• Title, Summary, Keyword: Albania

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Earthquake performance assessment of low and mid-rise buildings: Emphasis on URM buildings in Albania

  • Bilgin, Huseyin;Huta, Ergys
    • Earthquakes and Structures
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    • v.14 no.6
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    • pp.599-614
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    • 2018
  • This study focuses on the earthquake performance of two URM buildings having typical architectural configurations common for residential use constructed per pre-modern code in Albania. Both buildings are unreinforced clay brick masonry structures constructed in 1960 and 1984, respectively. The first building is a three-storey unreinforced one with masonry walls. The second one is confined masonry rising on five floors. Mechanical characteristics of masonry walls were determined based on experimental tests conducted according to ASTM C67-09 regulations. A global numerical model of the buildings was built, and masonry material was simulated as nonlinear. Pushover analyses are carried out to obtain capacity curves. Displacement demands were calculated according to Eurocode 8 and FEMA440 guidelines. Causes of building failures in recent earthquakes were examined using the results of this study. The results of the study showed that the URM building displays higher displacement and shear force demands that can be directly related to damage or collapse. On the other hand, the confined one exhibits relatively higher seismic resistance by indicating moderate damage. Moreover, effects of demand estimation approaches on performance assessment of URM buildings were compared. Deficiencies and possible solutions to improve the capacity of such buildings were discussed.

Nurses, Healthy Women and Preventive Gynecological Examinations - Vlora City Scenario, Albania

  • Kamberi, Fatjona;Theodhosi, Gjergji;Ndreu, Vjollca;Sinaj, Enkeleda;Stramarko, Yllka;Kamberi, Leonard
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.311-314
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    • 2016
  • Background: Nurses play an important role in preventive medicine because they represent the largest sector of health professionals. This role is very crucial in developing countries, which are going through rapid societal and economic changes, associated with a rising burden of cancers due to different risk factors. The current study aimed to compare health awareness between nurses and healthy women regarding preventive gynecological examinations and to answer the question - can nurses make a difference in women's health? Materials and Methods: This cross sectional research included a total of 150 women, 70 nurses and 80 healthy women, randomly selected. Data were collected in 2014 in Vlora city through a self-administered questionnaire that assessed different variables about preventive gynecological examinations. Results: Cervical screening rates were 20.3% and 41.8%, respectively, for nurses and healthy women, despite the former having a statistical significant greater knowledge of risk factors and symptoms. Conclusions: Even if the health awareness of nurse participants can be considered good, they need themselves to increase participation rates in cervical screening if they are to provide role models for health education/promotion addressing misconceptions and barriers.

Assessment of Cervical Cytological Data in Albanian Females

  • Filipi, Kozeta;Xhani, Anila
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.5
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    • pp.2129-2132
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    • 2014
  • Background: Cervical cancer is one of the most common female malignancies with high mortality rates in developing countries. Our purpose was to determine the prevalence of cervical cytological abnormalities by cervical cytology (CC) and the analysis of risk factors in Albanian population. Materials and Methods: A total of 5,416 conventional pap smear tests collected between January 2009 and January 2012 from Tirana University Hospital Obstetrics-Gynecology "Queen Geraldine" were retrospectively analyzed. Results: A total of 258 (4.8%) cases had epithelial abnormalities. The numbers and rates were as follows: atypical squamous cell of undetermined significance (ASCUS; n=150 [2.76%]); atypical glandular cells of undetermined significance (AGUS; n=8 [0.14%]); low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL; n=87 [1.6%]); high- grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL; n=10 [0.18%]); and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC; n=3 [0.05%]). Conclusions: The prevalence of cervical cytological abnormality in our study was 4.8%. A larger community-based study may establish the exact prevalence of malignant and premalignant lesions, so as to plan for future screening.

Trade Routes, Trading Centers and the Emergence of the Domestic Market in Azerbaijan in the Period of Arab-Khazar Domination on the Silk Road

  • ASADOV, FARDA
    • Acta Via Serica
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.1-24
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    • 2019
  • Bloody wars between Arab Muslims and Khazar Turks in the Caucasus continued for a more than a hundred years from the mid $7^{th}$ century to the end of the $8^{th}$ century CE. The Khazar state survived but had to withdraw from Caucasian Albania, the present territory of the Republic of Azerbaijan. However, the Khazars managed to expand their political control over the trade routes north-east and north-west of the Caucasian ridge. A trade partnership was established between former rival powers in the region that allows us to call the period after the end of the Arab-Khazar wars up to the time of the collapse of the Khazar state in the middle of the 10th century an era of Arab-Khazar partnership and domination of the Silk Road. This article highlights the impact made by geopolitical shifts in the regions of the time upon international trade tracks and particularly on the development of trade facilities, infrastructure, and local production in Azerbaijan, which became a major transit country of goods from the north to markets in the Muslim Near East.

An Evaluation of the Research Potential in the Aeronautics Transport Mode in Europe

  • Mesko, Maja;Hanzic, Katja;Stiglic, Mitja;Bozicnik, Stane
    • The Journal of Distribution Science
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    • v.12 no.9
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    • pp.25-38
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    • 2014
  • Purpose - Our study aims to analyze and assess aeronautics transport, to bring comprehensive insight about the existing potential in the new member states, candidate countries, potential candidate countries, and associated states. Methodology - The evaluation was carried out by applying qualitative methodology to the research results and on existing capabilities, to assess the overall research capability in the aeronautics transport mode of each country and region, in the European context. Results - Overall, countries with the strongest potential are the Czech Republic, Poland, Hungary, and Romania. The aeronautics research potential was evaluated as weak in as many as 11 countries, with Estonia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Macedonia, Montenegro, Albania, and Moldova being evaluated as weak in all categories, and Latvia, Croatia, and Serbia being evaluated as weak overall but having at least one category evaluated as medium. Conclusion - Based on the research findings, there are recommendations regarding both the research policy and research activities related to the aeronautics transport mode. The findings contribute to the further development of EU aeronautics research and the aviation industry.

Study on the Notifications of WTO/SPS - Focused on Food Safety Measures - (WTO/SPS 통보문 분석 연구 - 식품안전조치를 중심으로 -)

  • Shin, Seong-Gyun
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.252-260
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    • 2009
  • According to Article 7 and Annex B of the World Trade Organization(WTO) Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary(SPS) Measures, WTO members are required to notify their newly established or amended SPS measures that might affect international trade. This study analyzed SPS notifications from 1995 to 2008 to identify international trends for food safety measures. The notifications were collected from the SPS information management system and the official document distribution system of WTO. The 153 WTO members represented 37 developed countries, 84 developing countries and 32 least developed countries. The number of overall notifications was 9,820. The annual notifications increased from 198 in 1995 to 1,264 in 2008. The monthly average notifications were from 44.8 in December to 69.5 in June; however, there were no statistical differences among them. The six leading Members in terms of notification submissions were United States(U.S.), Brazil, New Zealand, Canada, European Community and Korea. Among the regular and emergency notifications, 62.7% notifications were concerned with food safety, followed by animal and plant protections. Among animal protection notifications, 54.8% were emergency situations. Of the 4,821 food safety notifications, 60.4% were from developed countries, and 39.3% were from developing countries. Measures concerning pesticide residues and risk assessments were mainly from developed countries. In contrast, 77.5% of the measures concerning zoonoses were from developing countries. However considering the numbers of developing and developed countries, the average number of measures for each country was similar. Food safety measures were mainly involved pesticide residues followed by food additives, zoonoses, new regulations, labeling. As the overall notifications, zoonosis measures were mainly emergency notifications. Measures concerning pesticide residues, food additives, zoonoses, new regulations, veterinary drugs, and labeling were submitted most often by the U.S., Korea, Albania, U.S., Australia, and U.S., respectively. Identifying the exact trends of food safety measures was complicated by a number of factors. However, WTO notifications might be useful tool in providing a general view of international trends.

The two aspects of a nationalistic art in Greece, 1950 -1960 (그리스 내셔널리즘 미술의 두 얼굴, 1950~1960)

  • Papanikolaou, Miltiades M.
    • The Journal of Art Theory & Practice
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    • no.4
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    • pp.203-239
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    • 2006
  • As it is known, during the Second World War Greece has fought on the side of the allies and the end of the war found the country on the winners' side. However, the struggle for authority right after 1945 was merciless and extremely difficult, as well as dangerous for the course of the country to the future. The political powers were divided between the legal authorities that were represented by the king and formed the exiled government on the one hand and the part of the resistance teams and the rebels of the left that had a soviet friendly direction on the other. Thus, the start of a civil war was just a matter of time. It fin ally started in 1947 and lasted for more than two years. The consequences were disastrous for the country's economy and decisive for the future course of Greece. The national army prevailed with the help of, mostly, the English. Royal parliamentary democracy was established with a clear political turn to the west, as a completion and adaptation of the Agreement of the Great Powers at Yalta. Art had a 'similar' route. Dipolar, contradictory: conservative choices on the one side, and a will for pioneering inspiration and perspective on the other side. The 'dominate' trend was first evident in sculpture and mainly in the public monuments. Their construction aimed mostly at the public propaganda and at the promotion of the sovereign ideology. On the one side we have the public sculptures composed of faces of contemporary heroes or leading figures of the civic war and the national resistance. On the other side we have monumental statues mainly that appeal to a 'public' outside of the country's borders and mostly of the north borders, where there are countries with a communistic regime, like Bulgaria, Serbia and Albania. Their subject is derived from the heroic events of the Balkan Wars (1912-1913) and ancient historical figures like Alexander the Great as the Greek army leader, his father, Philippos II and Aristotle, who was of a north-Greek origin. The political message is twofold: on the one side the 'inner enemy' the communists that were defeated and the promotion of the new liberal social system and on the other side the north neighbours, which not only represent the East Block, but they also conspire the history and the culture of the Greeks. This is the way how the 'Cold War' was resulted in a full and totalitarian expression in art.

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