• Title, Summary, Keyword: Air-phase Germination

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Effect of Air-Phase Germination with Anion Radiation and Water-Spraying on Germination Ratio, Sprout Growth, and GABA Contents of Germinated Brown Rice

  • Lim, K.T.;Chung, J.H.;Hong, J.H.;Kim, J.H.;Lee, E.T.;Im, A.L.
    • Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.42-47
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    • 2006
  • The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of air-phase germination with water-spraying and anion stimuli on germination ratio, sprout growth and ${\gamma}$-aminobutyric acid (GABA) of brown rice. Air-phase germination method with intermittent spraying water improved germination ratio and sprout growth by about 100% compared with the conventional water-soaking method. Anion radiation was applied during the germination process and improved the germination ratio, sprout growth and color quality of the germinated brown rice. Germination ratio and sprout growth were improved up to 9% with anion radiation, and its brightness was higher than brown rice germinated with no anion radiation. The air-phase germination with water-spraying improved the GABA content of germinated brown rice by about 8-9 times compared with that of brown rice.

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Development of an Automatic Brown Rice Germinating System of Air-Phase Type with Intermittent Water Spraying and Anion Radiation (간헐 분무와 음이온 방사를 가진 공기노출형 자동 현미발아시스템의 개발)

  • Lim, Ki-Taek;Kim, Jang-Ho;Chung, Jong-Hoon
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.36 no.3
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    • pp.187-194
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    • 2011
  • In this study an automatic germinating system for germinated brown rice (GBR) was developed for accelerating germination and sprouting of brown rice. With the developed germinating system, the effects of anion radiation treatment on germination ratio, sprout growth, color quality and ${\gamma}$-aminobutyric acid (GABA) content of brown rice were investigated. This system can fast produce GBR by controlling the environmental conditions such as ambient temperature, relative humidity, and proper anion radiation. Air-phase germination with intermittent water spraying improved both germination ratio and sprout growth by about 2.2 and 2.3 times, respectively, compared to the conventional water soaking method. Our results strongly suggest that this germinating system that provides air-phase germination with intermittent water spraying and anion radiation can produce germinated brown rice with good color quality, high GABA content, and fast germination ratio as well as sprout growth.

Arabidopsis thaliana as Bioindicator of Fungal VOCs in Indoor Air

  • Lee, Samantha;Hung, Richard;Yin, Guohua;Klich, Maren A.;Grimm, Casey;Bennett, Joan W.
    • Mycobiology
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    • v.44 no.3
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    • pp.162-170
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    • 2016
  • In this paper, we demonstrate the ability of Arabidopsis thaliana to detect different mixtures of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by the common indoor fungus, Aspergillus versicolor, and demonstrate the potential usage of the plant as a bioindicator to monitor fungal VOCs in indoor air. We evaluated the volatile production of Aspergillus versicolor strains SRRC 108 (NRRL 3449) and SRRC 2559 (ATCC 32662) grown on nutrient rich fungal medium, and grown under conditions to mimic the substrate encountered in the built environment where fungi would typically grow indoors (moist wallboard and ceiling tiles). Using headspace solid phase microextraction/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, we analyzed VOC profiles of the two strains. The most abundant compound produced by both strains on all three media was 1-octen-3-ol. Strain SRRC 2559 made several terpenes not detected from strain SRRC 108. Using a split-plate bioassay, we grew Arabidopsis thaliana in a shared atmosphere with VOCs from the two strains of Aspergillus versicolor grown on yeast extract sucrose medium. The VOCs emitted by SRRC 2559 had an adverse impact on seed germination and plant growth. Chemical standards of individual VOCs from the Aspergillus versicolor mixture (2-methyl-1-butanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, 1-octen-3-ol, limonene, and ${\beta}-farnesene$), and ${\beta}-caryophyllene$ were tested one by one in seed germination and vegetative plant growth assays. The most inhibitory compound to both seed germination and plant growth was 1-octen-3-ol. Our data suggest that Arabidopsis is a useful model for monitoring indoor air quality as it is sensitive to naturally emitted fungal volatile mixtures as well as to chemical standards of individual compounds, and it exhibits relatively quick concentration- and duration-dependent responses.

Evaluation of Composting Characteristics According to the Air Supply Change in Farm-Sized Swine Manure (농가규모 양돈분뇨 퇴비화시 공기공급량 변화에 따른 퇴비 특성 평가)

  • Lee, Sunghyoun;Jeong, Gwanghwa;Lee, Dongjun;Lee, Donghyeon;Jang, Yuna;Kwag, Junghoon
    • Journal of the Korea Organic Resources Recycling Association
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    • v.27 no.3
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    • pp.49-61
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    • 2019
  • Swine manure has been recognized as a organic sources for composting and many research was conducted to efficiently utilize and treat. This study was to evaluate a feasibility for producing swine manure compost under various treatment with mixture of swine manure and saw dust. Treatments were designed as follows; non aerated composting pile(REF), aerated composting pile of $100L/m^3$(EXP1), and aerated composting pile of $150L/m^3$(EXP2). The total days of fermentation were 28 days and each samples were collected at every 7 days from starting of composting. Temperature sensors were installed under 30~40cm from the surface of composting pile. Inner temperature in composting piles of EXP1 and EXP2 was rapidly increased to $67{\sim}75^{\circ}C$ within 1~2 days. The elevated temperatures found during the thermophilic phase are essential for rapid degradation of organic materials. While swine manure composted, moisture content, total nitrogen, EC of EXP1, EXP2 in sample at 28 days were lower than those of REF. But, pH and organic matter of EXP1, EXP2 in sample at 28 days were higher than those of REF. After finishing fermentation experiment, maturity was evaluated with germination test. Calculated germination index(GI) at REF, EXP1 and EXP2 were 23.49, 68.50 and 51.81, respectively. The values of germination index were higher at EXP1 and EXP2 which is aerated composting piles than REF which is non aerated composting pile. According to the results, composting process by aerated static pile compost had significant effect on the reduction of required period for composting. Supplying adequate amount of air to compost swine manure will greatly reduce composting period.

Effects of Some Soil Conditioners on Soil Physical Properties and Lettuce Growth (토양구조개선제(土壤構造改善劑) 처리(處理)가 토양물리성(土壤物理性)과 상추생육(生育)에 미치는 영향(影響))

  • Ryu, In-Soo;Han, Jeung-Lim;Jo, In-Sang
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.28 no.3
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    • pp.249-255
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    • 1995
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effects of some soil conditioners, such as polyacrylamide(PAM), polyvinylalcohol(PVA) and Bitumen emulsion, on aggregate formation and stability, wetting angle, sorptivity and penetrability of the soil with different textures : sand, sandy loam, loam and clay loam. A pot experiment was carried out to find out the effect of treatment on the germination and growth of lettuce with three textures : sand, sandy loam and silt loam. Soil aggregates larger than 2mm in untreated soils at dry condition were naught in sand, 45% in sandy loam, 80% in loam and 90% in clay loam. Treatments of soil conditioners tended to increase the occurrence of soil aggregate larger than 2mm, which were 20~25% in sand, 55~75% sandy loam, but not affected greatly aggragate occurence in loam and clay loam. The aggregate instability was decreased by the soil conditioner treatment. The wetting angles of the soils were greatly changed by hydrophobic of Bitumen, but those were changed slightly by PVA and PAM application. The sorptivity and penetrability data indicated that the effects of different materials on these parameters differed depending upon soil texture. Application of PVA and PAM were no effect exceptive in sand. Application of Bitumen revealed that water movement was not showed in all soils. The germination rate, root weight and top plant weight of lettuce were increased in all soils by PAM treatment as compared to untreated soils. Particularly the greater effect was occurred in sand soil than in sandy loam and silt loam. PAM increased greatly the moisture content and air phase of soils.

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Sterilization of Neurospora Crassa by Noncontacted Low Temperature Atmospheric Pressure Surface Discharged Plasma with Dielectric Barrier Structure (유전체장벽 방전구조의 비접촉식 저온 대기압 면방전 플라즈마를 이용한 빵곰팡이의 살균효과)

  • Ryu, Young Hyo;Uhm, Han Sup;Park, Gyung Soon;Choi, Eun Ha
    • Journal of the Korean Vacuum Society
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.55-65
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    • 2013
  • Sterilization of Neurospora crassa has been investigated in this research by using a surface air plasma with dielectric barrier discharged (DBD) structure under atmospheric pressure. The sinusoidal alternating current has been used in this experiment with discharge voltage of 1.4~2.3 kV. The phase difference between the voltage and current signals are found to be almost 80 degree due to the capacitive property of dielectric barrier. Temperature on the biomaterials has been minimized by radiating the heat with the air cooling system. It is noted that the substrate temperature remains under 37 degree for plasma exposure time of 10 minutes with operation of cooler system. It is found that the ozone, $O_3$, has been measured to be about 25~30 ppm within 1 cm region and to be about 5 ppm at the 150 cm downstream region away from the suface plasma. It is also noted that the nitric oxide, NO, and nitric dioxide, $NO_2$, are not nearly detected. Germination rate and mitochodrial activity of Neurospora crassa immersed in the deionized water have been found to be drastically decreased as the plasma treatment time and its electrical power are increased in this experiment. Here, the mitochondrial activity has been analyzed by MTT (3-(4,5-dimethy lthiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide) assay. However, sterilization of Neurospora crassa immersed in the Vogel's minimal media has been found to be low by plasma treatment, which is caused by surrounding background solution. This research shows the sterilization possibility of Neurospora crassa by using the noncontated surface DBD plasma, which is different from the plasma jet. This is mainly attibuted to the reactive species generated by the surface plasma, since they play a major role for inhibition of micobes such as Neurospora crassa.