• Title/Summary/Keyword: Amino-acid

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Genetic Characteristics of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus Isolated in Korea (돼지 유행성 설사 바이러스 국내분리주의 유전학적 특성 규명)

  • Chi, Yong-zhe;Kwon, Hyuk-moo;Jeong, Hyun-kyu;Han, Jeong-hee
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.43 no.2
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    • pp.219-230
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    • 2003
  • Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus(PED), a member of Coronaviridea, is the etiological agent of enteropathogenic diarrhea in swine. The purpose of this study was to investigate genetic characteristic of PEDV isolated in Korea. Nucleocapsid(N) gene and membrane (M) gene of recent Korean PEDV strains isolated in 2001 were amplified, cloned, sequenced and analyzed. N gene of seven Korean PEDV field isolates bad 94.5% to 99.4% nucleotide and 92.4% to 99.4% amino acid sequence homology each other. Nucleotide and amino acid sequences of Korean field PEDVs were different from published foreign PEDVs, showing 95.1% to 98.0% nucleotide and 93.5% to 97.6% amino acid sequence homology. By phylogenetic tree analysis on based nucleotide sequences, PEDVs were clustered into four groups. By phylogenetic tree analysis based on amino acid sequences. PEDVs were clustered into five groups. M gene of our Korean PEDV field isolates had 99.6% to 100% nucleotide and 98.7% to 100% amino acid sequence homology each other. Nuclotide and amino acid sequences of Korean field PEDVs were different from published foreign PEDVs, showing 98.5% to 98.8% nucleotide and 97.3% to 97.8% amino acid sequence homology. By phylogenetic tree analysis based on nucleotide and amino acid sequences, PEDVs were clustered into two groups which were Korean PEDV isolate group and foreign PEDV isolate group.

Conditions of Quantitative Analysis for free Amino Acid in Fermented Proteins (발효단백질의 유리아미노산 정량)

  • Ryu, Hong-Soo;Moon, Jung-Hye;Lee, Kang-Ho
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.136-143
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    • 1988
  • This study was performed to provide the optimal conditions of quantitative analysis for free amino acid in fermented protein foods. The water extractable free amino acid from dairy fermented foods was extracted effectively at $75^{\circ}C$ for 40 min., while it were extracted from fermented soy products at $40^{\circ}C$ for 3 hours. A close results of free amino acid content to those from amino acid analyzer were obtained using OPDA method with lysine standard after deproteinizing with 1% picric acid. 95% ethanol used as a deproteinizing reagent could give a comparable results to those from picric acid treatment in determining free amino acid content using OPDA method. Therefore, ethanol treatment was more recommendable than picric acid treatment which has some troubles in removing excess picric acid through Dowex resin column. The most desirable precipitation method for free amino acid determination using TNBS method was 95% ethanol treatment among the various deproteinizing procedure. The copper salt method was not suitable owing to its lacking reproducibility and pronounced discrepancy in determining free amino acid.

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Effect of Dietary Taurine or Glycine Supplementation on Plasma and Liver Free Amino Acid Concentrations in Rats (식이내의 타우린 또는 글라이신 보강이 흰쥐의 혈장과 간의 유리아미노산 농도 및 패턴에 미치는 영향)

  • 박정은
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.31 no.2
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    • pp.126-134
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    • 1998
  • Our previous study demonstrated that dietary taurine or glycine supplementation significantly lowered plasma and hepatic cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations in rats fed a cholesterol-free diet. In the present study, the effect of long term dietary taurine or glycine supplementation, for the purpose of preventing and/or treating of hyperlipidemia and other known biological functions, on plasma and hepatic free amino acid concentrations and profiles were evaluated in rats. Three groups of male rats(110-130g) were fed a control diet(CD), taurine-supplemented diets(TSD ; CD+ 1.5% taurine) or glycine-supplemented diet(GSD ; CD+1.5% glycine) for 5 weeks. Plasma and hepatic free amino acid concentrations were determined by an automated amino acid analyzer based on ion-exchange chormatography. The feeding of TSD for 5 weeks yielded a 444% higher plasma taurine concentration , and the feeding GSD for the same period resulted in a 143% higher plasma glycine level in rats compared to those fed DB. Hepatic taurine concentration was significantly higher in rats fed TSD(145% increase) compared to the control rats. However, hepatic glycine concentration was not influenced by dietary glycine supplementation , which implies that the massive dose of glycine entering the body was more rapidly metabolized or excreted than taurein. Dietary taurine or glycine supplementation resulted in similar changes in plasma free amino acid concentrations, except in levels of taurine and glycine. Plasma levels of histidine, lysine, phenylalanine , alanine, proline, hydroxypoline, $\alpha$-aminogutyric acid, cystathionine and ethanolamine were significantly higher in rats fed TSD or GSD than those fed GD. Glycine supplementation did not change hepatic free amino acid concentrations as compared to CD. Concentrations of most hepatic free amino acids were not influenced by dietary taurine supplementation with the exception of significantly higher levels of asparate and tyrosine(56-63% increase) and lower levels of histidine and glutamate(33-34% decrease) compared to the control rats. These results suggest long-term dietary taurine or glycine supplementation resulted in increases in most plasma free amino acid levels, but did not cause a characteristic change in plasma aminogram pattern compared to rats fed CD.

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Physicochemical Properties of Domestic Cherry Tomato Varieties (국내산 방울토마토의 이화학적 특성)

  • Ahn, Jun-Bae
    • Culinary science and hospitality research
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    • v.23 no.7
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    • pp.42-49
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    • 2017
  • This study was conducted to determine the nutritional value of domestic cherry tomato varieties (Summerking, Qutiquti, and Minichal). The levels of amino acids, amino acid derivatives, and ${\gamma}-aminobutyric-acid$ (GABA) were analyzed using ion chromatography. In domestic cherry tomatoes, eighteen free amino acids were found including L-glutamic acid (L-Glu), L-glutamine (L-Gln), and L-aspartic acid (L-Asp). L-Glu was the most abundant amino acid, ranging from 1,533.17 mg/100 g to 1,920.65 mg/100 g (dry weight). The next abundant amino acids were L-Gln, ranging from 784.68 mg/100 g to 1,164.36 mg/100 g and L-Asp, ranging from 320.73 mg/100 g to 387.22 mg/100 g. Domestic cherry tomatoes contained eight essential amino acids except tryptophan and the total essential amino acid content was 297.30~432.43 mg/100 g (dry weight), which was 8.92~10.61% of total free amino acid. Several amino acid derivatives were found: L-carnitine (L-Car), hydroxylysine (Hyl), o-phosphoethanolamine (o-Pea), phosphoserine (p-Ser), ${\beta}-alanine$ (${\beta}-Ala$), N-methyl-histidine (Me-His), ethanolamine ($EtNH_2$), and L-citrulline (L-Cit). L-Car, transporting long-chain fatty acid into mitocondrial matrix, was the most abundant amino acid derivative in all domestic cherry tomatoes. A high level of GABA (313.18~638.57 mg/100 g), known as a neurotransmitter, was also found in all three domestic cherry tomatoes. These results revealed that domestic cherry tomatoes have a good balance of nutrient and bioactive compounds. Therefore, cherry tomatoes can be used as a functional food material.

The Structural Characterization of Recombinant Bovine Somatotropin Expressed in Escherichia coli (재조합 소성장호르몬의 구조적 특성)

  • 김정호;김훈주박은숙김준
    • KSBB Journal
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.165-173
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    • 1994
  • In this paper we have described the structural characterization of recombinant bovine somatotropin produced in Escherichia coli. Recombinant bovine somatotropin consists of 191 amino acid residues with a calculated molecular weight of 21,802 Da. For fragmentation of recombinant bovine somatotropin, we have used trypsin, Staphylococcus aureus V8 pretease, CNBr, and mild acid hydrolysis method. Digestion and cleavage with these proteases and chemicals yielded peptides of various size for amino acid sequence determination. The N-terminal sequence analysis was carried out up to thirty residues. Because the design of the recombinant bovine somatotropin gene for expression was such that the coding sequence begins with an initiation codon, AUG, before Ala, the first amino acid of bovine somatotropin, we could expect the initial amino acid as N-formyl Met. But the first amino acid of this protein, expressed in E. coli cells as inclusion bodies, was Ala. And the amino acid composition of RP-HPLC purified recombinant bovine somatotropin was determined and no essencial difference was observed. The amino acid sequence of the recombinant bovine somatotropin was identical to that predicted from its recombinant gene. There was no processing or replacement of amino acid residues in recombinant bovine somatotropin expressed in E. coli. The hydropathy plot of recombinant bovine somatotropin revealed a hydrophobic region at the NH2-terminus and hydrophilic region at the COOH-terminus. The E. coli expression system is thought to be valuable for the expression of recombinant bovine somatotropin because protein was processed to remove the N-terminal Met residue by methionyl-aminopeptidase autonomously.

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Synthesis of N-(Alkyl-N'-nitrosocarbamoyl)-amino Acid Ester Derivatives and their Anticancer Activity (N-(Alkyl-N'-nitrosocarbamoyl)-amino Acid Ester류의 合成 및 抗癌 作用 評價)

  • Kim, Jeong-Gyun;Park, Moon-Tae;Shin, Hong-Dae;Koh, Young-Sim;Yoon, Ung-Chan;Ryu, Sung-Ho;Moon, Kyung-Ho;Kim, Min-Sook
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.28 no.4
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    • pp.197-206
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    • 1984
  • The derivatives of N-(alkylcarbamoyl) amino acid methyl ester, N-(2-chloroethylcarbamoyl)-glycine methyl ester (7a), -valine methyl ester (8a), -phenylalanine methyl ester (9a), N-(N'-methylcarbamoyl)-glycine methyl ester (7b), -valine methyl ester (8b), and-phenylalanine methyl ester (9b), were prepared by reacting the corresponding free amino acid methyl ester (glycine-, valine-, phenylalanine-methyl ester) with isocyanate (R-N=C=O${\cdot};R=Cl-CH_2-CH_2-or\; CH_3-)$. The prepared N-(alkylcarbamoyl) amino acid methyl esters (7,8,9) were treated with $NaNO_2$/98% HCOOH in order to obtain their nitrosoated products, N-(alkyl-N'-nitrosocarbmoyl)amino acid methyl ester. The compound (7,8,9) gave N-(2-chloroethyl-N'-nitrosocarbamoyl)-valine methyl ester (14a),-phenylalanine methyl ester (15a), N-(N'-alkyl-N'-nitrosocarbamoyl)-glycine methyl ester (13b),-valine methyl ester. (14b), and-phenylalanine methyl ester (15b) respectively under the nitrosoation. On the other hand, N-(2-chloroethylcarbamoyl) glycine methyl ester produced N-(2-chloroethylcarbamoyl)-N-nitrosoglycine methyl ester (13a). The inhibitory activity of the prepared N-(alkylcarbamoyl) amino acid methyl ester (7,8,9) and N-(alkyl-N'-nitrosocarbamoyl) amino acid methyl ester (13,14,15) towards the growth of L1210 murine leukemia cells were examined. Among them the compound (14a) and (15a) exhibit excellent activity having $ED_{50}\; to\;be\;1.5{\mu}g/ml\;and\;3.0{\mu}g/ml respectively.

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Effects of Casein and Protein-free Diets on Endogenous Amino Acid Losses in Pigs

  • Zhang, Yongcheng;Li, Defa;Fan, Shijun;Piao, Xiangshu;Wang, Jitan;Han, In K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.15 no.11
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    • pp.1634-1638
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    • 2002
  • Quantification of endogenous amino acid loss at the terminal ileum is an essential means for calculation of the true amino acid digestibility of a feedstuff. Since nitrogen appeared in the determined diet or not could shift the results very much, also, none of digestibility markers could be recovered with 100% rate at the terminal ileum, the objectives of the present study were: (1) to determine endogenous amino acid losses when fed either a casein diet or a protein-free diet and (2) to examine the reliability of chromic oxide or acid insoluble ash in the protein-free diet. Six ileal-cannulated pigs ($65{\pm}1.85 kg$ BW) with a simple T-cannula in the terminal ileum were used in a replicated $3{\times}3$ Latin square designed trial, after allowed a 14 d recuperation period. Each test period ran for 12 days comprised of a 10 d adjustment period and a 2 d collection period. The endogenous AA losses of His, Ile, Lys, Cys, Thr, Val, Trp, Asp, Glu, and Ser from pigs fed the casein diet were significantly higher than those of the protein-free diet (p<0.05). No significant difference was found in the amount of endogenous amino acid loss when determined with the different markers in the protein-free diet (p>0.05). These data suggest that endogenous amino acid loss could be underestimated when a protein-free diet is used. A direct effect of dietary peptides on the endogenous amino acid loss was found when the casein diet was fed. Our results also indicate that acid insoluble ash can be used as an inert marker as an alternative to chromic oxide when measuring endogenous amino acid loss.

Proteomic analysis of amino acid metabolism differences between wild and cultivated Panax ginseng

  • Sun, Hang;Liu, Fangbing;Sun, Liwei;Liu, Jianzeng;Wang, Manying;Chen, Xuenan;Xu, Xiaohao;Ma, Rui;Feng, Kai;Jiang, Rui
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.40 no.2
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    • pp.113-120
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    • 2016
  • Background: The present study aimed to compare the relative abundance of proteins and amino acid metabolites to explore the mechanisms underlying the difference between wild and cultivated ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer) at the amino acid level. Methods: Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation were used to identify the differential abundance of proteins between wild and cultivated ginseng. Total amino acids in wild and cultivated ginseng were compared using an automated amino acid analyzer. The activities of amino acid metabolism-related enzymes and the contents of intermediate metabolites between wild and cultivated ginseng were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and spectrophotometric methods. Results: Our results showed that the contents of 14 types of amino acids were higher in wild ginseng compared with cultivated ginseng. The amino acid metabolism-related enzymes and their derivatives, such as glutamate decarboxylase and S-adenosylmethionine, all had high levels of accumulation in wild ginseng. The accumulation of sulfur amino acid synthesis-related proteins, such as methionine synthase, was also higher in wild ginseng. In addition, glycolysis and tricarboxylic acid cycle-related enzymes as well as their intermediates had high levels of accumulation in wild ginseng. Conclusion: This study elucidates the differences in amino acids between wild and cultivated ginseng. These results will provide a reference for further studies on the medicinal functions of wild ginseng.

Effect of Non-starch Polysaccharides on Mucin Secretion and Endogenous Amino Acid Losses in Pigs

  • Morel, P.C.H.;Padilla, R.M.;Ravindran, G.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.16 no.9
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    • pp.1332-1338
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    • 2003
  • This study was undertaken to examine the influence of soluble non-starch polysaccharides on growth performance, mucin secretion, and endogenous amino acid flows in weaner pigs. Different levels (0, 4 and 7.5%) of purified corn arabinoxylan (AX) or barley $\beta$-glucan extract (BG) were substituted for cellulose in a purified diet based on starch, sucrose and enzymatically hydrolyzed casein. All diets contained titanium oxide as an indigestible marker. Each experimental diet was fed to five, 6-wk old weaner pigs for 21 days. Average daily gain (p<0.05) and feed conversion ratio (p<0.01) were improved with dietary inclusion of 7.5% AX and BG, indicating high degradation rates of AX and BG in pigs. Crude mucin contents and endogenous nitrogen flow were increased (p<0.05) with increased levels of AX, but not with BG. Numerical increases in endogenous amino acid flow (EAAF) were observed with increased levels of AX but no definite trend with BG. Endogenous amino acid flow in pigs fed mixed NSP diets (4% BG and 3.5% cellulose) was significantly higher (p<0.05) than those fed 7.5% BG diets. Among diets containing pure sources of soluble non-starch polysaccharides, endogenous amino acid flows were highest in 7.5% AX (p<0.05), intermediate in BG, and lowest in control diet. Increased flows (p<0.01) of threonine, proline and serine in pigs fed 7.5% AX diets are consistent with the increased flow of crude mucin determined in this treatment. In conclusion, mucin and endogenous amino acid flows were increased with dietary inclusion of AX, which could be related to its physicochemical property, particularly its high water-holding capacity. In contrast, $\beta$-glucan, due to its high degradation rate in pig, may be considered as unimportant factor in inducing mucin and endogenous amino acid secretions, at least at levels such as those used in this study.

A Study on the Amino Acid Contents of Edible Mushrooms (식용(食用)버섯류(類)의 아미노산(酸)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究))

  • Pyo, Myoung-Yun;Ro, Ihl-Hyeob
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.47-59
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    • 1975
  • Free amino acids in extracts and total amino acids in hydrolysates of eleven species of edible mushrooms were analyzed by amino acid autoanalyzer (Technicon PNC-1 Type). All these 11 species of mushroom can be repesented for convenience sake as follows. S-1; Agaricus campestris Fr. S-2: Agaricus campestris S-3; Pholiota nameko(I. Ito) S. Ito et Imai S-4; Auricularia auricula-judae(Fr.) $Qu{\acute{e}}l$ S-5; Tremella fuciformis Berk. S-6; Tricholoma matsutake(S. Ito et Imai) Sing. S-7; Pleurotus ostreatus Fr. $Qu{\acute{e}}l$ S-8; Lentinus edodes Berk Sing. S-9; Ramaria botrytis (Pers.) Ricken S-10; Coprinus comatus(Fr.) S.F, Gray S-11; Gyrophora esculenta The results obtained from this study are as follows. 1) 17 kinds of amino acid, including 7 kinds of essential amino acid in human nutrition except tryptophan were identified and quantified. 2) Of all free amino acids contained in mushrooms, glutamic acid is the richest, and then comes Ala, Thr, Pro and Lys in that order. There were no found Cys'and His in S-9;His in S-1; Met and Arg in S-11; Cys and Met in S-5;Pro, Cys, Met, Lys and Arg in S-4. Of all total amino acids which are closely related with nutritional valuation, glutamic acid is the richest, and then comes Asp, Ala, Arg, Leu, Thr, Gly in that order. Especially S-1 and S-2 contain high quantity $o{\acute{i}}$ proline in both free and total amino acids. 3) Cotents of ammonia in extracts of mushrooms in decreasing order in S-1, S-10, S-8, S-2, S-7, S-6, and S-2, S-6, S-8, S-9, S-1 in hydrolysates of mushrooms. 4) Gross Contents of free amino acid in extracts is high in decreasing order in S-10, S-1, S-7, S-6, S-8, and total amino acid in hydrolysates is high in S-10, S-2, S-2, S-8, S-1, S-9, S-6. 5) Besides 17 kinds of amino acid, 5 kinds of unknown amino acid are found in extracts and hydrolysates.

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