• Title/Summary/Keyword: Amino-acid

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Amino Acid Imbalance-Biochemical Mechanism and Nutritional Aspects

  • Park, Byung-Chul
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.19 no.9
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    • pp.1361-1368
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    • 2006
  • Amino acid imbalances refer to the deleterious effects that occur when a second-limiting amino acid or mixture of amino acid lacking a particular limiting amino acid is supplemented in diets marginal in one or more indispensable amino acids. In spite of variation in the conditions that have been used to induce amino acid imbalances, such as protein level in the diet, the extent of difference in total nitrogen content between basal and imbalanced diets, and kinds of amino acids used as imbalancing agents, the conspicuous common features of amino acid imbalances have been a decreased concentration of the limiting amino acid in blood, depression of feed intake and weight gain, and increased dietary content of the limiting amino acid needed to correct the imbalances. There is strong evidence that a decrease in the concentration of a limiting amino acid detected in the anterior prepyriform cortex of the brain is followed by behavioral effects, especially a decrease in feed intake. This might be due to the competition between the limiting amino acid and the amino acids in the imbalancing mixture for transport from blood into brain. One of the biochemical responses of animals fed amino acid imbalanced diets is a rapid decrease in the concentration of the limiting amino acid, which are due in part to an increase in catabolism of the limiting amino acid by the increased activities of enzymes involved in the catabolism of the amino acid. Practically, specific amino acid imbalances could be induced in swine and poultry diets that have been supplemented with lysine, methionine, tryptophan when threonine, isoleucine, valine, etc. are potentially third- or fourth-limiting in diets. In these cases supplementation of the limiting amino acid could be beneficial in preventing the decrease of feed intake that could otherwise occur as a result of amino acid imbalance.

Changes in Amino Acid Composition of Some Fish Meat By Heating Conditions (수종 어육의 가열조건에 따른 아미노산 조성의 변화)

  • 심기환;이종호;하영래;서권일;문주석;주옥수
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.23 no.6
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    • pp.933-938
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    • 1994
  • A study was amino acid contents by heating conditions of mackerel, pacific saury , yellow croaker, and brown sole investigated. In fresh fishes, total amino acid contents showed higher amount in brown sole and yellow croaker, than those of pacific saury and mackerel. The amino acid contents among the tested samples were higher Glx , leucine, lysine and arginine in order. During heating of samples the amino acid contents decreased. There appeared to be a proportional relationship of the heating temperature to decrease of amino acid. The amino acid contents of steamed samples significantly decreased than those of others. During warming and rewarming samples after storage at 4$^{\circ}C$ for 24 hours , amino acid contents slightly decreased.

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Physiological, Pharmacological and Toxicological Implications of Heterodimeric Amino Acid Transporters

  • Kanai, Yoshikatsu;Endou, Hitoshi
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.8 no.3
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    • pp.117-127
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    • 2004
  • The heterodimeric amino acid transporter family is a subfamily of SLC7 solute transporter family which includes 14-transmembrane cationic amino acid transporters and 12-transmembrane heterodimeric amino acid transporters. The members of heterodimeric amino acid transporter family are linked via a disulfide bond to single membrane spanning glycoproteins such as 4F2hc (4F2 heavy chain) and rBAT $(related\;to\;b^0,\;^+-amino\;acid\;transporter)$. Six members are associated with 4F2hc and one is linked to rBAT. Two additional members were identified as ones associated with unknown heavy chains. The members of heterodimeric amino acid transporter family exhibit diverse substrate selectivity and are expressed in variety of tissues. They play variety of physiological roles including epithelial transport of amino acids as well as the roles to provide cells in general with amino acids for cellular nutrition. The dysfunction or hyperfunction of the members of the heterodimeric amino acid transporter family are involved in some diseases and pathologic conditions. The genetic defects of the renal and intestinal transporters $b^{0,+}AT/BAT1\;(b^{0,+}-type\;amino\;acid\;transporter/b^{0,+}-type\;amino\;acid\;transporter\;1)$ and $y^+LAT1\;(y^+L-type\;amino\;acid\;transporter\;1)$ result in the amino aciduria with sever clinical symptoms such as cystinuria and lysin uric protein intolerance, respectively. LAT1 is proposed to be involved in the progression of malignant tumor. xCT (x-C-type transporter) functions to protect cells against oxidative stress, while its over-function may be damaging neurons leading to the exacerbation of brain damage after brain ischemia. Because of broad substrate selectivity, system L transporters such as LAT1 transport amino acid-related compounds including L-Dopa and function as a drug transporter. System L also interacts with some environmental toxins with amino acid-related structure such as cysteine-conjugated methylmercury. Therefore, these transporter would be candidates for drug targets based on new therapeutic strategies.

Study on Amino Acid Contents in Deer Horn (녹용중(鹿茸中)의 아미노산(酸) 함량(含量)에 관(關)하여 (제 1 편)(第 1編))

  • Yong, Jae-Ick
    • Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation
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    • v.6 no.3
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    • pp.4-9
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    • 1976
  • Free amino acids in water extracts and total amino acids in hydrolystates of Deer Horn were analyzed by amino acid autoanalyzer (Technicon PNC-1 Type). The results obtained from this study are as follows ; 1) 17 kinds of amino acid, including 7 kinds of essential amino acid in human nutrition except tryptophan were identified and quantified. 2) Of all free amino acid contained in water extract, glutamic acid is the richest, and then comes Ala, Gly, Leu, Lys, valin in that order. Of all total amino acid which are closely related with nutritional valuation glycin is the richest, and then comes Glu, Lys, Ala, Leu, Ala, Pro, in that order. 3) Besides 17 kinds of amino acid, one kinds of unknown amino acid are found in water extracts and hydrolysates.

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Structural Analysis of the Antifungal Antibiotic from Bacillus sp. YJ-63. (Bacillus sp. YJ-63이 생산하는 항곰팡이 항생물질의 구조분석)

  • 정영기;신영준;정명주;주우홍;최재수
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.21-25
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    • 2002
  • Structural analysis was performed by the $^1$H-NMR, $^{13}$ C-NMR, amino acid composition analysis and FAB-mass. The instrumental analysis represented that the potential antifungal antibiotic belonged to the iturin E group antibiotic, consisting of 7 $\alpha$-amino acid residues and a collection of $\beta$-amino acid with aliphatic side chain. Compared to the Iturin E group, notably, the potent antifungal antibiotic from Bacillus sp. YJ-63 carried longer $\beta$-amino acid side chain. In conclusion, these findings identified a potential antibiotic, which contained a stable cyclopeptide structure with long $\beta$-amino acid side chain.

Recent Advances in Amino Acid Nutrition for Efficient Poultry Production - Review -

  • Ishibashi, T.;Ohta, Y.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.12 no.8
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    • pp.1298-1309
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    • 1999
  • The nutritional value of protein varies between feedstuffs. It is possible to feed animals using crystalline amino acids as a sole nitrogen source, but in practice only some limiting amino acids are added to the diet. In order to use feedstuffs efficiently, it is important to determine exact amino acid requirements. Reported values differ widely because the requirements are affected by various factors. In this report, therefore, the factors affecting amino acid requirements are reviewed as follows: 1) availability of dietary amino acids, conversion factors of nitrogen to protein, interaction of amino acids, and strain, sex and age of animals; 2) amino acid requirements for maximum performance and maintenance, usefulness of non-essential amino acids; 3) plasma amino acid concentration as a parameter to determine amino acid requirements; and 4) nitrogen excretion to reduce environmental pollution. These factors should be considered, it is to improve the dietary efficiency, which is to reduce excess nitrogen excretion for environmental pollution.

Anti-aging Effect of Amino Acid Complex on the Skin (Amino Acid Complex의 항노화 작용)

  • Kim, Ki-Ho;Kim, Ki-Soo;Kim, Young-Heui;Ko, Kang-Il;Park, Sun-Hee;Kim, Jin-Guk;Chio, Hyun-Jin;Ko, Su-Yeon;Bae, Yoon-Joo;Kim, Yong-Min
    • Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Scientists of Korea
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.81-88
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    • 2006
  • Amino acid complex was made with the composition of amino acids quite similar to that of stratum corneum on the skin. In order to evaluate the efficacy of amino acid complex on the skin as an active cosmetic ingredient, we measured cytotoxicity. TIMP-1 expression, moisturizing effect and the amount of horny substance. In cytotoxicity assay, amino acid complex did not show any cytotoxicity. In moisturizing effect test using corneometer, it showed very good moisturizing effect. In TIMP-1 mRNA assay using RT-PCR, moo acid complex showed the increase of TIMP-1 expression, suggesting that amino acid complex have anti-wrinkle effect. Therefore, amino acid complex may be useful as an active ingredient for anti-aging.

The Effect of Silk Amino Acid Supplementation on the Level of Blood Energy Substrates and Hormones during Prolonged Exercise

  • Zhang Seok-Am;Lee Nam-Hee;Kim Yong-Hwan
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition Conference
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    • pp.171-184
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    • 2004
  • The silk amino acid supplementation is unknown to affect the release of several hormones related to energy production and metabolism during prolonged exercise. This study examined the effects of silk amino acid supplementation on the level of blood amino acid, energy substrates and hormones level during prolonged treadmill exercise in college taekwondo player. A prolonged treadmill test was carried out 60 min at 65% of maximal heart rate on 8 athletics. Blood samples were obtained form antecubital vein of subjects at rest bed 30 minute before test, after exercise and rest 1 hour. The subjects were supplemented silk amino acid (6,390 mg/day) fur 4 week. The silk amino acid supplementation did not produce significant changes on the levels of blood lactate, ammonia, amino acid, glucose, triglyceride, total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, seratonin and leptin at rest bed 30 minute before test, after exercise and rest 30 minute. The silk amino acid 4 week supplementation did not affect the levels of blood amino acid, energy substrates and hormones during prolonged treadmill exercise.

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Amino acid requirements in horses

  • Mok, Chan Hee;Urschel, Kristine L.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.33 no.5
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    • pp.679-695
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    • 2020
  • Evaluating amino acid requirements, specifically threonine requirements, in horses will enable better feed formulation and result in economic production, improved animal health, and reduced environmental pollution. However, the current knowledge of protein and amino acid requirements in horses is still limited. Because horses have a unique digestive system and consume a variety of feed ingredients, their protein digestibility may be affected than other species by different feed composition, and thus amino acid requirements are susceptible to vary between situations. Therefore, a careful evaluation of amino acid requirements with a proper method is needed for various conditions. This review will also provide comprehensive information that needs to be considered when designing an amino acid requirement study in horses.

Liquid Chromatographic Enantiomer Separation of α-Amino Acid Esters as Nitrobenzoxadiazole Derivatives Using Polysaccharide-Derived Chiral Stationary Phases

  • Islam, Md. Fokhrul;Lee, Wonjae
    • Journal of the Chosun Natural Science
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.111-116
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    • 2015
  • Liquid chromatographic enantiomer separation of ${\alpha}$-amino acid esters as nitrobenzoxadiazole (NBD) derivatives was performed using several chiral stationary phases (CSPs) based on polysaccharide derivatives under fluorescence detection. For enantiomer separation by normal HPLC, the non-aqueous derivatization method of ${\alpha}$-amino acid esters for NBD analytes was introduced. Among the six CSPs used in this study, the performance of Chiralpak IA was superior for enantiomer resolution of NBD derivatives of several ${\alpha}$-amino acid methyl esters. Also the convenient analytical method using polysaccharide-derived CSPs developed in this study was applied to determine the optical purity of ${\alpha}$-amino acids esters. It was investigated that the enantiomeric impurity levels of 0.02-1.73% were found after determination of enantiomeric purities of several commercially available L-amino acid methyl esters. It is expected to be quite useful for enantiomer separation of other ${\alpha}$-amino acid esters as NBD derivatives by normal HPLC.