• Title/Summary/Keyword: Amino-acid

Search Result 6,351, Processing Time 0.124 seconds

D-amino Acid Oxidase (DAO) Gene as a Novel Selection Marker for Plant Transformation (새로운 선발 마커 D-아미노산 산화효소 유전자를 이용한 식물 형질전환)

  • Lim, Sun-Hyung;Woo, Hee-Jong;Lee, Si-Myung;Jin, Yong-Moon;Cho, Hyun-Suk
    • Journal of Plant Biotechnology
    • /
    • v.34 no.1
    • /
    • pp.31-36
    • /
    • 2007
  • Though higher plants car not metabolize D-amino acid, many prokaryotes and eukaryotes have the D-amino acid metabolism. Therefore, we transformed tobacco plants with D-amino acid oxidase (DAO), which can metabolize D-amino acid, and confirmed that transgenic tobacco plants might metabolize D-amino acid. Transgenic tobacco plants were survived a high concentration of D-serine, however non-transgenic plants were not grown on D-serine medium. From Southern and Northern blot analysis, transgenic tobacco plants selected on D-serine medium were confirmed by insert and expression of transgene. $T_{1}$ tobacco seeds derived $T_{0}$ tobacco plants selfing were grown on D-serine medium and showed normal phenotype compared to wild tobacco plants. Transgenic tobacco plants displayed the metabolic capability of D-serine. Therefore, we suggested that DAO is useful selectable marker gene for plant transformation.

Comparison of Growth Performance and Whole-body Amino Acid Composition in Red Seabream (Pagrus major) Fed Free or Dipeptide Form of Phenylalanine

  • Kim, Sung-Sam;Rahimnejad, Samad;Song, Jin-Woo;Lee, Kyeong-Jun
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.25 no.8
    • /
    • pp.1138-1144
    • /
    • 2012
  • This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of the dipeptide form of phenylalanine as a new source of amino acid in terms of growth performance and whole-body amino acid composition in comparison to the free form for red seabream (Pagrus major). Fish ($1.46{\pm}0.001g$) were fed four isonitrogenous and isocaloric experimental diets containing 0.7 or 1.4% phenylalanine either in free or dipeptide form. A feeding trial was carried out in three replicates and the fish were fed to apparent satiation for six weeks. At the end of the feeding trial, feed intake of fish was influenced by both phenylalanine form and level and significantly higher values were obtained at an inclusion level of 0.7% and by the use of dipeptide form. However, the other growth parameters did not significantly differ among treatments. Whole-body amino acid compositions revealed no significant changes in concentrations of both essential and non-essential amino acids regardless of the increase in phenylalanine levels or the use of its different forms. The finding in this study indicates that juvenile red seabream can utilize dipeptide phenylalanine as efficiently as free form without any undesirable effects on growth performance or whole-body amino acid composition.

Single Hydrolysis Method for the Amino Acid Determination in Foods and Composite Dishes (식품의 아미노산 정량을 위한 단일가수분해 방법의 개발)

  • 박내선
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
    • /
    • v.26 no.3
    • /
    • pp.422-429
    • /
    • 1997
  • For the complete and accurate amino acid determination of protein and food samples, 3 different hydrolysis procedures have been conducted in parallel for each sample, which include the alkaline hydrolysis for tryptophan determination, performic acid oxidation prior to the acid hydrolysis for the determination of cysteine and cystine, and the 6N HCl hydrolysis for the determination of the rest of amino acids. In the present study, amino acid concentrations obtained from the modified single hydrolysis procedure were compared with the values from the conventional hydrolysis procedures in casein and nine food and composite dish samples. In most of the samples tested, the modified single hydrolysis procedure gave significantly higher values of cysteins and cystein compared to the performic acid oxidation method, but resulted in a considerable destruction of tryptophan in food and composited dish samples. There was no consistent difference in the rest of amino acid concentrations between the two hydrolysis systems. Therefore, for complete amino acid determination of various foods and composite dishes, the single hydrolysis method may replace the 6N HCl hydrolysis and performic acid oxidation methods, and thereby reduces 3 hydrolyses to 2 steps with much higher recoveries of the sulfur containing amino acids.

  • PDF

EFFECTS OF DIETARY PROTEINS ON THE ACTIVITIES OF LIPOGENIC ENZYMES IN THE LIVER OF GROWING CHICKS

  • Tanaka, K.;Okamoto, T.;Ohtani, S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.5 no.1
    • /
    • pp.123-128
    • /
    • 1992
  • In Experiment 1, when fasted chicks were fed diets containing various sources of protein for 3 days, the activities of lipogenic enzymes (acetyl-CoA carboxylase, fatty acid synthetase, citrate cleavage enzyme and malic enzyme) in the liver of growing chicks were significantly lower in the soybean protein or gluten diet than in the casein or fish protein diet. Triglycride contents of the liver and plasma of chicks fed the casein or fish protein diet were significantly lower than that of those fed soybean protein or gluten diet. In Experiment 2, the effects of dietary amino acid mixture simulating casein or protein on the activities of hepatic lipogenic enzymes were examined. The activities of acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthetase in the liver of chicks fed the casein diet were significantly higher than that of those fed the soybean protein diet or two diets of amino acid mixtures. Furthermore, there were no significant differences between the two diets of amino acid mixture based on casein or soybean protein. However, the activities of malic enzyme and citrate cleavage enzyme tended to be lower in the soybean-type amino acid diet than in the casein-type amino acid diet. Thus, some effects can be ascribed to the protein itself and some to the amino acid composition of the protein sources.

Analyses of Free Amino Acids in Different Parts of Bean Sprouts by Different Cooking Methods and from Different Merchants

  • Kim, Ji-Hye;Lee, Kyung-Ae;Kim, Yong-Ho;Kim, Hee-Seon
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
    • /
    • v.14 no.4
    • /
    • pp.316-322
    • /
    • 2009
  • This study was performed to quantitatively analyze free amino acids in the bean sprouts of three different merchants by the parts and the cooking methods in order to evaluate the nutritional and sensory values of bean sprouts. Three merchant bean sprouts were analyzed from total, cotyledon and hypocotyls. Aspartic acid was the most common acid isolated from bean sprouts from all three merchants and was found more in the hypocotyls than the cotyledon. On the other hand, arginine, the second most common amino acid, was found more in the cotyledon than the hypocotyls while valine, the third or fourth most common amino acid in total bean sprout, occurred in a greater amount in hypocotyls than in cotyledons. After cooking, was the most concentrated amino acid in the liquid portion of both boiled bean sprouts and bean sprout soup was glutamic acid. Total bean sprouts from merchant C showed significantly higher contents of the most abundant amino acids, such as aspartic acid, arginine, alanine, serine, glutamic acid, isoleucine, leucine and tyrosine (p<0.05). After cooking, bean sprouts from merchant B showed less of a decrease in amino acid content in the solid parts than the products from merchants A and C. In conclusion, aspartic acid was the major amino acid in bean sprouts, regardless of the source, but after cooking, glutamic acid became the most abundant amino acid in the liquid part. Additionally, the pattern of release of the amino acids from the solid beans to the liquid portion during cooking was different with each merchant.

Effect of Endurance Exercise Training on Free Amino Acid Concentrations in Skeletal Muscles of Rats (지구성 운동훈련이 흰쥐의 하지 골격근 유리아미노산 조성에 미치는 영향)

  • 임현정;송영주;박태선
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
    • /
    • v.35 no.10
    • /
    • pp.1031-1037
    • /
    • 2002
  • The purpose of present study was to evaluate the effect of endurance exercise training on skeletal muscle free amino acid concentrations, and differences in free amino acid concentration between soleus muscle which consists of mostly slow twitch oxidative fiber and extensor digitorum longus muscle which consists of fast twitch oxidative glycolytic fiber. Sixteen male SD rats (4 weeks old) were randomly devided into two groups, and fed a purified AIN-93M diet with or without aerobic exercise training according to the protocol (running on the treadmill at 25 m/min for 60 min, 5 days a week) for 6 weeks. Exercise-training for 6 weeks significanly reduced the commulative body weight gain (p<0.05) and food efficiency ratio (p<0.01) of rats. The result showing mitochondrial citrate synthase activity of soleus muscle was significantly higher in exercise-trained rats compared to the value for control animals (p<0.01) indicates aerobic exercise-training was successfully accomplished in the trained group. No difference was found in the muscle aminogram pattern between soleus muscle and extensor digitorum longus muscle of control animals. However, free amino acid concentrations of soleus muscle were from 1.2 to 3.9 times of those found in extensor digitorum longus muscle of control rats, depending on an individual amino acid. Intermediate level of endurance exercise training for 6 weeks did not influence concentrations of most of free amino acid in soleus muscle of rats collected at an overnight fasted and rested state. In contrast, isolucine and leucine concentrations in extensor digitorum longus muscle of exercise-trained rats were significantly lower than those for control animals. These results indicate that aerobic energy metabolism had not been efficiently conducted, and thereby the utilization of BCAA for energy substrate was enhanced in fast twitch oxidative glycolytic fibers of extensor digitorum longus muscle of rats followed exercise-training protocol for 6 weeks.

AMINO ACIDS DIGESTIBILITY TO PIGS IN VARIOUS FIBER SOURCES : 1. APPARENT DIGESTIBILITY OF AMINO ACIDS IN ILEAL DIGESTA AND FECES

  • Nongyao, A.;Han, In K.;Choi, Y.J.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.4 no.2
    • /
    • pp.169-176
    • /
    • 1991
  • Four fibrous feedstuffs from alfalfa meal (AFM), cassava leaf meal (CLM), rubber seed meal (RSM) and leucaena meal (LM) were included in semi-purified diets for growing pig (45 kg body wt.) at 20%, to investigate the effects of these fiber sources and fractions on amino acid digestibility. Cellulose (C), a purified fiber source was included in another diet at 5% level for comparison. The barrows fitted with ileal T-cannula were used in the digestion trials with latin square design. The digestibilities of amino acids were measured at both terminal ileum and fecal level. NDF and hemicellulose content were the highest in AFM-diet whereas LM-diet had the highest ADF and lignin content. RSM-diet contained the highest crude fiber and cellulose content. The digestibilities of amino acids at ileal level were found the highest with CLM-diet, while LM-diet was the least. At fecal level, control diet and CLM-diet were the highest in amino acid digestibility while AFM-diet was the least. The digestibility of amino acids was higher at ileal than fecal level. The digestibility of arginine was not affected with fiber fractions but was found to be the most disestible across all diets. The most depressed amino acid was methionine at both levels; praline and glycine, in the dispensable amino acid group, were depressed at ileal and fecal level, respectively. Lignin did not depress amino acid digestibility in general but specifically depressed methionine, histidine, isoleucine and threonine digestibility. Cellulose content did not affect amino acid digestibility but undesirable factors might be responsible.

Study on the Identification and Contents of New Amino Acid in Edible Mushrooms (식용(食用)버섯중(中)의 새로운 아미노산(酸)의 구명(究明))

  • Ro, Ihl-Hyeob
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
    • /
    • v.12 no.1
    • /
    • pp.31-41
    • /
    • 1979
  • Free amino acid in ethanol extracts and total amino acids in hydrolysates of eleven species of edible mushrooms were analyzed and determinated the contents five kind of new amino acid by means of amino acid autoanalyzer and gas liquid chromatography. The result obtained from this study are as follows. 1) Five kind of new amino acid turned out to be ${\alpha}$-aminobutyric acid, allo-isoleucine, ethanolamine, $\gamma$-aminobutyric acid and ornithine. 2) By means of amino acid autoanalyzer, the monoethanolamine was identified on the chromatogram ahead of alanine, ${\alpha}$-aminobutyric acid between peak of threonine and glycine, allo-isoeleucine between peak of valine and leucine, isoleucine, ${\gamma}$-aminobutyric acid followed by proline between peak of leucine, isoleucine and methionine and ornithine between peak of phenylalanine and tyrosine 3) By means of Gas liquid chromatography, the ${\alpha}$-aminobutyric acid was identified on the chromatogram between peaks of alanine and valine, allo-isoleucine between peaks of methionine and isoleucine, monoethanolamine followed by ${\gamma}$-aminobutyric acid between peaks of phenylalanine and ammonia, ornithine between the peaks of ammonia and lysine. 4) Of five amino acids which were identified, ornithine was the highest of its content in the mushroom extracts, and allo-isoleucine, ethanolamine, and ${\gamma}$-aminobutyric acid came next in decreasing order. 5) Also which were identified, ornithine was the highest of its content in the hydrolysates, and ${\alpha}$-aminobutyric acid, ${\gamma}$-aminobutyric acid, allo-isoleucine came next in decreasing order, ethanol extracts and hydrolysates of Auriculariaauricula-Judae(Fr.) $Qu\acute{e}l$ species didn't contain any of five kind of new amino acid. Ornithine also was the highest in the hydrolysates of ll mushrooms.

  • PDF

The Influence of pH on the Color Development of Melanoidins Formed from Fructose/Amino Acid Enantiomer Model Systems

  • Kim, Ji-Sang;Lee, Young-Soon
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
    • /
    • v.13 no.4
    • /
    • pp.306-312
    • /
    • 2008
  • This study investigated the influence of pH on the color development of melanoidins formed from amino acid enantiomer model systems. For this, the color development was evaluated by measuring browning at 420 nm and color measurements by spectrophotometry and colorimetry. The browning and browning index showed no difference according to the type of amino acid enantiomers, while that formed from the D-Asn system was the only difference according to pH level. The tristimulus value of melanoidins formed from all model systems was located on a dominant wavelength of 475 nm, the blue zone of the diagram. In addition, the $L^*$, $a^*$, $b^*$, $C^*_{ab}$ values, and ${\Delta}E^*$ index on the basis of the type of amino acid enantiomers, the differences were markedly found at pH 4.0. At pH 7.0, significantly differences were found in the $L^*$, $a^*$, $b^*$ values, and ${\Delta}E^*$ index and not in the case of the lysine enantiomers. In addition, at pH 10.0, the differences were found in the $a^*$ and $b^*$ values from the lysine enantiomers and $C^*_{ab}$ value from the asparagine enantiomers. Therefore, the color development of melanoidins was influenced by the type of amino acid enantiomers and pH levels. Especially, it is thought that the $a^*$ and $b^*$ values can be used to explain the differences among the amino acid enantiomers in the color development of melanoidins.

Effect of Steaming, Blanching, and High Temperature/High Pressure Processing on the Amino Acid Contents of Commonly Consumed Korean Vegetables and Pulses

  • Kim, Su-Yeon;Kim, Bo-Min;Kim, Jung-Bong;Shanmugavelan, Poovan;Kim, Heon-Woong;Kim, So-Young;Kim, Se-Na;Cho, Young-Sook;Choi, Han-Seok;Park, Ki-Moon
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
    • /
    • v.19 no.3
    • /
    • pp.220-226
    • /
    • 2014
  • In the present report, the effects of blanching, steaming, and high temperature/high pressure processing (HTHP) on the amino acid contents of commonly consumed Korean root vegetables, leaf vegetables, and pulses were evaluated using an Automatic Amino Acid Analyzer. The total amino acid content of the samples tested was between 3.38 g/100 g dry weight (DW) and 21.32 g/100 g DW in raw vegetables and between 29.36 g/100 g DW and 30.55 g/100 g DW in raw pulses. With HTHP, we observed significant decreases in the lysine and arginine contents of vegetables and the lysine, arginine, and cysteine contents of pulses. Moreover, the amino acid contents of blanched vegetables and steamed pulses were more similar than the amino acid contents of the HTHP vegetables and HTHP pulses. Interestingly, lysine, arginine, and cysteine were more sensitive to HTHP than the other amino acids. Partial Least Squares-Discriminate Analyses were also performed to discriminate the clusters and patterns of amino acids.