• Title, Summary, Keyword: Amino-acid

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Plasma Aminogram and Urinary Excretion of Free Amino Acids in Adult Vegetarians Compared with AGe-Matched Omnivores in Korea

  • Park, Tae-Sun;Chang, Jun-Sung;Sung, Mi-Kyung
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.3 no.4
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    • pp.368-373
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    • 1998
  • Plasma amino acid concentration and Urinary exretion of free amino acids were measured in health female vegetarians(n=20, 19.9 $\pm$0.43 years old ) and age-mateched imnivores(n=20, 21.9$\pm$0.38years old) in Korean. differences infasting plasma amino acid concentrations and plasma aminogram pattern were not spectacular between the vegetarian and omnivore controls. Compared to the omnivores, vegetarians showed significantly lower plasma levels of methionine , phenylalanine, $\alpha$-aminobutyrate, citrulline, phosposerine and tarurine, and significantly higher plasma concentrations of arginine, $\alpha$-aminobutyrate, cirtrulline, phosphosierine and taurine, and significantly higher plasma concentrations of arginine, $\alpha$-aminoadipate, asparagine, aspartate, glutamate and ornithine. Although these differences were statistically significant, they were all within the normal range (21~70% differences )for human adults. Most of the urinary amino acids (nmol/mg creatinine or $\mu$mol/24 hr urine) were excreted to significantly lesser degree in vegetarians than was the case in omnivore controls. For almost every individual free amino acid, plasma concentration did not significantly correlate with urinary excretion level. These results indicate that vegetarians excreted less amino acids in their urine than did dominivores, most probably in an effort to maintain amino acid homeostasis to an altered dietary protein intake level and/or amino acid composition of their diets.

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New Enzymes Acting on Peptides Containing D-Amino Acids: Their Properties and Application

  • Asano, Yasuhisa
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.10 no.5
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    • pp.573-579
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    • 2000
  • Knowledge on the enzymes acting on p-amino-acid-containing peptides appears to be somewhat limited when compared with those acting on peptides composed on L-amino acids. Less than ten D-stereospecific enzymes are hitherto known. This review describes about several novel D-stereospecific peptidases and amidases of microbial origin, including D-aminopeptidase (E.C. 3.4.11.19), alkaline D-peptidase, and D-amino aicd amidase, which are applied to the synthesis of D-amino acid/or D-amino acid derivatives.

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Remarkable impact of amino acids on ginsenoside transformation from fresh ginseng to red ginseng

  • Liu, Zhi;Wen, Xin;Wang, Chong-Zhi;Li, Wei;Huang, Wei-Hua;Xia, Juan;Ruan, Chang-Chun;Yuan, Chun-Su
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.44 no.3
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    • pp.424-434
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    • 2020
  • Background: Amino acids are one of the major constituents in Panax ginseng, including neutral amino acid, acidic amino acid, and basic amino acid. However, whether these amino acids play a role in ginsenoside conversion during the steaming process has not yet been elucidated. Methods: In the present study, to elucidate the role of amino acids in ginsenoside transformation from fresh ginseng to red ginseng, an amino acids impregnation pretreatment was applied during the steaming process at 120℃. Acidic glutamic acid and basic arginine were used for the acid impregnation treatment during the root steaming. The ginsenosides contents, pH, browning intensity, and free amino acids contents in untreated and amino acid-treated P. ginseng samples were determined. Results: After 2 h of steaming, the concentration of less polar ginsenosides in glutamic acid-treated P. ginseng was significantly higher than that in untreated P. ginseng during the steaming process. However, the less polar ginsenosides in arginine-treated P. ginseng increased slightly. Meanwhile, free amino acids contents in fresh P. ginseng, glutamic acid-treated P. ginseng, and arginine-treated P. ginseng significantly decreased during steaming from 0 to 2h. The pH also decreased in P. ginseng samples at high temperatures. The pH decrease in red ginseng was closely related to the decrease in basic amino acids levels during the steaming process. Conclusion: Amino acids can remarkably affect the acidity of P. ginseng sample by altering the pH value. They were the main influential factors for the ginsenoside transformation. These results are useful in elucidating why and how steaming induces the structural change of ginsenoside inP. ginseng and also provides an effective and green approach to regulate the ginsenoside conversion using amino acids during the steaming process.

Single Hydrolysis Method for the Amino Acid Determination in Foods and Composite Dishes (식품의 아미노산 정량을 위한 단일가수분해 방법의 개발)

  • 박내선
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.422-429
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    • 1997
  • For the complete and accurate amino acid determination of protein and food samples, 3 different hydrolysis procedures have been conducted in parallel for each sample, which include the alkaline hydrolysis for tryptophan determination, performic acid oxidation prior to the acid hydrolysis for the determination of cysteine and cystine, and the 6N HCl hydrolysis for the determination of the rest of amino acids. In the present study, amino acid concentrations obtained from the modified single hydrolysis procedure were compared with the values from the conventional hydrolysis procedures in casein and nine food and composite dish samples. In most of the samples tested, the modified single hydrolysis procedure gave significantly higher values of cysteins and cystein compared to the performic acid oxidation method, but resulted in a considerable destruction of tryptophan in food and composited dish samples. There was no consistent difference in the rest of amino acid concentrations between the two hydrolysis systems. Therefore, for complete amino acid determination of various foods and composite dishes, the single hydrolysis method may replace the 6N HCl hydrolysis and performic acid oxidation methods, and thereby reduces 3 hydrolyses to 2 steps with much higher recoveries of the sulfur containing amino acids.

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Study on the Identification and Contents of New Amino Acid in Edible Mushrooms (식용(食用)버섯중(中)의 새로운 아미노산(酸)의 구명(究明))

  • Ro, Ihl-Hyeob
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.31-41
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    • 1979
  • Free amino acid in ethanol extracts and total amino acids in hydrolysates of eleven species of edible mushrooms were analyzed and determinated the contents five kind of new amino acid by means of amino acid autoanalyzer and gas liquid chromatography. The result obtained from this study are as follows. 1) Five kind of new amino acid turned out to be ${\alpha}$-aminobutyric acid, allo-isoleucine, ethanolamine, $\gamma$-aminobutyric acid and ornithine. 2) By means of amino acid autoanalyzer, the monoethanolamine was identified on the chromatogram ahead of alanine, ${\alpha}$-aminobutyric acid between peak of threonine and glycine, allo-isoeleucine between peak of valine and leucine, isoleucine, ${\gamma}$-aminobutyric acid followed by proline between peak of leucine, isoleucine and methionine and ornithine between peak of phenylalanine and tyrosine 3) By means of Gas liquid chromatography, the ${\alpha}$-aminobutyric acid was identified on the chromatogram between peaks of alanine and valine, allo-isoleucine between peaks of methionine and isoleucine, monoethanolamine followed by ${\gamma}$-aminobutyric acid between peaks of phenylalanine and ammonia, ornithine between the peaks of ammonia and lysine. 4) Of five amino acids which were identified, ornithine was the highest of its content in the mushroom extracts, and allo-isoleucine, ethanolamine, and ${\gamma}$-aminobutyric acid came next in decreasing order. 5) Also which were identified, ornithine was the highest of its content in the hydrolysates, and ${\alpha}$-aminobutyric acid, ${\gamma}$-aminobutyric acid, allo-isoleucine came next in decreasing order, ethanol extracts and hydrolysates of Auriculariaauricula-Judae(Fr.) $Qu\acute{e}l$ species didn't contain any of five kind of new amino acid. Ornithine also was the highest in the hydrolysates of ll mushrooms.

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Regulation of 3-Deoxy-D-arabinoheptulosonate-7-phosphate (DAHP) Synthase of Bacillus sp. B-6 Producing Phenazine-1-carboxylic acid

  • Kim, Kyoung-Ja
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.34 no.4
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    • pp.299-304
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    • 2001
  • The 3-Deoxy-D-arabinoheptulosonate 7-phosphate (DAHP) synthase is the first enzyme of aromatic amino acid-, folic acid-, and phenazine-1-carboxylic acid biosynthetic pathways. DAHP synthase of Bacillus sp. B-6 that produces phenazine-1-carboxylic acid was feedback inhibited by two intermediary metabolites of aromatic amino acid biosynthetic pathways, prephenate and chorismate, but not by other metabolites, such as anthranilic acid, shikimic acid, p-aminobenzoic acid, and 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid. DAHP synthase of Bacillus sp. B-6 was not inhibited by end products, such as aromatic amino acids, folic acid, and phenazine-1-carboxylic acid. The inhibition of DAHP synthase by prephenate and chorismate was non-competitive with respect to erythrose 4-phosphate and phosphoenolpyruvate. Prephenate and chorismate inhibited 50% of the DAHP synthase activity at concentrations of $2{\times}10^{-5}\;M$ and $1.2{\times}10^{-4}\;M$, respectively The synthesis of DAHP synthase of Bacillus sp. B-6 was not repressed by exogenous aromatic amino acids, folic acid, and phenazine 1-carboxylic acid, single or in combinations.

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The Optimum Dietary Essential Amino Acid Pattern for Male Taiwan Country Chicks

  • Wei, Hen-Wei;Kuo, Hsin-Mei;Chiu, Wen-Zan;Chen, Bao-Ji
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.22 no.8
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    • pp.1186-1194
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    • 2009
  • The objective of this study was to estimate the optimum dietary essential amino acid pattern for male Taiwan country chicks. A series of experiments was conducted with chicks, 14 d of age, for 2 wks. A basal synthetic diet was established using a dose response test for all essential amino acids referring to the broiler requirements recommended by NRC (1994). Twelve chicks were sacrificed at the beginning to provide initial body nitrogen data, and every group of six birds received the basal diet or a diet with a deficiency in a single essential amino acid in twenty one treatments by intubation according to their daily metabolic body weight (MBW). Deposited body nitrogen was determined using comparative slaughtering. According to the daily intake from the limiting amino acid per unit of MBW and the body nitrogen accretion rates for every two deficient groups with the same limiting amino acid but at different levels, a corresponding straight line was computed for each essential amino acid to intersect with a horizontal line made by the body nitrogen accretion rate of the control group. The x coordinate of the intersection represented the daily requirement for growth plus maintenance based on MBW corresponding to the essential amino acid. The amino acid ratios can be considered as the optimum pattern of dietary essential amino acids. The results, expressed with respect to lysine = 100, were arginine 105, methionine 81, histidine 34, tryptophan 18, leucine 103, phenylalanine 135, isoleucine 69, threonine 65 and valine 79. This pattern could be utilized to compute the dietary requirements (g/kg feed) for all essential amino acids by multiplying by the requirement of a single essential amino acid cited from the literature.

Comparative Studies on the Composition of Korean Human and Cow's Milk (I) -Amino Acid Composition of Human and Cow's Milk of Korea- (한국인(韓國人) 모유(母乳)와 우유(牛乳)의 성분(成分) 조성(組成)에 관(關)한 비교(比較) 연구(硏究) (I) -한국인(韓國人) 모유(母乳)와 우유중(牛乳中)의 Amino산(酸) 조성(組成)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究)-)

  • Ko, Young-Su;Kim, Jung-Ja;Han, In-Ja
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.87-94
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    • 1970
  • The amino acid composition of human and cow's milk represents a standard of reference in infantnutrition. The amino acid compositions determined by automatic amino acid analyzer, Yanagimote Model LC-5. Protein in the human and cow's milk were found to be hydrolyzed to yield free amino acids. Qualitative data for free amino acids in the milk are as follows: 1) Amounts of acidic amino acids such as glutamic and aspartic acid in cow's milk were obserbed to be about 2 times compared with human milk and it is considered that the abundance in these amino acids may contribute significantly to the specific flavor of cow's milk. 2) It is much interesting that in the human milk the contents of sulfur-containing amino acids were high comparatively better than cow's milk; cystine was found to be 3 times ana methionine, 2 times. 3) In the human milk a high content of some essential amino acids such as threonine, isoleucine and leucine was demonstrated and a specific flavor sweet amino acids. 4) Large amounts of basic amino acid such as histidine was found to occur in human milk and arginine in cow's milk.

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Composition of Lipid and Amino Acid in Semisulcospira gottschei Tissues (다슬기중 지방질 및 아미노산 조성)

  • 심태흠;한규석;이태준;정의호;이해금
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.81-87
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    • 1994
  • This study was performed to investigate the detailed lipid content, lipid composition and amino acid composition of Semisulcospira gottschei tissues. Lipids of Semisulcospira gottschei tissues were extracted by the mixture of chloloform-methanol, fractionated into neutral lipids, glycolipids and phospholipids by silicic acid column chromatography and the composition of these lipid classes were determined by TLC and GLC. the amino acids in Semisulcospira gottschei tissues was analyzed by the amino acid auto analyzer. The total lipids content was 1.4% and the main components of the total lipids were neutral lipids 67.9%, glycolipids 19.3% and phospholipids 12.8%, respectively. The main fatty acids of total lipids were palmitic acid (20.5%), palmitoleic acid (16.45) and linolenic acid+eicosenoic acid (15.0%) and linoleic acid(13.1%), the main fatty acids of glycolipids were palmitic acid (41.9%), palmitoleic acid (19.7%) and oleic acid (11.7%), and the main fatty acids of phospholipids were linolenic acid+eicosenoic acid (55.1%), oleic acid (17.3%) and palmitic acid (11.4%). The main amino acids were glutamic acid (16.0%) and aspartic acid (11.1%).

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The Variation of Free Amino Acid during the Tomato Processing (토마토 가공(加工) 공정(工程) 중(中)에 있어서의 유리(遊離) 아미노 산(酸)의 변동(變動))

  • Kim, Seung Yeol;Kato, Hiromichi;Okitani, Akihiro;Hayase, Fumitaka
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.576-583
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    • 1982
  • The variation of free amino acids during the tomato producing was studied using a tomato variety, Kagome 77. The concentration of free amino acids in fresh and heated pulp, and in puree and paste was analyzed by using automatic amino acid analyzer, Hitachi model KLA-5. 1. A significant difference in decomposition rate of glutamine and asparagine among amide group was recognized. For instance, the glutamine decomposed fast and no glutamine was found in the paste, while 56% of asparagine was found in the paste. 2. The diminishing quantity of glutamic acid among acid group was highest among all free amino acids. The quantity of aspartic acid was next to the glutamine. The percents of glutamic acid and aspartic acid left over were 38% and 24%, respectively. 3. Glycine, alanine, valine, isoleucine and leucine of neutral amino acids tended to be reduced a little during the heating, concentrating process. 4. No apparent variation was found for the lysine and histidine belonging to basic amino acids. while arginine increased a little. 5. Tyrosine, phenylalanine and tryptophane of aromatic group seemed to increase a little during the heating process. But the variations of them during the concentrating process were not recognized. 6. The methionine content, sulfur containing amino acid decreased a little throughout the process. But the decrease of ${\gamma}-amino$ butyric acid of non-protein was not apparently recognized. 7. The amino acid contents of fresh pulp were found as following order: glutamic acid>${\gamma}$-amino butyric acid>glutamine>aspartic acid>asparagine. The amino acid contents of paste were as glutamic acid>${\gamma}$-amino butyric acid>aspartic acid and aspargine. The percent distribution of aromatic and basic amino acids increased, even it was not great. 8. When amino acids were analyzed by Hitachi KLA-5, unknown peak which was never app eared in the fresh pulp before tryptophane was appeared when processed. The peak became greater when heated and concentrated. Later it was known that the peak was not due to lysinoalanine or ornithine.

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