• Title, Summary, Keyword: Agricultural biodiversity

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Conservation Value Assessment in Agricultural Area Considering Biodiversity of Insect (곤충류 종다양성을 고려한 농경지 보전가치평가)

  • Kim, Eunyoung;Song, Wonkyong;Jeon, Seong-Woo;Han, Yong-Gu
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Environmental Restoration Technology
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    • v.16 no.5
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    • pp.39-47
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    • 2013
  • The agricultural area is a priority to develop than the natural area for land developments. However, the importance of agricultural biodiversity is emphasized recently. The agricultural area does not only provide food for human and habitat for wild life but also contribute to improve biodiversity. It is necessary to preserve the agricultural area with rich biodiversity. The study was conducted to analyze biodiversity of insects for conservation value assessment of agricultural areas. According to the results of field survey, there is higher biodiversity index in agricultural areas surrounding the forest or small size agricultural areas. By contrast, the index is lower in agricultural areas near roads or in the intensive agricultural area. The results show that there is high biodiversity in agricultural areas, especially margin agricultural area such as below 2ha and over slop rate of 15%. Therefore, further studies should be conducted field survey more to generalize for biodiversity in agricultural area, and establish the criteria to protect agricultural area from land developments.

Insect natural enemies as bioindicators in rice paddies

  • Ueno, Takatoshi
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.39 no.4
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    • pp.545-553
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    • 2012
  • In Asia, including Japan and Korea, rice paddies occupy the largest cultivated area in agricultural land. Rice paddies provide the habitats for many organisms including endemic species, sustaining high biodiversity. Insect natural enemies inhabiting rice paddies have an important function for rice production as agents of 'ecosystem services' because they play a major role in suppressing rice pests. The diversity and abundance of natural enemies can be a good index reflecting the 'healthiness' of agro-ecosystem services in rice paddies. The present study investigates whether insect natural enemies could be good biological indicators for general arthropod biodiversity and agricultural practice. First, the concept of ideal bio-indicators was summarized. The strategy to explore and select such bio-indicators was then proposed. Lastly, field survey was made to evaluate the abundance and biodiversity of natural enemies in Japanese rice paddies where chemical inputs, i.e., insecticide use, were different. The results showed that reduction of chemical inputs led to an increase in species richness or diversity of natural enemies including parasitoids and predators. Then, the data were analyzed to examine suitable indicator species to assess environmental soundness of agricultural practice and biodiversity in rice paddies. The density of several species of natural enemies did respond both to pesticide use and to general arthropod biodiversity. The analyses thus have indicated that natural enemies can be suitable as bio-indicators. Usefulness of indicator species in rice paddies is discussed in the context of ecologically sound agriculture.

Conservation of Biodiversity and Its Ecological Importance of Korean Paddy Field

  • Cho, Young-Son;Lee, Dong-Kyu;Choe, Zhin-Ryong;Han, Min-Soo;Pellerin, Kristie
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.51 no.6
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    • pp.497-504
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    • 2006
  • Biodiversity is closely related to the conservation of ecosystems. Ecosystems provide more subtle, but equally essential, services. Microorganisms decompose human's waste and renew the soils that produce our food crops. Biodiversity in Korean paddies encompass 54 families and 107 species of freshwater invertebrates. In terms of the number of aquatic insects affected by different sources, the order starting with the highest population was swine slurry > chemical fertilizer > fresh straw with reduced fertilizers > control. The number of freshwater invertebrate and aquatic macro-invertebrate in surface water of the plots without insecticidal application were 2 and 2.1 times greater than in fields receiving insecticide applications, respectively. The soil microfungal flora of the 85 isolates paddy fields in Korea was 30 species in 13 genera and 11 isolates were unidentified yet. Agricultural policy should be changed to assist the conservation of biodiversity because until now the agricultural ecosystems have been negatively affected from the development of high-yield varieties to enhance food production, and the expansion of fertilizer and chemical use. For the conservation of agricultural ecosystems, agricultural practices with less investment and more resource saving, as well as enhancing the safety of agricultural and livestock products are essential. Finally, this paper was written for the contribution for the development of environmentally friendly farming systems with neighboring or whole ecosystems.

Diversity and Active Mechanism of Fengycin-Type Cyclopeptides from Bacillus subtilis XF-1 Against Plasmodiophora brassicae

  • Li, Xing-Yu;Mao, Zi-Chao;Wang, Yue-Hu;Wu, Yi-Xing;He, Yue-Qiu;Long, Chun-Lin
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.313-321
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    • 2013
  • Bacillus subtilis XF-1, a strain with demonstrated ability to control clubroot disease caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae, was studied to elucidate its mechanism of antifungal activity against P. brassicae. Fengycin-type cyclopeptides (FTCPs), a well-known class of compounds with strong fungitoxic activity, were purified by acid precipitation, methanol extraction, and chromatographic separation. Eight homologs of fengycin, seven homologs of dehydroxyfengycin, and six unknown FTCPs were characterized with LC/ESI-MS, LC/ESI-MS/MS, and NMR. FTCPs (250 ${\mu}g/ml$) were used to treat the resting spores of P. brassicae ($10^7/ml$) by detecting leakage of the cytoplasm components and cell destruction. After 12 h treatment, the absorbencies at 260 nm ($A_{260}$) and at 280 nm ($A_{280}$) increased gradually to approaching the maximum of absorbance, accompanying the collapse of P. brassicae resting spores, and nearly no complete cells were observed at 24 h treatment. The results suggested that the cells could be cleaved by the FTCPs of B. subtilis XF-1, and the diversity of FTCPs was mainly attributed to a mechanism of clubroot disease biocontrol.

Comparative analysis of terrestrial arthropod community and biomass in differently managed rice fields in Korea

  • Lee, Sue-Yeon;Kim, Myung-Hyun;Eo, Jinu;Song, Young Ju;Kim, Seung-Tae
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Biology
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    • v.37 no.3
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    • pp.317-334
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    • 2019
  • The present study was conducted to investigate the differences in managed farming practices, including low-intensive farming, duck farming, and golden apple snail farming, in a rice ecosystem by comparing terrestrial arthropod communities. A total of 75 species from 70 genera belonging to 43 families in 11 orders were identified from 9,622 collected arthropods. Araneae, Hemiptera, and Coleoptera were the richest taxa. Collembola was the most abundant, followed by Diptera, Hemiptera, and Araneae. Bray-Curtis similarity among the farming practices was very high (76.7%). The biodiversity of each farming practice showed a similar seasonality pattern. The richest species group was the predators, followed by the herbivores. The species richness and diversity of ecologically functional groups among the farming practices were not statistically significant, except for the abundance of predators in golden apple snail farming. The biodiversity seasonality of ecological functional groups in each farming practice showed similar patterns. The biomass of Araneae, Hemiptera, Coleoptera, and Diptera was greater than the other taxa, in general. The biomass of each ecological functional group showed little difference and the biomass fluctuation patterns in each farming practice were almost the same. Collectively, the community structures and biodiversity of terrestrial arthropods among the farming practices in the present study were not different. The present study may contribute to sustain rich biodiversity in irrigated rice fields and to advanced studies of food webs or energy flow structures in rice fields for ecological and sustainable agriculture.

A study on the improvement of Ecosystem Service Function for the Protected Horticulture Complex in Agricultural Landscape (시설원예단지의 생태계서비스 기능 증진을 위한 개선방안 연구)

  • SON, Jinkwan;KONG, Minjae;KANG, Donghyeon;LEE, Siyoung
    • Journal of Korean Society of Rural Planning
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.45-53
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    • 2015
  • Agriculture, rural landscapes are accompanied by a variety of environmental issues. Therefore, it is necessary to study on biodiversity and ecosystem services. Horticulture complex is low groundwater recharge function, it can be evaluated as a facility that biodiversity is impaired. The ecosystem services in agricultural landscapes were obtained 19 kinds of functions. Experts survey Groundwater recharge function (4.13) teeth chapter higher, Water storage (4.05), Amphibian & Reptile habitat (3.96), Aquatic insect habitat (3.92), Flood control (3.87), Water purification (3.86), Avian habitat (3.76 ), Creating landscape (3.74), Vegetation diversity (3.71), Experience, Education (3.69), Biological control (3.48), Fishery habitat (3.42), Climate regulation (3.30), Mammal habitat (3.30), Air quality regulation (3.25 ), Mainenance of genetic diversity (3.25), were analyzed in order Rest area (3.14). Improving capabilities in the Detention Pond, Wetland, Green space, Corridor, Non-Chemical, Program development, Green spaces, Rainwater storage facilities, Water cycle system, Surface water storage facilities, Infiltration trench, Water purification facilities, Permeable pavement. Environmentally friendly, and to contribute to sustainable agricultural development through ecological planning.

Effect of Agricultural Land Use on Abundance, Community Structure and Biodiversity of Epigeic Arthropods (농경지의 이용형태가 토양성 절지동물 군집 및 다양성에 미치는 영향)

  • Eo, Jin U;Kim, Myung-Hyun;Nam, Hyung kyu;Song, Young Ju
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.38 no.3
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    • pp.139-144
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    • 2019
  • BACKGROUND: Epigeic arthropods participate in ecological functions as predators, decomposers and herbivores. The purpose of this study was to investigate the responses of some dominant arthropods in rice fields to different forms of agricultural land management. METHODS AND RESULTS: The abundance of microarthropods was compared between rice fields and uplands in the non-growing season. Collembola, Oribatida and Mesostigmata were more abundant in the upland fields than in the paddy fields. The community composition and diversity of epigeic arthropods were compared between fallow and rice fields. The total abundance and species richness of spiders and ground beetles were not significantly different in the two types of agricultural fields. The abundance of Arctosa kwangreungensis was greater in fallow fields than in cultivated fields. The community structure of arthropods was compared between paddy fields with and without barley. The cropping system altered the community composition of spiders but not their biodiversity. Barley cultivation increased the abundance of ground beetles but decreased that of spiders. We suggest that this contrast was partly due to the availability of plants that provided shelter and food for ground beetles. CONCLUSION: These results show that soil use intensity and cropping system alter the community composition of epigeic spiders and ground beetles. This could result in ecosystem-level alterations with respect to the control of pests and weeds. Our results also suggest that biodiversity of ground-dwelling arthropods may not increase during short fallow periods.