• Title, Summary, Keyword: Amino-acid

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Amino Acid Imbalance-Biochemical Mechanism and Nutritional Aspects

  • Park, Byung-Chul
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.19 no.9
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    • pp.1361-1368
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    • 2006
  • Amino acid imbalances refer to the deleterious effects that occur when a second-limiting amino acid or mixture of amino acid lacking a particular limiting amino acid is supplemented in diets marginal in one or more indispensable amino acids. In spite of variation in the conditions that have been used to induce amino acid imbalances, such as protein level in the diet, the extent of difference in total nitrogen content between basal and imbalanced diets, and kinds of amino acids used as imbalancing agents, the conspicuous common features of amino acid imbalances have been a decreased concentration of the limiting amino acid in blood, depression of feed intake and weight gain, and increased dietary content of the limiting amino acid needed to correct the imbalances. There is strong evidence that a decrease in the concentration of a limiting amino acid detected in the anterior prepyriform cortex of the brain is followed by behavioral effects, especially a decrease in feed intake. This might be due to the competition between the limiting amino acid and the amino acids in the imbalancing mixture for transport from blood into brain. One of the biochemical responses of animals fed amino acid imbalanced diets is a rapid decrease in the concentration of the limiting amino acid, which are due in part to an increase in catabolism of the limiting amino acid by the increased activities of enzymes involved in the catabolism of the amino acid. Practically, specific amino acid imbalances could be induced in swine and poultry diets that have been supplemented with lysine, methionine, tryptophan when threonine, isoleucine, valine, etc. are potentially third- or fourth-limiting in diets. In these cases supplementation of the limiting amino acid could be beneficial in preventing the decrease of feed intake that could otherwise occur as a result of amino acid imbalance.

Recent Advances in Amino Acid Nutrition for Efficient Poultry Production - Review -

  • Ishibashi, T.;Ohta, Y.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.12 no.8
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    • pp.1298-1309
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    • 1999
  • The nutritional value of protein varies between feedstuffs. It is possible to feed animals using crystalline amino acids as a sole nitrogen source, but in practice only some limiting amino acids are added to the diet. In order to use feedstuffs efficiently, it is important to determine exact amino acid requirements. Reported values differ widely because the requirements are affected by various factors. In this report, therefore, the factors affecting amino acid requirements are reviewed as follows: 1) availability of dietary amino acids, conversion factors of nitrogen to protein, interaction of amino acids, and strain, sex and age of animals; 2) amino acid requirements for maximum performance and maintenance, usefulness of non-essential amino acids; 3) plasma amino acid concentration as a parameter to determine amino acid requirements; and 4) nitrogen excretion to reduce environmental pollution. These factors should be considered, it is to improve the dietary efficiency, which is to reduce excess nitrogen excretion for environmental pollution.

Physiological, Pharmacological and Toxicological Implications of Heterodimeric Amino Acid Transporters

  • Kanai, Yoshikatsu;Endou, Hitoshi
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.8 no.3
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    • pp.117-127
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    • 2004
  • The heterodimeric amino acid transporter family is a subfamily of SLC7 solute transporter family which includes 14-transmembrane cationic amino acid transporters and 12-transmembrane heterodimeric amino acid transporters. The members of heterodimeric amino acid transporter family are linked via a disulfide bond to single membrane spanning glycoproteins such as 4F2hc (4F2 heavy chain) and rBAT $(related\;to\;b^0,\;^+-amino\;acid\;transporter)$. Six members are associated with 4F2hc and one is linked to rBAT. Two additional members were identified as ones associated with unknown heavy chains. The members of heterodimeric amino acid transporter family exhibit diverse substrate selectivity and are expressed in variety of tissues. They play variety of physiological roles including epithelial transport of amino acids as well as the roles to provide cells in general with amino acids for cellular nutrition. The dysfunction or hyperfunction of the members of the heterodimeric amino acid transporter family are involved in some diseases and pathologic conditions. The genetic defects of the renal and intestinal transporters $b^{0,+}AT/BAT1\;(b^{0,+}-type\;amino\;acid\;transporter/b^{0,+}-type\;amino\;acid\;transporter\;1)$ and $y^+LAT1\;(y^+L-type\;amino\;acid\;transporter\;1)$ result in the amino aciduria with sever clinical symptoms such as cystinuria and lysin uric protein intolerance, respectively. LAT1 is proposed to be involved in the progression of malignant tumor. xCT (x-C-type transporter) functions to protect cells against oxidative stress, while its over-function may be damaging neurons leading to the exacerbation of brain damage after brain ischemia. Because of broad substrate selectivity, system L transporters such as LAT1 transport amino acid-related compounds including L-Dopa and function as a drug transporter. System L also interacts with some environmental toxins with amino acid-related structure such as cysteine-conjugated methylmercury. Therefore, these transporter would be candidates for drug targets based on new therapeutic strategies.

Study on Amino Acid Contents in Deer Horn (녹용중(鹿茸中)의 아미노산(酸) 함량(含量)에 관(關)하여 (제 1 편)(第 1編))

  • Yong, Jae-Ick
    • Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation
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    • v.6 no.3
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    • pp.4-9
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    • 1976
  • Free amino acids in water extracts and total amino acids in hydrolystates of Deer Horn were analyzed by amino acid autoanalyzer (Technicon PNC-1 Type). The results obtained from this study are as follows ; 1) 17 kinds of amino acid, including 7 kinds of essential amino acid in human nutrition except tryptophan were identified and quantified. 2) Of all free amino acid contained in water extract, glutamic acid is the richest, and then comes Ala, Gly, Leu, Lys, valin in that order. Of all total amino acid which are closely related with nutritional valuation glycin is the richest, and then comes Glu, Lys, Ala, Leu, Ala, Pro, in that order. 3) Besides 17 kinds of amino acid, one kinds of unknown amino acid are found in water extracts and hydrolysates.

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Amino Acid, Amino Acid Metabolite, and GABA Content of Three Domestic Tomato Varieties

  • Ahn, Jun-Bae
    • Culinary science and hospitality research
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    • v.22 no.6
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    • pp.71-77
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    • 2016
  • To determine the nutritional value of domestic tomatoes, the levels of amino acids, amino acid metabolites, and the bioactive compound ${\gamma}-aminobutyric-acid$ (GABA) were analyzed in three domestic tomato varieties (Rafito, Momotaro, and Medison). Eighteen free amino acids were found, and total free amino acid content was 3,810.21~4,594.56 mg/100 g (dry weight). L-glutamic acid (L-Glu) was the most abundant amino acid, ranging from 1,866.60 mg/100 g for Momotaro to 2,417.45 mg/100 g for Medison. The next most abundant amino acids were L-glutamine (L-Gln) and L-aspartic acid (L-Asp). The three tomato varieties had a good balance of all the essential amino acids except tryptophan. Total essential amino acid content was 274.26~472.71 mg/100 g (dry weight). The following amino acid metabolites were found: L-carnitine (L-Car), hydroxylysine (Hyl), o-phosphoethanolamine (o-Pea), phosphoserine (p-Ser), ${\beta}-alanine$ (${\beta}-Ala$), N-methyl-histidine (Me-His), ethanolamine (EtNH2),and L-citrulline(L-Cit). Large quantities of GABA were found in all three varieties: 666.95-868.48 mg/100g (dry weight). These results support the use of these tomato varieties as nutritious food materials.

Synthesus of DL-1-Amino Alkyl Phosphonic Acids and Their Derivatives (II) (DL-1-Amino Alkyl Phosphonic Acid 와 그 유도체들의 합성 (ll))

  • Kyung Yeon Cho;Duck Chan Kim;Yong Joon Kim
    • Journal of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.15 no.5
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    • pp.275-280
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    • 1971
  • Six previously unreported N-acylated-DL-1-amino alkyl phosphonic acids were prepared; N-Acetyl-DL-1-amino-3-methyl butyl phosphonic acidN-Benzoyl-DL-1-amino-2-methyl propyl phosphonic acidN-Benzoyl-DL-1-amino-3-methyl butyl phosphonic acidN-Benzoyl-DL-1-amino-2-methyl butyl phosphonic acidN-Acetyl-DL-1-amino-2-methyl propyl phosphonic acidN-Acetyl-DL-1-amino-2-methyl butyl phosphonic acidThe first four compounds were characterized, and the last two compounds were obtained in the crude oil state. The above three DL-1-amino-alkyl phosphonic acid were synthesized from iso-valeric acid, iso-caproic acid and ${\beta}$-methyl valeric acid using Hell-Volhard-Zelinsky reaction, the condensation reaction with triethyl-phosphite and the modified Curtius Reaction. Iso-caproic acid and ${\beta$-methyl valeric acid were prepared by the conventional methods.

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Changes in Amino Acid Composition of Some Fish Meat By Heating Conditions (수종 어육의 가열조건에 따른 아미노산 조성의 변화)

  • 심기환;이종호;하영래;서권일;문주석;주옥수
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.23 no.6
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    • pp.933-938
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    • 1994
  • A study was amino acid contents by heating conditions of mackerel, pacific saury , yellow croaker, and brown sole investigated. In fresh fishes, total amino acid contents showed higher amount in brown sole and yellow croaker, than those of pacific saury and mackerel. The amino acid contents among the tested samples were higher Glx , leucine, lysine and arginine in order. During heating of samples the amino acid contents decreased. There appeared to be a proportional relationship of the heating temperature to decrease of amino acid. The amino acid contents of steamed samples significantly decreased than those of others. During warming and rewarming samples after storage at 4$^{\circ}C$ for 24 hours , amino acid contents slightly decreased.

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A Study of the Free Amino Acids in the Plasma and Erythrocytes in the Male Adult Rats Fed with the Low Protein Diets (저단백영양(低蛋白營養)에 있어서 성숙(成熟)흰쥐의 Plasma 및 Erythrocytes Free Amino Acid에 대하여)

  • Lee, Hyun-Ki
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.37-50
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    • 1972
  • An analysis of the free amino acid contained in the plasma and erythrocytes of the six groups of Wistar Strain male adult rats(body weight 200-300g) having fasted for sixteen hours was made by means of the HITACHI Amino Acid Autoanalyzer and the result of which was corrected with RC-24 B TOMY Micro Hematocrit Centrifuge. There was a depression of the plasma and erythrocytes free amino acid level on the noprotein diet with ad libitum feeding. But on the 20% casein diet there was an elevation in the levels of free amino acid and consequently alanine, glysine, lysine, serine and arginine level in the erythrocytes and threonine glutamic acid and taurine level in the plasma increased on the high protein diet. There was more plasma and erythrocytes free amino acid level on the 5% casein-30% fat diet than on the 5% casein-no fat diet with pair-feeding. In comparison, on the low calorie diet more free amino acids were found in plasma than in erythrocytes, but on the higher calorie diet more free amino acids were found in the erythrocytes than in the plasma. On the 20% casein-30% fat diet with pair-feeding the erythrocytes free amino acids level increased but in plasma free amino acids level decreased. Such as an opposite result was given in plasma and erythrocytes free amino acids level. In the pair-fed four groups, erythrocytes per plasma generally increased in the rate of less than 10.0 as the calorie increased. The essential amino acid per non essential amino acid generally increased in the ratio as protein level and calorie increased, and that ratio range was from 0.2 to 0.7. And essential amino acid per non essential amino acid of plasma was higher than that of erythrocytes.

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A Study of the Free Amino Acids in the Plasma and Erythrocytes in the Male Adult Rats Fed with the Low Protein Diets (低蛋白營養에 있어서 成熟흰쥐의 Plasma 및 Erythrocytes Free Amino Acids에 대하여)

  • Hyun-Ki Lee
    • Journal of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.69-84
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    • 1971
  • An analysis of the free amino acid contained in the plasma and erythrocytes of the six groups of Wistar Strain male adult rats (body weight 200-300g) having fasted for sixteen hours was made by means of the HITACHI Amino Acid Autoanalyzer and the result of which was corrected with RC-24B TOMY Micro Hematocrit Centrifuge. There was a depression of the plasma and erythrocytes free amino acid level on the no-protein diet with ad libitum feeding. But on the 20% casein diet there was an elevation in the levels of free amino acid and consequently alanine, glysine, lysine, serine and arginine level in the erythrocytes and threonine, glutamic acid and taurine level in the plasma increased on the high protein diet. There was more plasma and erythrocytes free amino acid level on the 5% casein- 30% fat diet than on the 5% casein-no fat diet with pair-feeding. In comparison, on the low calorie diet more free amino acids were found in plasma than in erythrocytes, but on the higher calorie diet more free amino acids were found in the erythrocytes than in the plasma. On the 20% casein-30% fat diet with pair-feeding the erythrocytes free amino acids level increased but in plasma free amino acids level decreased. Such as an opposite result was given in plasma and erythrocytes free amino acids level. In the pair-fed four groups, erythrocytes per plasma generally increased in the rate of less than 10.0 as the calorie increased. The essential amino acid per non essential amino acid generally increased in the ratio as protein level and calorie increased, and that ratio range was from 0.2 to 0.7. And essential amino acid per non essential amino acid of plasma was higher than that of erythrocytes.

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Determination of Amino Acid in Alcoholic Beverage (市販 酒類中의 Amino Acid의 정량)

  • Rhee, Seong Hong;Zong, Moon Shik
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.63-67
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    • 1986
  • The contents of amino acid in alcoholic beverage-Cheongju, Beer, Makguli, grapewine were analyzed. Cheongju and Makguli were filtered with membrane filter paper. Beer and grapewine were also filtered after treatment with 5-Sulfosalicylic acid. Sample were analyzed by Amino Acid Analyzer (Hitach KLA-5). The results were as follow: 1. The kinds of Amino Acid in Cheongju were 18, those of Beer were 17, Makguli 15, and grape wine 10. 2. The total amino acid in Cheongju was 54.0295 mg, Beer was 16.7172mg, Makguli was 12.3833 mg and grape wine was 4.1480 mg in 100 ml volume.

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