• Title, Summary, Keyword: Animal Nutrition

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Estimation of L-threonine requirements for Longyan laying ducks

  • Fouad, A.M.;Zhang, H.X.;Chen, W.;Xia, W.G.;Ruan, D.;Wang, S.;Zheng, C.T.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.206-210
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    • 2017
  • Objective: A study was conducted to test six threonine (Thr) levels (0.39%, 0.44%, 0.49%, 0.54%, 0.59%, and 0.64%) to estimate the optimal dietary Thr requirements for Longyan laying ducks from 17 to 45 wk of age. Methods: Nine hundred Longyan ducks aged 17 wk were assigned randomly to the six dietary treatments, where each treatment comprised six replicate pens with 25 ducks per pen. Results: Increasing the Thr level enhanced egg production, egg weight, egg mass, and the feed conversion ratio (FCR) (linearly or quadratically; p<0.05). The Haugh unit score, yolk color, albumen height, and the weight, percentage, thickness, and breaking strength of the eggshell did not response to increases in the Thr levels, but the albumen weight and its proportion increased significantly (p<0.05), whereas the yolk weight and its proportion decreased significantly as the Thr levels increased. Conclusion: According to a regression model, the optimal Thr requirement for egg production, egg mass, and FCR in Longyan ducks is 0.57%, while 0.58% is the optimal level for egg weight from 17 to 45 wk of age.

In Vitro Evaluation of Swine-Derived Lactobacillus reuteri: Probiotic Properties and Effects on Intestinal Porcine Epithelial Cells Challenged with Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli K88

  • Wan, Zhilin;Wang, Li;Chen, Zhuang;Ma, Xianyong;Yang, Xuefen;Zhang, Jian;Jiang, Zongyong
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.26 no.6
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    • pp.1018-1025
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    • 2016
  • Probiotics are considered as the best effective alternatives to antibiotics. The aim of this study was to characterize the probiotic potential of lactobacilli for use in swine farming by using in vitro evaluation methods. A total of 106 lactic acid bacterial isolates, originating from porcine feces, were first screened for the capacity to survive stresses considered important for putative probiotic strains. Sixteen isolates showed notable acid and bile resistance, antibacterial activity, and adherence to intestinal porcine epithelial cells (IPEC-1). One isolate, LR1, identified as Lactobacillus reuteri, was selected for extensive study of its probiotic and functional properties in IPEC-1 cell models. L. reuteri LR1 exhibited good adhesion to IPEC-1 cells and could inhibit the adhesion of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) to IPEC-1 cells. L. reuteri LR1 could also modulate transcript and protein expression of cytokines involved in inflammation in IPEC-1 cells; the Lactobacillus strain inhibited the ETEC-induced expression of proinflammatory transcripts (IL-6 and TNF-α) and protein (IL-6), and increased the level of anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10). Measurement of the permeation of FD-4 showed that L. reuteri LR1 could maintain barrier integrity in monolayer IPEC-1 cells exposed to ETEC. Immunolocalization experiments showed L. reuteri LR1 could also prevent ETEC-induced tight junction ZO-1 disruption. Together, these results indicate that L. reuteri LR1 exhibits desirable probiotic properties and could be a potential probiotic for use in swine production.

Molecular cloning, expression and characterization of a novel feruloyl esterase enzyme from the symbionts of termite (Coptotermes formosanus) gut

  • Chandrasekharaiah, Matam;Thulasi, Appoothy;Bagath, M.;Kumar, Duvvuri Prasanna;Santosh, Sunil Singh;Palanivel, Chenniappan;Jose, Vazhakkala Lyju;Sampath, K.T.
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.44 no.1
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    • pp.52-57
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    • 2011
  • Termites play an important role in the degradation of dead plant materials and have acquired endogenous and symbiotic cellulose digestion capabilities. The feruloyl esterase enzyme (FAE) gene amplified from the metagenomic DNA of Coptotermes formosanus gut was cloned in the TA cloning vector and subcloned into a pET32a expression vector. The Ft3-7 gene has 84% sequence identity with Clostridium saccharolyticum and shows amino acid sequence identity with predicted xylanase/chitin deacetylase and endo-1,4-beta-xylanase. The sequence analysis reveals that probably Ft3-7 could be a new gene and that its molecular mass was 18.5 kDa. The activity of the recombinant enzyme (Ft3-7) produced in Escherichia coli (E.coli) was 21.4 U with substrate ethyl ferulate and its specific activity was 24.6 U/mg protein. The optimum pH and temperature for enzyme activity were 7.0 and $37^{\circ}C$, respectively. The substrate utilization preferences and sequence similarity of the Ft3-7 place it in the type-D sub-class of FAE.

The differences between copper sulfate and tribasic copper chloride on growth performance, redox status, deposition in tissues of pigs, and excretion in feces

  • Zheng, Ping;Pu, Bei;Yu, Bing;He, Jun;Yu, Jie;Mao, Xiangbing;Luo, Yuheng;Luo, Junqiu;Huang, Zhiqing;Luo, Chenggui;Wang, Shaohui;Chen, Daiwen
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.31 no.6
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    • pp.873-880
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    • 2018
  • Objective: The objective of this experiment was to compare the effects of adding 130 mg/kg Cu from either copper sulfate (CS) or tribasic copper chloride (TBCC) on growth performance, mineral deposition in tissues, and the excretion in feces of pigs as well as changes in the mineral contents in tissues and feces when the supplemental Cu level was decreased from 130 mg/kg to 10 mg/kg. Methods: A total of 72 pigs ($32.6{\pm}1.2kg$) were randomly assigned to a CS diet or a TBCC diet with 6 pens per treatment. The trial lasted 102 d and included 3 phases (phase 1, 1 to 30 d; phase 2, 31 to 81 d; and phase 3, 82 to 102 d). The supplemental levels of Cu in the 2 treatments were 130 mg/kg in phase 1 and 2 and 10 mg/kg in phase 3. Results: The results showed that pigs fed the CS diet tended to have higher average daily gain than pigs fed the TBCC diet during d 1 to 81 (p<0.10). Compared with CS, TBCC increased the activities of aspartate transaminase (AST), ceruloplasmin, and superoxide dismutase in serum on d 30 (p<0.05). The TBCC decreased the Cu level in the liver on d 81 (p<0.05) and increased the Mn level in the liver on d 102 (p<0.05). The concentration of Cu in feces sharply decreased when the supplemental Cu level in diet changed from 130 mg/kg to 10 mg/kg in both diets (p<0.05). Conclusion: The result suggested that TBCC and CS had no significant difference on growth performance but TBCC had higher activities of AST and antioxidant enzymes and lower liver Cu than CS when pigs fed diets with 130 mg Cu /kg diet.

Recent Trend of Residual Pesticides in Korean Feed

  • Jeong, Jin Young;Kim, Minseok;Baek, Youl-Chang;Song, Jaeyong;Lee, Seul;Kim, Ki Hyun;Ji, Sang Yun;Lee, Hyun-Jeong;Oh, Young Kyun;Lee, Sung Dae
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.38 no.3
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    • pp.156-164
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    • 2018
  • Pesticide application in agriculture provides significant benefits such as protection from disease, prevention of harmful insects, and increased crop yields. However, accurate toxicological tests and risk assessments are necessary because of many related adverse effects associated with pesticide use. In this review, we discuss and analyze residual pesticides contained in livestock feed in Korea. A pesticide residue tolerance standard for livestock feed has not been precisely established; so, risk assessments are required to ensure safety. Standards and approaches for animal criteria and appropriate methods for evaluating residual pesticides are discussed and analyzed based on technology related to animal product safety in Korea. The safety of livestock feed containing pesticides is assessed to establish maximum residue limits relative to pesticides. Analysis of residual pesticides in milk, muscle, brain, and fat was performed with a livestock residue test and safety evaluation of the detected pesticide was performed. Efficacy of organic solvent extraction and clean-up of feed was verified, and suitability of the instrument was examined to establish if they are effective, rapid, and safe. This review discussed extensively how pesticide residue tolerance in livestock feed and hazard evaluation may be applied in future studies.

Effects of early commercial milk supplement on the mucosal morphology, bacterial community and bacterial metabolites in jejunum of the pre- and post-weaning piglets

  • Hu, Ping;Niu, Qingyan;Zhu, Yizhi;Shi, Chao;Wang, Jing;Zhu, Weiyun
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.33 no.3
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    • pp.480-489
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    • 2020
  • Objective: Sow milk (SM) may not be able to meet the piglet's nutritional needs in late lactation. Hence, this study was conducted to investigate the effects of early commercial milk (CM) supplement on the mucosal morphology, bacterial community and bacterial metabolites in jejunum of piglets. Methods: Ten litters of newborn piglets ([Yorkshire×Landrace]×Duroc) were randomly divided into 2 groups of 5 litters. The piglets in the control group were suckled by the sow (SM), while the piglets in the treatment group (CM supplement) were supplemented with a CM supplement along with suckling from d 4 to d 28 of age. Results: No significant differences were observed about jejunal mucosal morphology on d 28 and d 35 between two groups. On d 28, the activity of lactase in the jejunum was significantly decreased in the CM group, while the activity of sucrase and the ratio of maltase to lactase were significantly increased (p<0.05). On d 35, the activity of maltase in the jejunum was significantly increased in the CM group (p<0.05), and maltase to lactase ratio tended to increase in the CM group (p = 0.065). In addition, piglets in the CM group had a higher abundance of Clostridium XI, Tuicibater, and Moraxella in the jejunum on d 28, while the abundance of Lactobacillus was significantly increased on d 35 (p<0.05). Conclusion: The early CM supplement improved the maturation of the jejunum to some extent by enhancing the maltase and sucrase activities. Moreover, the early CM supplement could help maintain the homeostasis of internal environment in jejunum by increasing the microbial-derived metabolites.

Effect of Restricted Grazing Time on the Foraging Behavior and Movement of Tan Sheep Grazed on Desert Steppe

  • Chen, Yong;Luo, Hailing;Liu, Xueliang;Wang, Zhenzhen;Zhang, Yuwei;Liu, Kun;Jiao, Lijuan;Chang, Yanfei;Zuo, Zhaoyun
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.26 no.5
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    • pp.711-715
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    • 2013
  • To investigate the effect of restricted grazing time on behavior of Tan sheep on desert steppe, forty 4-months old male Tan sheep with an original body weight (BW) of $15.62{\pm}0.33$ kg were randomly allocated to 4 grazing groups which corresponded to 4 different restricted grazing time treatments of 2 h/d (G2), 4 h/d (G4), 8 h/d (G8) and 12 h/d (G12) access to pasture. The restricted grazing times had a significant impact on intake time, resting time, ruminating time, bite rate and movement. As the grazing time decreased, the proportion of time spent on intake, bite rate and grazing velocity significantly (p<0.05) increased, but resting and ruminating time clearly (p<0.05) decreased. The grazing months mainly depicted effect on intake time and grazing velocity. In conclusion, by varying their foraging behavior, Tan sheep could improve grazing efficiency to adapt well to the time-limited grazing circumstance.

Induction of Cytokines and Nitric Oxide in Murine Macrophages Stimulated with Enzymatically Digested Lactobacillus Strains

  • Kim, Dong-Woon;Cho, Sung-Back;Yun, Cheol-Heui;Jeong, Ha-Yeon;Chung, Wan-Tae;Choi, Chang-Weon;Lee, Hyun-Jeong;Nam, In-Sik;Suh, Guk-Hyun;Lee, Sang-Suk;Lee, Byong-Seak
    • Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.45 no.5
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    • pp.373-378
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    • 2007
  • Based on observations that lactic acid bacteria have the ability to activate macrophages, we assessed the potential effects of eight different Lactobacillus strains treated with gastrointestinal enzymes on the production of nitric oxide and various cytokines in macrophages. RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells were cultured with either precipitates or supernatants of Lactobacillus strains digested with pepsin followed by pancreatin. The increased production of nitric oxide and interleukin $(IL)-1{\beta}$, IL-6, IL-12 and tumour necrosis factor $(TNF)-{\alpha}$ were observed when cultured with precipitates, and this effect was largely strain-dependent. In contrast, the exposure of RAW 264.7 cells to supernatants produced weaker or nearly undetectable effects in comparison to the effects of exposure to precipitates. The induction of nitric oxide appeared to be unaffected. These results demonstrate that nitric oxide and cytokines were effectively induced when the bacterial precipitate was treated with macrophages. The results of the present study also indicate that Lactobacillus strains treated with digestive enzymes are capable of stimulating the production of nitric oxide and cytokines in macrophages, which may modulate the gastrointestinal immune function of the host when it is given as a feed additive.

Dietary phosphorus deficiency impaired growth, intestinal digestion and absorption function of meat ducks

  • Xu, Huimin;Dai, Shujun;Zhang, Keying;Ding, Xuemei;Bai, Shiping;Wang, Jianping;Peng, Huanwei;Zeng, Qiufeng
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.32 no.12
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    • pp.1897-1906
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    • 2019
  • Objective: An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary non-phytate phosphorus (nPP) deficiency on intestinal pH value, digestive enzyme activity, morphology, nutrient utilization, and gene expression of NaPi-IIb in meat ducks from 1 to 21 d of age. Methods: A total of 525 one-d-old Cherry Valley ducklings were fed diets (with 7 pens of 15 ducklings, or 105 total ducklings, on each diet) with five levels of nPP (0.22%, 0.34%, 0.40%, 0.46%, or 0.58%) for 21 d in a completely randomized design. Five experimental diets contained a constant calcium (Ca) content of approximately 0.9%. Body weight (BW), body weight gain (BWG), feed intake (FI), and feed to gain ratio (F:G) were measured at 14 and 21 d of age. Ducks were sampled for duodenum and jejunum digestion and absorption function on 14 and 21 d. Nutrient utilization was assessed using 25- to 27-d-old ducks. Results: The results showed ducks fed 0.22% nPP had lower (p<0.05) growth performance and nutrient utilization and higher (p<0.05) serum Ca content and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. When dietary nPP levels were increased, BW (d 14 and 21), BWG and FI (all intervals), and the serum phosphorus (P) content linearly and quadratically increased (p<0.05); and the jejunal pH value (d 14), duodenal muscle layer thickness (d 14), excreta dry matter, crude protein, energy, Ca and total P utilization linearly increased (p<0.05); however, the serum ALP activity, jejunal $Na^+-K^+$-ATPase activity, and duodenal NaPi-IIb mRNA level (d 21) linearly decreased (p<0.05). Conclusion: The results indicated that ducks aged from 1 to 21 d fed diets with 0.22% nPP had poor growth performance related to poor intestinal digestion and absorption ability; but when fed diets with 0.40%, 0.46%, and 0.58% nPP, ducks presented a better growth performance, intestinal digestion and absorption function.