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A Study on the Decompressed Ammonia Stripping from Ammonia Contained Wastewater (폐수의 감압 암모니아 탈기에 관한 연구)

  • 신대윤;오유경
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.93-99
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    • 2001
  • This study aims at finding out pertinent reaction conditions for treating high concentration ammonia contained in N-chemical factory wastewater with decompressed ammonia stripping method that was designed. And it also tries to investigate adsorption capability of removed ammonia to soil. The results from experiments are as follows ; 1. The removal rate of N $H_3$-N of synthetic wastewater was under 85% at pH 10 with decompressed ammonia stripping method. The reaction time in pressure 360 mmHg at pH 11 and 12 was shorter than in 460 mmHg, and the removal rate of N $H_3$-N with decompressed ammonia stripping method at 9$0^{\circ}C$ was 11~15% higher than air stripping 2. The optimum conditions for decompressed ammonia stripping with synthetic sample were shown as pH 12, temperature 9$0^{\circ}C$, internal reaction pressure 460 mmHg and reaction time 50 minutes. These conditions were applied to treat the wastewater containing organic-N 290.5mg/$\ell$, N $H_3$-N 168.9mg/$\ell$, N $O_2$-N 23.2mg/$\ell$, N $O_3$-N 252.4mg/$\ell$, T-N 735mg/$\ell$. Organic-N turned out to be removed 60%, the removal rate of N $H_3$-N IS 94%, T-N is 50%. But N $O_2$-N and N $O_3$-N were increased with 7.8% and 14.9% respectively. 3. The CO $D_{Sr}$ removal rate in decompressed ammonia stripping reaction was 42% and S $O_4$$^{2-}$ was removed 8.2%. It was turned out caused with higher pH and thermolysis. 4. In soil adsorption of ammonia desorbed from the decompressed stripping process of wastewater, the recovery rate was 76% in wet soil.

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Ammonia Effects on Anaerobic Digestion of Swine Wastewaters (양돈폐수의 혐기성 소화에 대한 암모니아의 영향)

  • Kim, Jong-Soo
    • Journal of the Korea Organic Resources Recycling Association
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.102-108
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    • 2002
  • The effects of ammonia on mesophilic anaerobic digestion were investigated by operating lab-scale two-stage ASBF reactors using swine wastewaters as influent without and with ammonia removal at HRT of 1-2 days and OLR of $2.2{\sim}9.6kg-COD/m^3{\cdot}d$ for 250 days. The COD removal efficiency and biogas generation of two-stage ASBF reactors was decreased by increasing influent ammonia concentrations to 1,580 mg(T-N)/L with increasing OLR to $6.3kg-COD/m^3{\cdot}d$, while those were increased by maintaining influent ammonia concentrations below 340 mg(T-N)/L by MAP precipitation with increasing OLR to $9.6kg-COD/m^3{\cdot}d$. Initial inhibirion of ammonia on anaerobic processes was observed at a concentration of 760 mg(T-N)/L and the COD removal efficiency and biogas generation dropped to 1/2 at ammonia concentration ranges of 1,540~1,870 mg(T-N)/L. It is essential to remove ammonia in swine wastewaters to an initial inhibition level before anaerobic processes for the effective removal of COD.

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Effects of nitrgen source and rate on the growth of the sesame-wilt fungus, Fusarium oxysporum f. vasinfectum (Atk). Snyder et Hansen (질소원의 종류 및 농도가 참깨 위조병균(Fusarium oxysporum f. vasinfectum)의 생육에 미치는 영향)

  • Park Jong Seong
    • Korean journal of applied entomology
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    • v.2
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    • pp.16-21
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    • 1963
  • The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of different nitrogen source and rate on the growth of Fusarium oxysporum f. vasinfectum which is known to be a noticeable fungus causing the wilt disease of both sesame and cotton in Korea. From the results of this study, It was known that different N source and rate markedly affect the growth of Fusarium oxyspsrum f. vasinfectum Among four N sourses were used in this study, nitrate-N and urea-N were appropriate N source for the growth of fungus. Above all, nitrate N was the best N source because it is utilized in more extensive range of concentration in comparison with the other N source by the fungus, On the other hand, ammonia-N is of little avail for the growth of the fungus because of the formation of unusual colonies with wavy margin and bead-like mycelial cells in addition to marked reduction of mycelial growth and B sporulation of the fungus irrespective of concentration. Judging from the formation of such an abnormal colony and bead-like mycelial cell which is known to be a characteristic of 'staling-type' growth of fungi, the effect of ammonia-N on the growth of Fusarium oxysporum f. vasinfectum is similar to that of phenoxy componnds on some other fungi previously investigated by some workers. Ammonium and nitrate also was not considered to be an appropriate source for the growth of the fungus because of the formation of colonies with slight wavy margin and appreciable reduction of mycelial growth and sporulation in higher concentration than 50meq. , although much or less masking of the irregularity of colony occurs. Therefore, ammonia N alone or any other N combined with ammonia N is of little avail for the growth of Fusarium oxysporum f. vasinfectum.

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Treatment of Malodorous Waste Air Containing Ammonia Using Hybrid System Composed of Photocatalytic Reactor and Biofilter (암모니아 함유 악취폐가스의 광촉매반응공정과 바이오필터로 구성된 하이브리드시스템 처리)

  • Lee, Eun Ju;Lim, Kwang-Hee
    • Korean Chemical Engineering Research
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    • v.51 no.2
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    • pp.272-278
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    • 2013
  • The hybrid system composed of a photocatalytic reactor and a biofilter was operated under various operating conditions in order to treat malodorous waste air containing ammonia which is a major air pollutant emitted from composting factories and many publicly owned treatment works. Total ammonia removal efficiency of the hybrid system was maintained to be ca. 80% even though its inlet loads were increased at a higher operating stage according to an operating schedule of the hybrid system. The ammonia removal efficiency of photocatalytic reactor was decreased from 65% to 22% as ammonia inlet loads to photocatalytic reactor were increased. In spite of same inlet loads of ammonia to the photocatalytic reactor, the ammonia removal efficiency of photocatalytic reactor with lower ammonia concentration of fed-waste air was higher than that with higher ammonia concentration of fed-waste air. To the contrary, during the first half of the hybrid system operation the ammonia removal efficiency of a biofilter was quite suppressed while, despite of increased ammonia inlet loads, the ammonia removal efficiency of the biofilter was continuously increased to 78% and reached the ammonia removal efficiency similar to what Lee et al. attained. The maximum ammonia elimination capacity of the photocatalytic reactor was observed to be ca. 16 g-N/$m^3$/h. In an incipient stage of hybrid system run, the ammonia elimination capacity of the biofilter showed little sensitivity against ammonia inlet loads to the hybrid system. However, in the 2nd half of its run, the ammonia elimination capacity of the biofilter was increased abruptly in case of high ammonia inlet loads to the hybrid system. In 6th stage of hybrid system run, total ammonia inlet load attained at ca. 80 g-N/$m^3$/h corresponding to 16 g-N/$m^3$/h of ammonia elimination capacity of the photocatalytic reactor. Then, the remaining ammonia inlet load to the 2nd and main process of the biofilter and its elimination capacity was expected and shown to be ca 64 g-N/$m^3$/h and ca 48 g-N/$m^3$/h, respectively. The ammonia elimination capacity of the biofilter was close to 1,200 g-N/$m^3$/day of the maximum elimination capacity of the investigation performed by Kim et al.

Effect of Operational Parameters on the Ammonia Stripping (암모니아 스트리핑에 미치는 운전인자의 영향)

  • Seo, Jeong-Beom;An, Kwang-Ho
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.28 no.9
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    • pp.935-939
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    • 2006
  • The biological nutrient removal from domestic wastewater with low C/N ratio is difficult. Therefore, this study was performed to examine effect of operational parameters such as air supply, hydraulic retention time, pH on the nitrogen removal by ammonia stripping and to increase influent C/N ratio without required carbon source. The ammonia stripping system used for the bench-scale experiment in laboratory had a dimension of 15 cm diameter and 150 cm height. The ammonia stripping reactors were classified into two types, type AS I and type AS II, according to there using or not media. Results of the research showed that the T-N removal efficiency of AS I using plastic media is slightly higher than AS II without media. In experimental condition of air supply 30 L/min and pH 12.5, T-N removal efficiencies increased as HRT of ammonia stripping reactor became longer from 8 hr to 36 hr. In experimental condition of HRT 36 hr, it was also found that the T-N removal efficiencies improved through increase of air supply. On the other hand, C/N ratio of wastewater was increased from average 3.9 to 5.4 by ammonia stripping.

Analysis of Free Ammonia Inhibition of Nitrite Oxidizing Bacteria Using a Dissolved Oxygen Respirometer

  • Kim, Dong-Jin;Lee, Dong-Ig;Cha, Gi-Cheol;Keller, Jurg
    • Environmental Engineering Research
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.125-130
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    • 2008
  • Free ammonia ($NH_3$-N) inhibition of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) has been widely studied for partial nitrification (or nitrite accumulation) and denitrification via nitrite ($NO_2^-$-N) as a low-cost treatment of ammonium containing wastewater. The literature on $NH_3$-N inhibition of NOB, however, shows disagreement about the threshold $NH_3$-N concentration and its degree of inhibition. In order to clarify the confusion, a simple and cheap respirometric method was devised to investigate the effect of free ammonia inhibition of NOB. Sludge samples from an autotrophic nitrifying reactor were exposed to various $NH_3$-N concentrations to measure the maximum specific nitrite oxidation rate ($\hat{K}_{NO}$) using a respirometer. NOB biomass was estimated from the yield values in the literature. Free ammonia inhibition of nitrite oxidizing bacteria was reversible and the specific nitrite oxidation rate ($K_{NO}$) decreased from 0.141 to 0.116, 0.100, 0.097 and 0.081 mg $NO_2^-$-N/mg NOB h, respectively, as the $NH_3$-N concentration increased from 0.0 to 1.0, 4.1, 9.7 and 22.9 mg/L. A nonlinear regression based on the noncompetitive inhibition mode gave an estimate of the Inhibition concentration ($K_I$) of free ammonia to be 21.3 mg $NH_3$-N/L. Previous studies gave $\hat{K}_{NO}$ of Nitrobacter and Nitrospira as 0.120 and 0.032 mg/mg VSS h. The free ammonia concentration which inhibits Nitrobacter was $30{\sim}50\;mg$ $NH_3$-N/L and Nitrospira was inhibited at $0.04{\sim}0.08\;mg$ $NH_3$-N/L. The results support the fact that Nitrobacter is the dominant NOB in the reactor. The variations in the reported values of free ammonia inhibition may be due to the different species of nitrite oxidizers present in the reactors. The respirometric method provides rapid and reliable analysis of the behavior and community of the nitrite oxidizing bacteria.

Dried Bacillus subtilis Culture Reduced Ammonia Gas Release in Poultry House

  • Santoso, U.;Ohtani, S.;Tanaka, K.;Sakaida, M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.12 no.5
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    • pp.806-809
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    • 1999
  • The present study showed the advantages of dried Bacillus subtilis culture (DBSC) supplementation on reducing ammonia gas release in the poultry house. In Experiment 1, 65-week-old Hyline W-36 hens were raised in individual wire-floor cages in a windowless house, and divided into two groups of 180 hens each. One group was fed diets without DBSC as the control and another group was fed a diet supplemented with 2% DBSC. In Experiment 2, 2-week-old broiler chicks were divided into 3 treatment groups of 20 chicks each and maintained in individual floor cages. One group was fed the diet without DBSC and other two groups were fed the diet supplemented with 1 or 2% DBSC, respectively. In experiment 1, DBSC consistently reduced ammonia gas release in the laying house (p<0.01) and manure storage facilities (p<0.01). incubation of feces for 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 24 or 48 hours showed that DBSC consistently reduced ammonia gas release. In Experiment 2, DBSC reduced ammonia gas release in the broiler house; however, DBSC had no effect on total N, urate-N and ammonia-N contents of feces, but it improved cumulative N utilization and decreased serum urea-N concentration when chicks when chicks were fed 1% DBSC.

Comparison of Clinical Usefulness between N-13 Ammonia PET/CT and Tc-99m Sestamibi SPET in Coronary Artery Disease (관상동맥질환에서 N-13 암모니아 PET/CT와 Tc-99m 세스타미비 SPECT의 임상 유용성 비교)

  • Kong, Eun-Jung;Cho, Ihn-Ho;Chun, Kyung-Ah;Won, Kyu-Chang;Lee, Hyung-Woo;Park, Jeong-Sun;Shin, Dong-Gu;Kim, Young-Jo;Shim, Bong-Seop
    • Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
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    • v.42 no.5
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    • pp.354-361
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    • 2008
  • Purpose: N-13 ammonia uptake and retention in the myocardium is related to perfusion and metabolism. There are several potential advantages of N-13 ammonia positron emission tomography (PET) to detect myocardial ischemia, such as higher spatial resolution, greater counting efficiencies, and robust attenuation correction. But there are few reports comparing Tc-99m myocardial perfusion single photon emission tomography (MPS) and N-13 ammonia PET. We thus compared adenosine stress N-13 ammonia PET/CT and Tc-99m sestamibi MPS in patients with suspected coronary artery stenosis. Materials and Methods: Seventeen patients (male 13 : $63{\pm}11$ years old) underwent adenosine stress N-13 ammonia PET/CT (Discovery ST, GE), Tc-99m sestamibi MPS (dual head gamma camera, Hawkeye, GE) and coronary angiography within 1 week. N-13 ammonia PET/CT and Tc-99m sestamibi MPS images were assessed with a 20-segment model by visual interpretation and quantitative analysis using automatic quantitative software (Myovation, GE). Results: Both sensitivities and specificities of detecting an individual coronary artery stenosis were higher for N-13 ammonia PET/CT than Tc-99m sestamibi MPS (PET/CT: 91%/89% vs MPS: 65%/82%). N-13 ammonia PET/CT showed reversibility in 52% of segments that were considered non-reversibile by Tc-99m sestamibi MPS. In the 110 myocardial segments supplied by the stenotic coronary artery, N-13 ammonia PET/CT showed higher count densities than Tc-99m MPS on rest study (p < 0.01), and the difference of count density between the stress and the rest studies was also larger on N-13 ammonia PET/CT. Conclusion: Adenosine stress N-13 ammonia PET/CT had higher diagnostic sensitivity and specificity, more reversibility of perfusion defects and greater stress/rest uptake differences than Tc-99m sestamibi MPS. Accordingly, N-13 ammonia PET/CT might offer better assessment of myocardial ischemia and viability.

Hybrid MBE Growth of Crack-Free GaN Layers on Si (110) Substrates

  • Park, Cheol-Hyeon;O, Jae-Eung;No, Yeong-Gyun;Lee, Sang-Tae;Kim, Mun-Deok
    • Proceedings of the Korean Vacuum Society Conference
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    • pp.183-184
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    • 2013
  • Two main MBE growth techniques have been used: plasma-assisted MBE (PA-MBE), which utilizes a rf plasma to supply active nitrogen, and ammonia MBE, in which nitrogen is supplied by pyrolysis of NH3 on the sample surface during growth. PA-MBE is typically performed under metal-rich growth conditions, which results in the formation of gallium droplets on the sample surface and a narrow range of conditions for optimal growth. In contrast, high-quality GaN films can be grown by ammonia MBE under an excess nitrogen flux, which in principle should result in improved device uniformity due to the elimination of droplets and wider range of stable growth conditions. A drawback of ammonia MBE, on the other hand, is a serious memory effect of NH3 condensed on the cryo-panels and the vicinity of heaters, which ruins the control of critical growth stages, i.e. the native oxide desorption and the surface reconstruction, and the accurate control of V/III ratio, especially in the initial stage of seed layer growth. In this paper, we demonstrate that the reliable and reproducible growth of GaN on Si (110) substrates is successfully achieved by combining two MBE growth technologies using rf plasma and ammonia and setting a proper growth protocol. Samples were grown in a MBE system equipped with both a nitrogen rf plasma source (SVT) and an ammonia source. The ammonia gas purity was >99.9999% and further purified by using a getter filter. The custom-made injector designed to focus the ammonia flux onto the substrate was used for the gas delivery, while aluminum and gallium were provided via conventional effusion cells. The growth sequence to minimize the residual ammonia and subsequent memory effects is the following: (1) Native oxides are desorbed at $750^{\circ}C$ (Fig. (a) for [$1^-10$] and [001] azimuth) (2) 40 nm thick AlN is first grown using nitrogen rf plasma source at $900^{\circ}C$ nder the optimized condition to maintain the layer by layer growth of AlN buffer layer and slightly Al-rich condition. (Fig. (b)) (3) After switching to ammonia source, GaN growth is initiated with different V/III ratio and temperature conditions. A streaky RHEED pattern with an appearance of a weak ($2{\times}2$) reconstruction characteristic of Ga-polarity is observed all along the growth of subsequent GaN layer under optimized conditions. (Fig. (c)) The structural properties as well as dislocation densities as a function of growth conditions have been investigated using symmetrical and asymmetrical x-ray rocking curves. The electrical characteristics as a function of buffer and GaN layer growth conditions as well as the growth sequence will be also discussed. Figure: (a) RHEED pattern after oxide desorption (b) after 40 nm thick AlN growth using nitrogen rf plasma source and (c) after 600 nm thick GaN growth using ammonia source for (upper) [110] and (lower) [001] azimuth.

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TI-201 Redistribution SPECT and N-13 Ammonia PET Images in Patients with Old Myocardial Infarction and Left Ventricular Dysfunction: Segmental Comparison and Discordance Analysis (좌심실기능이상을 동반한 심근경색 병력이 있는 환자에서 TI-201 재분포 SPECT와 휴식기 N-13 Ammonia PET: 분절 비교 및 불일치 분석)

  • Choi, Joon-Young;Lee, Kyung-Han;Kim, Young-Hwan;Lee, Eun-Jeong;Chung, Hyun-Woo;Lee, Su-Jin;Lee, Sang-Hoon;Kim, Byung-Tae
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine
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    • v.38 no.3
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    • pp.218-224
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    • 2004
  • We compared rest perfusion PET with redistribution perfusion SPECT to investigate the concordant rate between PET and SPECT images and analyze the discordant pattern. Materials and Methods: Rest N-13 ammonia and F-18 FDG PET were performed on 18 patients with old myocardial infarction and left ventricular dysfunction whose dipyridamole - 4hr redistribution TI-201 SPECT showed one or more severe fixed defects. Regional perfusion and metabolism were evaluated visually and quantitatively with 5-segment myocardial model. Results: There were high concordant rate in uptake pattern (80/90 segments, 88.9%) and high correlation coefficient on quantitative analysis (R=0.81, p<0.001) between redistribution TI-201 SPECT and N-13 ammonia PET images. Nine of 18 patients had SPECT-PET concordant pattern (Group I). Ten segments (9 in inferior wall, 1 in apex) from the remaining 9 patients showed SPECT-PET discordant pattern with abnormal TI-201 defect and near normal N-13 ammonia uptake (Group II). The diastolic and systolic left ventricular dimensions were significantly increased in Group II compared to those of Group I. When attenuation uncorrected N-13 ammonia PET images were reconstructed in Group II, it resulted in PET images with severe inferior wall defects nearly identical to those seen in redistribution TI-201 SPECT images. Conclusion: Redistribution TI-201 SPECT images showed high concordant rate and correlation with rest N-13 ammonia PET images. Most of discordant segments had fixed thallium defects in inferior wall with nearly normal N-13 ammonia uptake, which may result from severe left ventricular dilatation and attenuation by the left hemidiaphragm and cardiac blood pool.