• Title, Summary, Keyword: Aging

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Does Population Aging Contribute to Increased Fiscal Spending?

  • LEE, Mihye
    • The Journal of Business Economics and Environmental Studies
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    • v.9 no.4
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    • pp.23-28
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    • 2019
  • Purpose - With rapid population aging in Korea, changes in the population structure will result in a rise in the fiscal burden. This paper investigates the effects of population aging on fiscal spending based on Korea's province data and country panel data from the OECD. Research design, data, and methodology - We use province-level fiscal data from Local Finance Integrated Open System and the Korean Statistical Information Service and also collect country panel data from the OECD. To investigate the relationship between population aging and fiscal expenditures, our analysis uses the fixed effects model. Results - The empirical analysis based on Korean local finance and country panel data show that population aging has a positive impact on social welfare expenditures and it also has a positive impact on spending related to children and the elderly, implying that population aging may lead to an increase in fiscal spending via an increase in social welfare expenditures and spending related to children and the elderly. Conclusion - These empirical results suggest that countries like Korea that expect to experience rapid population aging need to pay more attention to prepare for the expected increase in age-related spending in the near future.

Effect of Aging Treatment on Fracture Characteristics of High Strength Al-Alloy (고력 알루미늄 합금의 파괴특성에 관한 시효처리의 영향)

  • Moon, Chang-Kweon;Oh , Sae-Kyoo
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Fisheries and Ocean Technology
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.23-29
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    • 1984
  • Nowdays, the high strength aluminum alloys are broadly used for structural purpose, but the practical strengthening method by aging treatment are not much available. So that, in this study, in order to investigate the effect of aging treatment for strengthening on the fracture characteristics of the domestic high strength Al alloy (A2024BE), the variations of the aging temperature and time were taken after solution treatment. By microstructural examination, and by SEM fractographs of the fractures, the effects of aging temperature and time were investigated, considering on the fracture behaviour. The results obtained are as follows: 1) It was confirmed by microstructural investigation that the aging temperature of $190^{\circ}C$ and the aging time of 12hours were optimal to get more sound microstructure with distribution of uniform precipitation. 2) By step aging treatment, the proper aging time for obtaining the similar microstructure without any microstructural defects could be shortened in half the normal aging time. 3)By examining the SEM fractographs of the fracture surface, it was found that, regardless of the aging treatment time and temperature, all were intergranular ductile fractures, but the aging treatment at $190^{\circ}C$ for 12 hours resulted in dimple-type-transgranular and intergranular-ductile-frature.

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Study of Artificial Aging Procedure for Asphalt Mixtures (아스팔트 혼합물의 인공노화 방안 연구)

  • Jung, Jae-Hun;Cho, Byoung-J.;Park, Nam-W.;Kim, Kwang-W.
    • International Journal of Highway Engineering
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    • v.9 no.4
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    • pp.45-54
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    • 2007
  • This study was carried out for developing artificial short-term aging(SA) and long-term aging(LA) methods of asphalt mixtures in which the aging level is properly matched with those of RTFO and PAV aged binders, respectively. The specimens were made of the short-term aged loose asphalt mixture which was kept in a convection oven at $154^{\circ}C$ for 2 hours and were aged at $110^{\circ}C$ for 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours for SA. Large molecular size(LMS) were measured using GPC after SA and LA to evaluate aging extents of each mixture with aging time. It is shown that the LMS was increased with aging time increment and that from the LMS(%) change ratio, it was possible to suggest an appropriate artificial aging time which is corresponding level of aging with RTFO and PAV. It was found that SA was somewhat strong and LA for 48 hours at $110^{\circ}C$ would be appropriate if sort-term aging is properly controlled.

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Effect of Aging Period on Chromatic, Chemical and Organoleptic Properties of Burley Leaf Tobacco (버어리종 잎담배의 숙성기간이 색상, 화학성분 및 끽미에 미치는 영향)

  • 안대진;정기택;이종률;제병권;조수헌
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Tobacco Science
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.35-42
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    • 2004
  • This study was carried out to examinate the effect of aging period on chromatic, chemical and organoleptic characteristics, and to evaluate of optimum aging period for each grade in burley leaf tobacco. The leaf tobaccos were produced in 2000, and threshed, redried and packed in carton box under the current methods. Four grades of processed leaf(A3T, B1T, C1W and D3W) were stored during 24 months (May 10, 2001 to April 31, 2003) in warehouse of Chungju Leaf Tobacco Processing Factory. The leaf tobaccos were sampled at three month intervals for analysis of chromatic, chemical and organoleptic properties. pH values of four grades, and Yellow(b) of A3T and BIT were also significantly decreased during the aging. Filling values, tar, nicotine and CO contents of tobacco smoke, and puff number of cigarettes were not significantly changed during the aging. Positive correlation coefficients were significantly observed between irritation of the calculated attributes from contents of volatile oil components in leaf tobacco and that of the panel sensory attributes. The ratio of maximum change in irritation attribute was larger than that in taste attribute during aging. The calculated irritations of 18~24 months aging for A3T and B1T were significantly lower than zero-aging, while those of C1W and D3W were not significant among aging periods. The panel irritations of 12~15 months aging for four grades were low tendency. The results suggest that decrease of aging period for thin leaf from 21~24 to 12~15 months may be beneficial to save storage cost in burley tobacco.

Application of Electron-Beam Irradiation Combined with Aging for Improvement of Microbiological and Physicochemical Quality of Beef Loin

  • Yim, Dong-Gyun;Jo, Cheorun;Kim, Hyun Cheol;Seo, Kang Seok;Nam, Ki-Chang
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.36 no.2
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    • pp.215-222
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    • 2016
  • The combined effects of irradiation and aging temperature on the microbial and chemical quality of beef loin were investigated. The samples were vacuum-packaged, irradiated at 0 or 2 kGy using electron-beam (EB), and stored for 10 d at different aging temperatures (2, 14, or 25℃). The microbial growth, shear values, meat color, and nucleotide-related flavor compounds of the samples were analyzed. The irradiation effect on inactivation of foodborne pathogens was also investigated. The population of Listeria monocytogenes and Escherhia coli O157:H7 inoculated in beef samples decreased in proportion to the irradiation dose. Irradiation reduced the total aerobic bacteria (TAB) over the storage, but higher aging temperature increased the TBA. Thus TAB increased sharply in non-irradiated and high temperature-aged (14, 25℃) beef samples after 5 d. With increasing aging temperature and aging time, shear force values decreased. Lipid oxidation could be reduced by short aging time at low aging temperature. The color a* values of the irradiated beef were lower than those of the non-irradiated throughout the aging period. As aging period and temperature increased, IMP decreased and hypoxanthine increased. Considering microbial and physicochemical properties, irradiation can be used for raw beef to be aged at relatively high temperature to shorten aging time and cost.

Effects of aging and freezing/thawing sequence on quality attributes of bovine Mm. gluteus medius and biceps femoris

  • Kim, Hyun-Wook;Kim, Yuan H. Brad
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.254-261
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    • 2017
  • Objective: The effects of aging and freezing/thawing sequence on color, physicochemical, and enzymatic characteristics of two beef muscles (Mm. gluteus medius, GM and biceps femoris, BF) were evaluated. Methods: Beef muscles at 3 d postmortem were assigned to four different combinations of aging and freezing/thawing sequence as follows; aging at $2^{\circ}C$ for 3 wk (A3, never-frozen control), freezing at $-28^{\circ}C$ for 2 wk then thawing (F2, frozen/thawed-only), aging at $2^{\circ}C$ for 3 wk, freezing at $-28^{\circ}C$ for 2 wk then thawing (A3F2), and freezing at $-28^{\circ}C$ for 2 wk, thawing then further aging at $2^{\circ}C$ for 3 wk (F2A3). Results: No significant interactions between different aging/freezing/thawing treatments and muscle type on all measurements were found. Postmortem aging, regardless of aging/freezing/thawing sequence, had no impact on color stability of frozen/thawed beef muscles (p<0.05). F2A3 resulted in higher purge loss than F2 and A3F2 treatments (p<0.05). A3F2 and F2A3 treatments resulted in lower shear force of beef muscles compared to F2 (p<0.05). Although there was no significant difference in glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity, F2A3 had the highest ${\beta}-N-acetyl$ glucominidase (BNAG) activity in purge, but the lowest BNAG activity in muscle (p<0.05). GM muscle exhibited higher total color changes and purge loss, and lower GSH-Px activity than BF muscle. Conclusion: The results from this present study indicate that different combinations of aging/freezing/thawing sequence would result in considerable impacts on meat quality attributes, particularly thaw/purge loss and tenderness. Developing a novel freezing strategy combined with postmortem aging will be beneficial for the food/meat industry to maximize its positive impacts on tenderness, while minimizing thaw/purge loss of frozen/thawed meat.

Dynamic Rheological Properties of Hydroxypropylated Rice Starches during the Aging Process (Aging 과정 중 하드록시프로필화 쌀전분의 동적 레올로지 특성)

  • Choi, Hye-Mi;Yoo, Byoung-Seung
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.39 no.5
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    • pp.584-587
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    • 2007
  • The effect of molar substitution (MS, 0.030-0.118) on the dynamic rheological properties of hydroxypropylated rice starch pastes (5%, w/w) was investigated by small-deformation oscillatory measurements during aging. The magnitudes of storage (G#) and loss (G") moduli measured at $4^{\circ}C$ before aging increased with an increase in MS in the range of 0.030-0.118, while those of tan ${\delta}$ (the ratio of G"/G#) decreased. The G# values of hydroxypropylated rice starches, as a function of aging time (10 hr) at $4^{\circ}C$, increased rapidly at the initial stage, and then reached a plateau region at shorter aging times. However, for the native starch, the plateau values were not observed for G# after a long aging time. Increasing the MS resulted in a decrease in plateau values. The rate constant (K) for structure development during aging was described by first-order kinetics. The K values of hydroxypropylated rice starches at 0.086 and 0.118 MS were much lower than the K value at 0.030 MS.

Effect of Thermal Aging on Electrical Properties of Low Density Polyethylene

  • Wang, Can;Xie, Yaoheng;Pan, Hua;Wang, Youyuan
    • Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology
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    • v.13 no.6
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    • pp.2412-2420
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    • 2018
  • The thermal degradation of low density polyethylene (LDPE) will accelerate the production of carbonyl groups (C=O), which can act as the induced dipoles under high voltage. In this paper, we researched the dielectric properties and space charge behavior of LDPE after thermal aging, which can help us to understand the correlation between carbonyl groups (C=O) and electrical properties of LDPE. The spectra results show that LDPE exhibit obvious thermooxidative reactions when the aging time is 35 days and the productions mainly contain carboxylic acid, carboxylic eater and carboxylic anhydride, whose amount increase with the increasing of aging time. The dielectric properties show that the real permittivity of LDPE is inversely proportional to temperature before aging and subsequently become proportional to temperature after thermal aging. Furthermore, both the real and imaginary permittivity increase sharply with the increasing of aging time. The fitting results of imaginary permittivity show that DC conductivity become more sensitive about temperature after thermal aging. On this basis, the active energies of materials calculated from DC conductivity increase first and then decrease with the increasing of aging time. In addition, the space charge results show that the heterocharges accumulated near electrodes in LDPE change to the homocharges after thermal aging and the mean volume charge density increase with the increasing of aging time. It is considered that the overlaps caused by electrical potential area is the main reason for the increase of DC conductivity.

Physicochemical and microbial characteristics of longissimus lumborum and biceps femoris muscles in Korean native black goat with wet-aging time

  • Ali, Mahabbat;Park, Ji-Young;Lee, Seong-Yun;Choi, Young-Sun;Nam, Ki-Chang
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.63 no.1
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    • pp.149-159
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    • 2021
  • This study examined the effects of different wet-aging times on the physicochemical characteristics and microbial profile of longissimus lumborum (LL) and biceps femoris (BF) muscles from Korean native black goat (KNBG) meat. The water holding capacity (WHC), pH, cooking loss, shear force, meat color, free amino acid, total bacteria, and coliform count of KNGB meat were analyzed at 0, 5, 10, and 15 days of wet-aging at 4℃ under vacuum packaging. The results showed that different wet-aging times led to significant pH variations between the muscles throughout the aging period. The wet-aging time did not affect the WHC and cooking loss in meat from the LL muscle. In the BF muscle, however, meat wet-aged for five days had a significantly higher WHC and less cooking loss than meat aged for 0, 10, and 15 days. The meat from the LL muscle wet-aged for five days produced tenderer meat (low shear force value) than the unaged meat (p < 0.05). Moreover, the color was similar in the LL muscle regardless of the number of aging days. In the BF muscle, the redness (a*) was higher in the meat wet-aged for 15 days compared to that aged for 0, 5, and 10 days (p < 0.05). Regardless of the muscles, an increase in wet-aging time led to an increase in the total free amino acids contents in both muscles (p < 0.05). On the other hand, the tasty/bitter amino acid ratio was significantly higher for five days of wet-aged meat than 10 and 15 days of aging from the BF muscle. In addition, regardless of the muscles, the total bacteria and coliform counts were significantly lower for five days of wet-aged meat than 10 and 15 days of aging (p < 0.05). Therefore, chevon wet-aged for five days is an optimal aging period under vacuum packaging that fortifies meat quality with a minimal microbial negative defect.

A Comparative Study on the Factors Affecting the Successful Aging between Users and Non-users of Kyung-ro-dang for Community Care Policy Activation (커뮤니티케어 활성화를 위한 농촌지역 경로당 이용 노인과 비이용 노인 간 성공적 노화 관련 요인 비교)

  • Song, Gue-Rum;Nam, Eun-Woo;Jin, Ki-Nam
    • Health Policy and Management
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    • v.29 no.4
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    • pp.412-421
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    • 2019
  • Background: The purpose of this study was to identify the status of Successful Aging among the elderly aged 65 and over in rural areas and to compare factors related with Successful Aging between "kyung-ro-dang" users and non-users. Methods: A total of 181 elderly aged 65 or older were selected from four districts (Heung-upri, Mejiri, Sajerri, and Daeanri) of Wonju city. A survey method using face to face interviews was applied to collect information. Successful aging was measured on a 5-point Likert-type scale using the successful aging scale developed for the Korean elderly, which indicates the higher the score, the higher the level of successful aging. Descriptive statistics, bivariate, and multivariate analyses were computed; the level of significance was set at 5%. Hierarchical polynomial regression was applied to find out the factors associated with successful aging. Results: Of the total, 112 elders used kyung-ro-dang and 69 elders who did not use kyung-ro-dang. The level of successful aging of the elderly was higher among kyung-ro-dang users than non-users. The factors related to successful aging among kyung-ro-dang users were walking and social participation. Users who walk more than 4 times per week and social participation activities have a higher level of satisfaction. In the case of non-users, a higher level of monthly income, having a spouse, social support, and social participation associated with a higher level of successful aging. Conclusion: Monthly income, social participation, and social factors were found to be related to successful aging along with physical and mental health conditions among the elderly in rural areas. Therefore, it can be concluded that income, social as well as mental and physical factors, are more critical for successful aging in the rural community care in Korea.