• Title, Summary, Keyword: Agriculture lake

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Estimation of Water Quality of Geumgang Lake by Diversion of Geumgang Lake Flow into Saemangeum Lake (금강호물의 새만금호 도입에 따른 금강호 수질변화 분석)

  • Eom, Myung-Chul;Lee, Jae-Myun
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.22 no.6
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    • pp.1045-1051
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    • 2006
  • Geumgang canal is planned to connect Geumgang lake with Saemangeum lake to accelerate desalinization and dilute polluted water to improve water quality in Saemangeum lake. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of water quality on Geumgang lake by diversion of its lake flow to Saemangeum lake. WASP5 model was used to estimate water quality of Geumgang lake. Model calibration and verification were done for water quality data for 2001 and 2002. Water quality concentrations in Geumgang lake were simulated for 4 scenarios, which were considered whether the Geumgang canal is built or not. As a result of simulations, there was little impact on water quality in Geumgang lake, though a little of the Geumgang lake flow diverted to Saemangeum lake. As the Geumgang canal is planned to divert the Geumgang water flow which were discharged into the sea through sluice gates when canal is not built, it is thought that there will be little change by diversion of water flow.

A Study on 3-Dimensional Advection-Diffusion Model Operating Density Current Generator in Agriculture Lake (물순환장치 가동에 따른 농업용저수지의 3차원 이송확산모의에 관한 연구)

  • An, Jae-Soon;Lee, Young-Shin;Oh, Dae-Min
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.13 no.7
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    • pp.3275-3284
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    • 2012
  • This study analyzed a 3D hydrodynamic advection diffusion using the EFDC model (Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code) in the agriculture lake to prevent stratification when we install a water circulator. EFDC model was predicted the range of the water circulator and various operational parameters ware derived for minimize the impact of the internal lake. Through EFDC simulation, water circulation is started overall circulation after 30days and a lake overall circulation showed that it was possible operated the water circulator after about 100days. Also, advection diffusion concentration was low in a lake when water circulator operate intermittent condition than continuous condition. And the entire circulation was stable in this condition. The S/B (Surface/Bottom) ratio can reduce the impact of lake as the surface water mixing a lot of. When the same condition (S/B ratio(3:1)), Case 8 (50days operation: 50days stop) of condition were able to minimize the impact of lake.

A Study on the Application of Total Pollution Load Management System for Water Quality Improvement in Agriculture Reservoir (농업용 호소의 수질개선을 위한 오염총량관리제의 적용에 관한 연구)

  • Oh, Dae-Min;Lee, Young-Shin
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.35 no.5
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    • pp.365-375
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    • 2009
  • Agriculture reservoirs need a systematic approach that can control water purity and water improvement. The area under study, Bunam Lake exceeds the agricultural water standard level due to contamination from the upper stream. When the Taean Enterprise City was planned, the water quality improvement plan was applied to minimize the environmental change. However, in order to continuously maintain the water quality in the Bunam Lake, it was essential to apply the Total Pollution Load Management System (TPLMs). In order to achieve the targeted water quality in the Bunam Lake, standard flow rates and targeted water quality levels were applied to obtain the loading capacity which is as follows : BOD 1,891.2 kg/d, T-N 1,945.7 kg/d, T-P 131.7 kg/d. Also, the regional development load was calculated as, BOD 1,083.6 kg/d, T-N 942.2 kg/d, T-P 61.8 kg/d, which is required to be deceased :- by BOD 378.4 kg/d, T-N 198.9 kg/d, T-P 31.6 kg/d in order to safely achieve the targeted water quality in the Bunam Lake.

Overview of the Fisheries and Aquaculture Resources in the Democratic Republic of Congo

  • Ekoma, Christian Ngunda;Mangala, Rapael Bukura
    • Journal of Marine Bioscience and Biotechnology
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.13-17
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    • 2008
  • The Congo has a maritime coastline of 40 km, covering an area of $2,345,409km^2$. The fluvial system covers around $34,000km^2$ in a network of more than 33,000 km of rivers, principal tributaries, and streams. There are around 1,000 known species of fish, essentially freshwater and some brackish. The lakes of the Rift Valley contain the richest lacustrine fauna in the world. The family of Cichlidae alone has more than 900 species. At the same time, the lakes are profoundly different. Lake Tanganyika has 250 species of fish, of which 216 are endemic, whereas Lake Kivu contains only 32 and 16, respectively. A dense hydrographic network of water surfaces, inundated plains and lakes cover around $86,080km^2$ (3.5% of the national area) and have a considerable aquatic potential. The large peripheral lakes of the East cover around $48,000km^2$ of which 47% are under Congolese jurisdiction. The respective areas belonging to the Congo are: Lake Tanganyika, $14,800km^2$; Lake Albert, $2,420km^2$; Lake Kivu, $1,700km^2$; Lake Edward, $1,630km^2$; Lake Mo$\ddot{e}$ro, $1,950km^2$. Another two important lakes in the interior, Lake Tumba and Lake Mai-Ndombe, cover (between them) 2,300 and $7,000km^2$, depending on season (less in the dry season and more in the rainy season). There are also the lakes of the Kamalondo depression ($6,256km^2$), Lake Tshangalele ($446km^2$) and Lake N'Zilo ($280km^2$).

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The Effect of Rainfall on the Water Quality of a Small Reservoir (Lake Wangkung, Korea)

  • Hwang, Gil-Son;Kim, Jae-Ok;Kim, Jai-Ku;Kim, Young-Chul;Kim, Bom-Chul
    • Korean Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.38 no.spc
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    • pp.39-43
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    • 2005
  • The dynamics of water quality with the storm events were analyzed in a small reservoir for irrigation, Lake Wangkung. Water quality of the inflowing stream fluctuated seasonally with the variation of flow rate. Thermal stratification was consistent from April to October below 2 m depths and anoxic layer was developed below 2 m depth in summer. The unique feature of temperature showed that thermal stratification was disrupted by a heavy rain event during monsoon, but hypolimnetic hypoxia were reestablished after a few days. Phosphorus and nitrogen increased immediately following storm events. The marked increase may be due to the input of P-rich storm runoff from the watershed. Internal phosphorus loading can be one of the explanations for TP increases in summer. When there was a storm, total populations of phytoplankton and zooplankton was reduced immediately following the storm, indicating possible flushing of algae and zooplankton. After a lag period of low-density the plankton population bloomed to a peak again within five days after the storm. Turbid water in lake became clear again which coincided with the time of the phytoplankton buildup. The results demonstrate that water quality is regulated greatly by rainfall intensity in Lake Wangkung.

The Agricultural Utilization of Daecheong Lake Sediments and Algae (대청호(大淸湖) 저니(底泥) 및 조류(藻類)의 농업적(農業的) 활용(活用) 연구(硏究))

  • Chang, Ki-Woon;Lim, Jae-Shin;Lee, In-Bog
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.111-116
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    • 1994
  • These studies were carried out to investigate the possibility on the agricultural utilization of lake sediment collected in the Daecheong Lake. Several parameters to estimate the degree of maturity of compost by windrow system were tested during a 50 day periods, and the results were as follows : During the composting of Daecheong Lake sediment, C/N ratio decreased gradually from 18.9 at the beginning to 13.1 at the final, while CEC increased from 33.5me/100g to 62.5me/100g. The temperature of lake sediment pile was the highest as $52^{\circ}C$ at 15th day and then decreased slowly until $30^{\circ}C{\sim}40^{\circ}C$ after 50 days. The results may be suggested that Daecheong Lake sediment compost reaches an acceptable level of stability after about 50 days. In order to know the effect of the Lake sediment and its compost on the growth of tomato(Lycopersicum esculentum M.), pot experiments were performed. The appiication of lake sediment(AS) itself, sediment organic fertilizer(SOF), and NPK mixed with sediment organic fertilizer(NSF) was more effective for tomato plant height, fresh and dry weight, and chlorphyll content than those of control treatment. Also, the lake sediment compost improved the physico-chemical properties of soil such as pH, total carbon, total nitrogen, available phosphorous and CEC.

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Estimation of the Forestry Area Decrease Effect on the Soil Erosion in Rural Watershed (농촌유역의 산림지 면적 감소에 따른 유역 토양유실량 변화 추정)

  • Kim, Sang-Min;Im, Sang-Jun;Park, Seung-Woo
    • Journal of Korean Society of Rural Planning
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.19-26
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    • 2004
  • In this paper, forestry area change effect on the soil erosion in Asan lake watershed was estimated. Temporal variations of land use in the study watershed were analyzed from Landsat-5 TM remote sensing images. Geographic Information System (GIS) combined with Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) was used to estimate the soil erosion of Asan lake watershed. Spatial data for each USLE factors was obtained from the Landsat-5 TM remote sensing images and 1/25,000 scale digital contour maps. Sediment yield to Asan lake was estimated by sediment delivery ratio and sediment accumulation in lake was estimated by trap efficiency. The estimation methods were validated for sediment accumulation in Asan lake. From the hydrographic survey from 1974 to 2003 for Asan lake, sediment accumulation was measured. The estimated accumulation sediment of 303,569ton/yr showed similar value with observed of 295,888ton/yr. From the validated estimation methods, the increasing amount of soil erosion when 1% of forest area in Asan lake watershed decreases was calculated from 12.91 to 1482.05ton/yr.

Two new triterpenoid saponins derived from the leaves of Panax ginseng and their antiinflammatory activity

  • Li, Fu;Cao, Yufeng;Luo, Yanyan;Liu, Tingwu;Yan, Guilong;Chen, Liang;Ji, Lilian;Wang, Lun;Chen, Bin;Yaseen, Aftab;Khan, Ashfaq A.;Zhang, Guolin;Jiang, Yunyao;Liu, Jianxun;Wang, Gongcheng;Wang, Ming-Kui;Hu, Weicheng
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.43 no.4
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    • pp.600-605
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    • 2019
  • Background: The leaves and roots of Panax ginseng are rich in ginsenosides. However, the chemical compositions of the leaves and roots of P. ginseng differ, resulting in different medicinal functions. In recent years, the aerial parts of members of the Panax genus have received great attention from natural product chemists as producers of bioactive ginsenosides. The aim of this study was the isolation and structural elucidation of novel, minor ginsenosides in the leaves of P. ginseng and evaluation of their antiinflammatory activity in vitro. Methods: Various chromatographic techniques were applied to obtain pure individual compounds, and their structures were determined by nuclear magnetic resonance and high-resolution mass spectrometry, as well as chemical methods. The antiinflammatory effect of the new compounds was evaluated on lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. Results and conclusions: Two novel, minor triterpenoid saponins, ginsenoside $LS_1$ (1) and 5,6-didehydroginsenoside $Rg_3$ (2), were isolated from the leaves of P. ginseng. The isolated compounds 1 and 2 were assayed for their inhibitory effect on nitric oxide production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells, and Compound 2 showed a significant inhibitory effect with $IC_{50}$ of $37.38{\mu}M$ compared with that of NG-monomethyl-L-arginine ($IC_{50}=90.76{\mu}M$). Moreover, Compound 2 significantly decreased secretion of cytokines such as prostaglandin $E_2$ and tumor necrosis factor-${\alpha}$. In addition, Compound 2 significantly suppressed protein expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2. These results suggested that Compound 2 could be used as a valuable candidate for medicinal use or functional food, and the mechanism is warranted for further exploration.

Accumulation of heavy metals in surface sediments of Lere Lake, Chad

  • Ekengele, Leopold Nga;Blaise, Apelbo;Jung, Myung Chae
    • Geosciences Journal
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.305-315
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    • 2017
  • Thirty surface sediment samples collected from Lere Lake were analyzed for As, Co, Cr, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sn, Zn, Fe, pH, Electrical Conductivity (EC) and Organic Matter (OM) in order to assess the current pollution status in sediments of the study area. Sediment pollution assessment was carried out using Enrichment Factor (EF) and Geo-accumulation index ($I_{geo}$). The potential ecotoxic effects were evaluated based on sediment quality guidelines. The calculated enrichment factor showed that the sediment was mostly enriched with Sb, Cd, Cu, and Cr. The results of the geo-accumulation index indicated that sediments were unpolluted with Sn, Co, Pb; moderately polluted with As, Cr, Cd, Cu, Ni, Zn, and strongly polluted with Sb. This pollution was attributed to anthropogenic activities caused by the sloping side of Lere Lake including consisting of mainly waste disposal, chemicals used in agriculture, and gold exploitation. Sites that exceeded TEL for Cr and Ni and PEL for Cr are ranked at the highest priority level in terms of potential ecological risk.

Impacts of Managing Water in a Closed Basin: A Study of the Walker River Basin, Nevada, USA

  • Tracy, John C.
    • Proceedings of the Korea Water Resources Association Conference
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    • pp.1-10
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    • 2012
  • Throughout much of the world, many ecological problems have arisen in watersheds where a significant portion of stream flows are diverted to support agriculture production. Within endorheic watersheds (watersheds whose terminus is a terminal lake) these problems are magnified due to the cumulative effect that reduced stream flows have on the condition of the lake at the stream's terminus. Within an endorheic watershed, any diversion of stream flows will cause an imbalance in the terminal lake's water balance, causing the lake to transition to a new equilibrium level that has a smaller volume and surface area. However, the total mass of Total Dissolved Solids within the lake will continue to grow; resulting in a significant increase in the lake's TDS concentration over time. The ecological consequences of increased TDS concentrations can be as limited as the intermittent disruption of productive fisheries, or as drastic as a complete collapse of a lake's ecosystem. A watershed where increasing TDS concentrations have reached critical levels is the Walker Lake watershed, located on the eastern slope of the central Sierra Nevada range in Nevada, USA. The watershed has an area of 10,400 sq. km, with average annual headwater flows and stream flow diversions of 376 million $m^3/yr$ and 370 million $m^3/yr$, respectively. These diversions have resulted in the volume of Walker Lake decreasing from 11.1 billion m3 in 1882 to less than 2.0 billion $m^3$ at the present time. The resulting rise in TDS concentration has been from 2,560 mg/l in 1882 to nearly 15,000 mg/l at the current time. Changes in water management practices over the last century, as well as climate change, have contributed to this problem in varying degrees. These changes include the construction of reservoirs in the 1920s, the pumpage of shallow groundwater for irrigation in the 1960s and the implementation of high efficiency agricultural practices in the 1980s. This paper will examine the impacts that each of these actions, along with changes in the region's climate, has had on stream flow in the Walker River, and ultimately the TDS concentration in Walker Lake.

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