• Title/Summary/Keyword: Amino-acid

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A Study of the Free Amino Acids in the Plasma and Erythrocytes in the Male Adult Rats Fed with the Low Protein Diets (低蛋白營養에 있어서 成熟흰쥐의 Plasma 및 Erythrocytes Free Amino Acids에 대하여)

  • Hyun-Ki Lee
    • Journal of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.69-84
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    • 1971
  • An analysis of the free amino acid contained in the plasma and erythrocytes of the six groups of Wistar Strain male adult rats (body weight 200-300g) having fasted for sixteen hours was made by means of the HITACHI Amino Acid Autoanalyzer and the result of which was corrected with RC-24B TOMY Micro Hematocrit Centrifuge. There was a depression of the plasma and erythrocytes free amino acid level on the no-protein diet with ad libitum feeding. But on the 20% casein diet there was an elevation in the levels of free amino acid and consequently alanine, glysine, lysine, serine and arginine level in the erythrocytes and threonine, glutamic acid and taurine level in the plasma increased on the high protein diet. There was more plasma and erythrocytes free amino acid level on the 5% casein- 30% fat diet than on the 5% casein-no fat diet with pair-feeding. In comparison, on the low calorie diet more free amino acids were found in plasma than in erythrocytes, but on the higher calorie diet more free amino acids were found in the erythrocytes than in the plasma. On the 20% casein-30% fat diet with pair-feeding the erythrocytes free amino acids level increased but in plasma free amino acids level decreased. Such as an opposite result was given in plasma and erythrocytes free amino acids level. In the pair-fed four groups, erythrocytes per plasma generally increased in the rate of less than 10.0 as the calorie increased. The essential amino acid per non essential amino acid generally increased in the ratio as protein level and calorie increased, and that ratio range was from 0.2 to 0.7. And essential amino acid per non essential amino acid of plasma was higher than that of erythrocytes.

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Monitoring of Free Sugar and Amino Acid of Red Bean Paste by Corn Syrup Concentration and Heating Treatment Conditions (물엿농도와 열처리 조건에 따른 팥앙금 호화액의 당 및 아미노산의 변화 모니터링)

  • Rho, Min-Whan;Lee, Tae-Kyoo
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.13 no.5
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    • pp.581-588
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    • 2006
  • Dynamic changes of free sugar and amino acid in the mixture of red bean paste sediment by corn syrup concentration and heating conditions were monitored. Glucose and fructose contents of red bean paste increased with an increasing blown color intensity. Amino acid content was affected by the heating temperature, increased with an increase in browning color intensify. Browning color intensity of each samples increased up to $95^{\circ}C$, but decreased above $95^{\circ}C$. This result was the same tend as changes of glucose and amino acid. The result of correlation coefficients among free sugar amino acid and browning color intensity show that increase in browning color intensity was not correlated directly with changes of free sugar and amino acid content. It seems that the contents of free sugar and amino acid resolved from saccharides and protein were much mote than contents nea for browning reaction.

Compositions of Fatty Acid, Free Amino Acid and Total Amino Acid of Lespedeza x chiisanensis T. LEE (지리산 싸리의 지질 구성 지방산과 유리 아미노산 및 구성 총 아미노산 조성에 관하여)

  • 김종균
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.22 no.5
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    • pp.586-591
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    • 1993
  • The compositions of amino acid in the protein and fatty acid in the lipid of Lespedeza x chiisanensis T. LEE were analyzed by HPLC and GC, respectively. The contents of crude oil and protein from the extracts were 11.13% and 5.18%, respectively. The amount of free anino acids in the protein was 443.14mg/100g, and 94.84mg/100g of essential amino acid were contained in the free amino acid. The amount of total amino acids in the protein was 3159.85mg/100g, and 1068.18mg/100g of essential amino acid were contained in the total amino acid. The compositions of fatty acid in the lipid were $C_{18\;:\;2}=45.05%,\;C_{18\;:\;3}=18.71%,\;C_{19}=14.70%,C_{18\;:\;1}=6.81%,\;C_{16}=4.35%,\;C_{16\;:\;1}=1.59%$ in order, respectively. 72.44% of unsaturated fatty acids were contained in the lipid.

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Effect of the Foliar Application of Amino Acid Mixture on the Growth of Melon Seedlings (아미노산 엽면 시비가 멜론 묘의 생육에 미치는 영향)

  • 김영식;김혜진
    • Journal of Bio-Environment Control
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.74-80
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    • 2002
  • The effect of the foliar application of amino acid mixture on the growth of melon (Cucumis melo L.) seedlings was investigated. The amino acid treatments were initiated at the first (Ll) or second (L2) fully expanded leaf stage. The concentrations of amino acid mixture used were 0,10, 20, and 30 mg . L$^{-1}$ . At Ll stage, the fresh and dry weights of shoot were high in the amino acid treatments. Plant height was the highest in 30 mg . L$^{-1}$ at the third sampling of Ll. At L2 stage, shoot fresh weight was the greatest when the concentration of amino acid mixture was 30 mg.L$^{-1}$ at the third sampling. Plant height was the highest in 30 mg L$^{-1}$ at the second and third samplings. At the third sampling of Ll stage the amino acid mixture affected leaf length and leaf width of the first true leaf. At the third sampling of L2 stage leaf length was not significantly dirtferent between treatments, while leaf width was greater in amino acid treatments. At the second and third samplings of Ll stage the amino acid mixture had effect on leaf length and leaf width of the second true leafs which were not significantly different between treatments at L2 stage. Leaf length and leaf width of the third true leaf were affected by amino acid treatments. In conclusion, when the first true leaf expanded\ulcorner three foliar applications of 20-30 mg . L$^{-1}$ amino acid mixture can stimulate the growth of melon seedlings. If the amino acid mixture is sprayed at the second true leaf stage, two foliar applications of 30 mg . L$^{-1}$ amino acid mixture can improve the growth of melon seedlings.

Isolation and Characterization of the C-type Lysozyme Gene from the Common Cutworm Spodoptera litura

  • Kim, Jong-Wan;Yoe, Sung-Moon
    • Animal cells and systems
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.345-350
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    • 2009
  • We have isolated and characterized a new insect chicken type (c-type) lysozyme gene from the common cutworm, Spodoptera litura. The full-length cDNA of Spodoptera lysozyme is cloned by rapid amplification of cDNA ends PCR (RACE-PCR). The isolated cDNA consists of 1039 bp including the coding region for a 142-amino acid residue polypeptide, which included a signal peptide of 21-amino acid residue and a mature protein of 121-amino acid residue. The predicted molecular weight of mature lysozyme and its theoretical isoelectric point from amino acid composition is 13964.8 Da and 9.05, respectively. The deduced amino acid sequence of Spodoptera lysozyme gene shows the highest similarity (96.7%) to Spodoptera exigua lysozyme among other lepidopteran species. Amino acid sequence comparison with other the c-type lysozymes, Spodoptera lysozyme has the completely conserved $Glu^{32}$ and $Asp^{50}$ of the active site and eight Cys residues are completely conserved in the same position as that of other lepidopteran lysozymes.

Hydrogen Peroxide produced by Two Amino Acid Oxidases Mediates Antibacterial Actions

  • Zhang Hongmin;Yang Qiuyue;Sun Mingxuan;Teng Maikun;Niu Liwen
    • Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.42 no.4
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    • pp.336-339
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    • 2004
  • The antibacterial actions of two amino acid oxidases, a D-amino acid oxidase from hog kidney and a L-amino acid oxidase from the venom of Agkistrodon halys, were investigated, demonstrating that both enzymes were able to inhibit the growth of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and that hydrogen peroxide, a product of their enzymatic reactions, was the antibacterial factor. However, hydrogen peroxide generated in the enzymatic reactions was not sufficient to explain the degree to which bacterial growth was inhibited. A fluorescence labeling assay showed that both of these two enzymes could bind to the surfaces of bacteria. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report regarding the antibacterial activity of the D-amino acid oxidases.

Comparison of Amino Acid by Appearance of Albinism in Cultured Flounder Paralichthys olivaceus (양식산 넙치의 백화현상에 따른 아미노산 조성의 비교)

  • 김종현
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.12 no.5
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    • pp.496-501
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    • 1999
  • Albinism is a phenomenon that color of the body surface is changed to white orfaint brown from the specific color to the species by difficiency of pigments due to mutation or disease. This study was undertaken to investigate the experimental basis on the appearance of albinism in cultured flounder Paralichthys olivaceus. The skin and muscle from the normal and albinic flounder were used by measuring contents of amino acid free amino acid. The results were summarized as follows: Contents of amino acid in theskin and muscle are different from normal and albinic flounder. Phenolic and sulfuric amino acids in the skin of normal flounder were 2 times those of albinic ones. Especially tyrosine contents of the skin in normal flounder were 24 times higher than those. Methionine was 26 times higher than those Phenylalanine was 1.6 times higher. In free amino aicd phosphoserine and phosphoethanolamine were a little higher than that ones. The melanin formation of the skin in flounder was affected by substrates such as phenolic amino acid and cofactor such as sulfuric amino acid.

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Rapid Screening of Mutant Strains of Trigonopsis variabilis (ATCC10679) for Cephalosporin C Bioconversion and Sequences of D-amino acid oxidase Genes (Cephalosporin C 생물전환을 위한 Trigonopsis variabilis (ATCC10679) 변이균주의 간편한 선별 및 D-amino acid oxidase 유전자 배열)

  • 강용호;박선영
    • KSBB Journal
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.235-240
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    • 1999
  • Simple and rapid screening methods were developed to screen mutant strains of Trigonopsis variabilis ATCC10679 (TW). D-amino acid oxidase (D-AAO) from a mutant strain, T26, showed about 30% higher specific activity against cephalosporin C than from its wild type, TW. D-AAO genes from both TW and T26 strains were cloned and sequenced. There was one nucleotide changed from T to C at 811 position, resulting in an amino acid codon changed from Phe-258 to Ser-258.

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Studies on the Cellular Metabolism in Microorganisms as Influenced by Gamma-irradiation.(III) On the Changes of Protein content and Free Amino acid Pool in Yeast cells irradiated by $\gamma$-ray. (미생물의 세포생리에 미치는 전이방사선의 영향에 관한 연구(제 3보) - 효모균의 단백질함량 및 Free Amino acid Pool 에 대한 $\gamma$-ray 의 영향)

  • 김종협
    • Korean Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.79-85
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    • 1967
  • Kim, Jong Hyup., (Div. of Biology, Atomic Energy Research Institute,Korea.;) Studies on the Cellulor Metabolism in Microorganisms as influenced by Gamma-irradiation(III): On the Changes of Free Amino acid Pool and content of Protein in Yeast clls irradiated by .gamma.-ray. 1. The strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae had been cultured synchronously in aerobic condition and irradiatel by gamma-ray from the source of cobalt-60. Drying in vacuum oven at $90^{\circ}C$ C over 12 hours, then changes of protein content (Kjeldahl) and free amino acid pool have been assayed with use of spectrophotometer. Results obtained were compared with those of unirradiated normal cells. 2. It is proved that amount of protein content in the irradiated cells increases to seven percent more than those of normal cells in the same weight of dried samples. It seems like carbohydrate breakown had been stimulated by irradiation and that relative contents of protein shows higher values than those of normal in the same weight of samples. 3. The amount of free amino acid pool in the irradiated cells shows less value about ten percent than those of normal cells, and rate of decreasing is also weak than those of standard reagent solution of amino acid. We may assume that free amino acid pool would be protected against radiation damage in living cells and more stable than in vitro. 4. The component of free amino acid pool have been assayed on second dimensional paper chromatogram, and the identified amino acids are as follows; aspartic acid, serine, glutamic acid, cystine, lysine, glycine, threonine, histidine, arginine, tyrosine, phenylalanine, valine and leucine. 5. Distributional presence of free amino acids are identical to that of normal cells except arginine, it is cosumable that radiation effect is univerlsal to all amino acid. However it is obvious that there are differences in radiolabilities of amino acids in irradiated cells.

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Studies on the Drug Development of Coicis Semen(I) -Aminoacid Contents in Coicis Semen- (의이인(薏苡仁)(Coicis Semen)의 의약품개발(醫藥品開發)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究)(I) -아미노산(酸)의 함량(含量)에 대하여-)

  • Yong, Jae-Ick
    • Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation
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    • v.7 no.1_4
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    • pp.1-12
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    • 1977
  • Free amino acid in ethanol extracts and total amino acid hydrolysates of Coicis semen were analyzed by amino acid autoanalyzer. The sample A (unpolished Coicis Semen) and sample B(polished Coicis Semen) are used in this experiments. The results obtained from this study are as follows: 1) 17 kinds of free amino acid (Asp, Thr, Ser, Glu, Pro, Gly, Ala, Val, Cys, Met, Ileu, Lew, Try, Phe, Lys, His, Arg,) including 7 kinds of essential amino acid (Val, Lew, Ileu, Thr, Lys, Met, Phe,) as human nutrition were identified and quantified but tryptophan. 2) Total free amino acids of sample A is more than about 3 folds that of sample B. 3) The distribution of free amino acids contained in sample A, threonine is the richiest and then comes Ala, Glu, Asp, and Pro, in that order. In sample B, glutamic acid is the richiest and then comes Thr, Asp, Ala, and Gly, in that order. 4) 17 kinds of total amino acid (Asp, Thr, Ser, Glu, Pro, Gly, Ala, Val, Cys, Met, Ileu, Lew, Tyr, Pher, Lys, including 7 kinds of essential amino acid (Val, Leu, Ileu, Thr, Lys, Met, Phe,) in human nutrition except tryptophan were identified and quanified. 5) Total amino acid content of sample A is more than about 1.06 folds that of sample B. 6) Total amino acid content of sample A in acid hydrolysates is more than about 1.06 folds that of sample B in acid hydrolysates. 7) Unknown chromatogram of ethanol extracts and acid hydrolysates of Coicis Semen were identified as Ornitine.

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