM, respectively. The values of TME and TMEn determined by force-feeding 16 roosters were 1.73 kcal/g and 1.63 kcal/g DM, respectively. The average TAAA value of 17 amino acids was 85.22%. In Exp. 2, a total of 225 Ross male broiler chicks, 3 weeks old, were randomly divided into 9 groups of 25 birds each and assigned to three experimental diets containing 0 (control), 5 or 10% RPSOM fed ad libitum for 3 weeks. No significant differences were observed in growth performances and carcass characteristics. The level of serum cholesterol in the 10% RPSOM group was significantly lower than that of the control group (113.92 vs. 137.50 mg/dl). The dietary RPSOM at 5 and 10% levels increased the content of C18:2 ${\omega}{\sigma}$ in leg muscle compared with the control group. The results suggested that RPSOM can be included into broiler feed up to 10% without any negative effects on broiler performances and physiological responses and used as a non-conventional plant protein source, if its nutritional values are well evaluated.

Artificial Insemination with Low-Dose Semen does not affect Swine Reproductive Performances

  • Chung, Ki-Hwa;Lee, Il-Joo;Sa, Soo-Jin;Kim, In-Cheul;Jung, Byeong-Yeal;Son, Jung-Ho
    • Reproductive and Developmental Biology
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    • v.37 no.4
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    • pp.263-267
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    • 2013
  • Pig producers have been shown keen interest of the number of spermatozoa in a semen dose since pig artificial insemination introduce. However, determining the minimal number of spermatozoa need per AI without detrimental effect on overall reproductive performances is not an easy question to answer. To increase the efficiency of semen utilization in pig AI, optimum number of spermatozoa per dose needed to determine. The objective of this study was to determine the reproductive performance and factors that affect on-farm application of low-dose semen insemination in sows. Data were collected from Darby Genetics AI studs from 4th of June to 7th of July, 2012 (n=401). The numbers of parturition were 84, 234 and 83 in sows inseminated with doses of $1.5{\times}10^9$, $2.0{\times}10^9$ and $2.5{\times}10^9$ spermatozoa in 100ml extender, respectively. There were no significant differences on reproductive performances such as gestation period, total born, total born alive, stillbirth and mummy in sows inseminated with different semen doses. The average number of born alive was 10.5, 11.0 and 10.4 from sows inseminated with $1.5{\times}10^9$, $2.0{\times}10^9$ and $2.5{\times}10^9$ sperms, respectively. Also, number of spermatozoa per dose did not affect litter size (p>0.10). There were no significant differences of maternal genetic line difference on gestation period, total number born, number born alive, born dead and mummy. The estimated correlation coefficients of the different semen doses with total number born, number born alive, born dead and mummy were r=-0.00, -0.01, 0.02 and 0.02, respectively. Taken together, the result of this study suggested that when semen was appropriately inseminated after induced ovulation, insemination with low-dose ($1.5{\sim}2.0{\times}10^9$) semen dose not adversely affect sow's fertility.