• Title/Summary/Keyword: Amino-acid

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Studies on the Drug Development of Coicis Semen(I) -Aminoacid Contents in Coicis Semen- (의이인(薏苡仁)(Coicis Semen)의 의약품개발(醫藥品開發)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究)(I) -아미노산(酸)의 함량(含量)에 대하여-)

  • Yong, Jae-Ick
    • Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation
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    • v.7 no.1_4
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    • pp.1-12
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    • 1977
  • Free amino acid in ethanol extracts and total amino acid hydrolysates of Coicis semen were analyzed by amino acid autoanalyzer. The sample A (unpolished Coicis Semen) and sample B(polished Coicis Semen) are used in this experiments. The results obtained from this study are as follows: 1) 17 kinds of free amino acid (Asp, Thr, Ser, Glu, Pro, Gly, Ala, Val, Cys, Met, Ileu, Lew, Try, Phe, Lys, His, Arg,) including 7 kinds of essential amino acid (Val, Lew, Ileu, Thr, Lys, Met, Phe,) as human nutrition were identified and quantified but tryptophan. 2) Total free amino acids of sample A is more than about 3 folds that of sample B. 3) The distribution of free amino acids contained in sample A, threonine is the richiest and then comes Ala, Glu, Asp, and Pro, in that order. In sample B, glutamic acid is the richiest and then comes Thr, Asp, Ala, and Gly, in that order. 4) 17 kinds of total amino acid (Asp, Thr, Ser, Glu, Pro, Gly, Ala, Val, Cys, Met, Ileu, Lew, Tyr, Pher, Lys, including 7 kinds of essential amino acid (Val, Leu, Ileu, Thr, Lys, Met, Phe,) in human nutrition except tryptophan were identified and quanified. 5) Total amino acid content of sample A is more than about 1.06 folds that of sample B. 6) Total amino acid content of sample A in acid hydrolysates is more than about 1.06 folds that of sample B in acid hydrolysates. 7) Unknown chromatogram of ethanol extracts and acid hydrolysates of Coicis Semen were identified as Ornitine.

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Chemical Components of Wid and Cultivated Horned Rampion, Phyteuma japonicum Miq. (영아자 (Phyteuma japonicum Miq)의 성분 조성)

  • 정미자;신정혜;이수정;홍성국;강호중;성낙주
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.11 no.4
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    • pp.437-443
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    • 1998
  • This research is to establish the basic data of the nutritive value and improve our diet. In the part of the leaf and stem of the wild and cultivated horned rampion (Phyteuma japonicum Mig), the components such as chemical compositon, vitamin C, free sugar, mineral, nucleotide and its related compounds, composition and free amino acid were analyzed one after another. Content of the crude lipids and proteins was determined much higher in its wildness than in its cultivated horned rampion; while, that of carbohydrates was higher in the former than in the latter. The content of vitamin C was retained higher in the leaf than in the stem horned rampion. And the content of calcium among the detected minerals was outstanding in all of the samples collected, and potassium and magnesium was the next ones in its order. The main components of free sugars in both the wild and cultivated horned rampion were glucose and fructose, and their content was higher in the stem than in the leaf. Nucleotide and its related compounds were identified with 5 kinds of nucieotides such as CMP, UMP, IMP, AMP and hypoxanthine (Hx), and the content of Hx and AMP was the highest I the wild and cultivated samples, respectively. In the composition amino acid of the wild horned rampion, glutamic acid, aspartic acid and phenylalanine was outstandingly abundant; while, such amino acid as methinone and proline was small and besides cysteine couldn't be detected in the stem. Total amounts of composition amino acid in the leaf was 2118.0 and 1120.1mg% in the wild and cultivated sample, respectively. In the free amino acid of horned rampion, the total amount ranged from 8.5 to 50.1mg.%, which were lower level than that of composition amino acid. But the number of free amino acid was 29 kinds, which was bigger in its number than that of composition amino acid detected 17 kinds.

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Studies on the Cellular Metabolism in Microorganisms as Influenced by Gamma-irradiation.(III) On the Changes of Protein content and Free Amino acid Pool in Yeast cells irradiated by $\gamma$-ray. (미생물의 세포생리에 미치는 전이방사선의 영향에 관한 연구(제 3보) - 효모균의 단백질함량 및 Free Amino acid Pool 에 대한 $\gamma$-ray 의 영향)

  • 김종협
    • Korean Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.79-85
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    • 1967
  • Kim, Jong Hyup., (Div. of Biology, Atomic Energy Research Institute,Korea.;) Studies on the Cellulor Metabolism in Microorganisms as influenced by Gamma-irradiation(III): On the Changes of Free Amino acid Pool and content of Protein in Yeast clls irradiated by .gamma.-ray. 1. The strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae had been cultured synchronously in aerobic condition and irradiatel by gamma-ray from the source of cobalt-60. Drying in vacuum oven at $90^{\circ}C$ C over 12 hours, then changes of protein content (Kjeldahl) and free amino acid pool have been assayed with use of spectrophotometer. Results obtained were compared with those of unirradiated normal cells. 2. It is proved that amount of protein content in the irradiated cells increases to seven percent more than those of normal cells in the same weight of dried samples. It seems like carbohydrate breakown had been stimulated by irradiation and that relative contents of protein shows higher values than those of normal in the same weight of samples. 3. The amount of free amino acid pool in the irradiated cells shows less value about ten percent than those of normal cells, and rate of decreasing is also weak than those of standard reagent solution of amino acid. We may assume that free amino acid pool would be protected against radiation damage in living cells and more stable than in vitro. 4. The component of free amino acid pool have been assayed on second dimensional paper chromatogram, and the identified amino acids are as follows; aspartic acid, serine, glutamic acid, cystine, lysine, glycine, threonine, histidine, arginine, tyrosine, phenylalanine, valine and leucine. 5. Distributional presence of free amino acids are identical to that of normal cells except arginine, it is cosumable that radiation effect is univerlsal to all amino acid. However it is obvious that there are differences in radiolabilities of amino acids in irradiated cells.

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The Effect of Sulfur Amino Acid Content of the Diet upon Plasma Taurine Concentration and Hepatic Cysteinesulfinate Decarboxylase Activity of the Early Weaned Pigs (초기 이유된 돼지에 있어서 식이내 함황 아미노산 함량이 혈장 타우린 농도와 간의 Cysteinsulfinate decarboxylase 활성에 미치는 영향)

  • 이흥미
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.29 no.3
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    • pp.260-266
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    • 1996
  • Eighteen crossbred pigs were weaned at 4 days of age and fed up to 28 days of age to examine the effect of sulfur amino acid content of three diets upon plasma taurine concentration and hepatic cysteinesulfinate decarboxylase activity. The experimental diets consisted of either whey protein (W) or partialy hydrolyzed soy protein (S) as the source of protein. 0.25% methionine was added to the S diet for the third dietary regimen (SM). Sulfur amino acid content(methionine plus cystine)of the three diets was 1.53%, 1.34% and 1.09% for the W, SM and S diet, respectively. Plasma taurine concentration from the pigs fed the three experimental diets reflected the total sulfur amino acid content of the diet. The S diet resulted in a significantly lower plasma tarrine level than the W and SM diets throughout the experiment. After three weeks, pigs fed the W diet had significantly higher plasma taurine concentration than those fed SM diet. Therfore it appears that taurine requirement of the pig depends on the sulfur amino acid contents of the diets and the conversion o sulfur amino acid to taurine seemed not to be limited by any factor when sulfur amino acid was below 1.53% of the diet. There was no significant difference between three dietary groups in hepatic cysteinesulfinate decarboxylase activity and this suggests that the reduced cysteinesulfinate decarboxylase activity due to high sulfur amino acid in the diet may not occur in the pig liver.

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The Optimum Dietary Essential Amino Acid Pattern for Male Taiwan Country Chicks

  • Wei, Hen-Wei;Kuo, Hsin-Mei;Chiu, Wen-Zan;Chen, Bao-Ji
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.22 no.8
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    • pp.1186-1194
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    • 2009
  • The objective of this study was to estimate the optimum dietary essential amino acid pattern for male Taiwan country chicks. A series of experiments was conducted with chicks, 14 d of age, for 2 wks. A basal synthetic diet was established using a dose response test for all essential amino acids referring to the broiler requirements recommended by NRC (1994). Twelve chicks were sacrificed at the beginning to provide initial body nitrogen data, and every group of six birds received the basal diet or a diet with a deficiency in a single essential amino acid in twenty one treatments by intubation according to their daily metabolic body weight (MBW). Deposited body nitrogen was determined using comparative slaughtering. According to the daily intake from the limiting amino acid per unit of MBW and the body nitrogen accretion rates for every two deficient groups with the same limiting amino acid but at different levels, a corresponding straight line was computed for each essential amino acid to intersect with a horizontal line made by the body nitrogen accretion rate of the control group. The x coordinate of the intersection represented the daily requirement for growth plus maintenance based on MBW corresponding to the essential amino acid. The amino acid ratios can be considered as the optimum pattern of dietary essential amino acids. The results, expressed with respect to lysine = 100, were arginine 105, methionine 81, histidine 34, tryptophan 18, leucine 103, phenylalanine 135, isoleucine 69, threonine 65 and valine 79. This pattern could be utilized to compute the dietary requirements (g/kg feed) for all essential amino acids by multiplying by the requirement of a single essential amino acid cited from the literature.

The Effect of Dietary Protein Source and Sulfur Amino acid Content on bone Metabolism in Growing Rats (식이 단백질의 종류와 함황아미노산 함량이 성장기 쥐의 골밀도에 미치는 영향)

  • 최미자;정소형
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.37 no.2
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    • pp.100-107
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    • 2004
  • This study was performed to evaluate the effect of dietary protein source and sulfur amino acid content on bone metabolism in ra. Thirty male rats (body weight 145$\pm$2g) were divided into three groups. The rats in the first group were fed on casein 20% diet as animal protein source and those in the second group were fed on soy 20% diet as plant protein source. Sulfur amino acid ratio of these group was 1.07:1. The rats in the third group were fed on soy 20% diet and the sulfur amino acid were supplemented with the amount contained as much in the soy 20% diet. All rats were fed on experimental diet and deionized water ad libitum for 9 weeks, The total body, spine, femur bone mineral density and bone mineral content were measured using Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry Calcium, phosphate, pyridinoline, creatinine in urine and calcium, phosphate, alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin in serum were measured. During the experimental period, plant protein (soy protein) group had a lower urinary Ca excretion, urine pyridinoline & crosslinks value and had a higher Ca efficiency in total bone and femur bone mineral density than animal protein (casein) group. There were no significant differences in serum calcium, phosphate, alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin among the three groups of the rats. The findings from this study demonstrated that plant protein (soy protein) is beneficial of bone mineral density because it had a higher Ca efficiency in total bone and femur bone mineral density than animal protein (casein). However, the supplementation of sulfur amino acid on soy results were consistent with prior studies that dietary sulfur amino acid load had a negative effect on calcium balance. The rats fed sulfur amino acid supplementation diet increased urinary calcium excretion and decreased calcium efficiency for total and femur mineral density. Therefore, dietary protein source and sulfur amino acid content influence bone metabolism. (Korean J Nutrition 37(2): 100-107, 2004)

Growth and Amino Acid Contents of Spirulina platensis with Different Nitrogen Sources

  • Park, Aeran;Kim, Song-Gun;Yoon, Byung-Dae;Oh, Hee-Mock
    • Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering:BBE
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    • v.8 no.6
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    • pp.368-372
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    • 2003
  • The growth and amino acid contents of the cyanobacterium, Spirulina platensis strain NIES 46, were investigated using ammonium, nitrate, nitrite, or urea as the sole nitrogen source in a batch culture. Chlorophyll a concentration was highest at 2,096$\mu\textrm{g}$/L in the nitrate group after 10days of cultivation, while the dry weight of S. platensis was highest at 4.5g/L in the ammonium group after 30days of cultivation. The total amino acid content was highest at 174mg/g dry weight of S. platensis in the urea group at the end of the cultivation period, yet the amino acid patterns for S. platensis were similar for all the experimental groups. Therefore, it seemed that the growth and amino acid composition of S. platensis varied depending on the type of nitrogen sources, while the amino acid patterns were not changed. Also, the most efficient harvesting time for S. platensis seemed to be approximately 10 days after cultivation.

Plasma Aminogram and Urinary Excretion of Free Amino Acids in Adult Vegetarians Compared with AGe-Matched Omnivores in Korea

  • Park, Tae-Sun;Chang, Jun-Sung;Sung, Mi-Kyung
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.3 no.4
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    • pp.368-373
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    • 1998
  • Plasma amino acid concentration and Urinary exretion of free amino acids were measured in health female vegetarians(n=20, 19.9 $\pm$0.43 years old ) and age-mateched imnivores(n=20, 21.9$\pm$0.38years old) in Korean. differences infasting plasma amino acid concentrations and plasma aminogram pattern were not spectacular between the vegetarian and omnivore controls. Compared to the omnivores, vegetarians showed significantly lower plasma levels of methionine , phenylalanine, $\alpha$-aminobutyrate, citrulline, phosposerine and tarurine, and significantly higher plasma concentrations of arginine, $\alpha$-aminobutyrate, cirtrulline, phosphosierine and taurine, and significantly higher plasma concentrations of arginine, $\alpha$-aminoadipate, asparagine, aspartate, glutamate and ornithine. Although these differences were statistically significant, they were all within the normal range (21~70% differences )for human adults. Most of the urinary amino acids (nmol/mg creatinine or $\mu$mol/24 hr urine) were excreted to significantly lesser degree in vegetarians than was the case in omnivore controls. For almost every individual free amino acid, plasma concentration did not significantly correlate with urinary excretion level. These results indicate that vegetarians excreted less amino acids in their urine than did dominivores, most probably in an effort to maintain amino acid homeostasis to an altered dietary protein intake level and/or amino acid composition of their diets.

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A Comparison of the Essential Amino Acid Content and the Retention Rate by Chicken Part according to Different Cooking Methods

  • Kim, Honggyun;Do, Hyun Wook;Chung, Heajung
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.37 no.5
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    • pp.626-634
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    • 2017
  • This study set out to identify the changes in the nutrient contents during the chicken cooking process as basic data for the establishment of a national health nutrition policy. Samples were produced using 3 chicken parts (wing, breast, and leg) and 7 cooking methods (boiling, pan-cooking, pan-frying, deep-frying, steaming, roasting, and microwaving), and the essential amino acid contents, principal components, and retention rates were analyzed. Weight loss was observed in all chicken parts with all cooking methods. The protein and essential amino acid contents of the chicken samples differed significantly according to the part and the cooking method (p<0.01). The protein and essential amino acid contents (g/100 g) of raw and cooked chicken parts showed ranges of 16.81-32.36 and 0.44-2.45, respectively. The principal component analysis (PCA) clearly demonstrated that the cooking methods and chicken parts produced similar trends for the essential amino acid contents. The retention rates of the chicken parts varied with the cooking methods, yielding a minimum value of 83% for isoleucine in a roasted wing, 91% for protein in a steamed breast, and 77% for isoleucine and lysine in a roasted leg. Therefore, the protein and amino acid contents of the roasted breast were higher than those of the other cooked chicken parts.

Changes of Amino Acid Neurotransmitter Contents in Rat Brain by Toluene Inhalation (톨루엔 흡입이 뇌내 아미노산 신경전달물질 함량에 미치는 영향)

  • 이선희;신대섭;김부영
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.91-96
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    • 1995
  • The effects of toluene inhalation on the contents of amino acid neurotransmitters in rat brain were investigated and blood toluene concentrations inducing changes of behavior and amino acid neurotransmitter contents in rat brain were observed. Male wistar rats were exposed to toluene vapor (single dose : 1700, 5000 and 10000 ppm for 2 hrs, repeated dose : 1700 and 5000 ppm for 2 hrs/day$\times$6 days). Toluene concentrations in blood and the inhalation chamber were assayed by GC with headspace sampler. HPLC method following PITC derivatization was used to measure the amino acid contents in brain tissues such as frontal cortex, caudate, hippocampus, cerebellum and brain stem. Glutamic acid and aspartic acid levels were increased by single inhalation of toluene (5000 ppm) in all the brain areas assayed in this experiment. In caudate and cerebellum, taurine levels were decreased by single inhalation of low dose toluene (1700 ppm), but increased by repeated administration. At high blood toluene concentration, GABA levels were increased in all the brain areas assayed in this experiment and the increasing extents of inhibitory amino acid contents measured in caudate and hippocampus were greater than those of excitatory amino acids. These results suggest that the changes of amino acid neurotransmitter contents in brain by exposure to toluene may modulate toluene-induced behaviors.

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