• Title, Summary, Keyword: Aging

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Changes in Moisture Content and Quality of Oriental Hybrid Lily (Lilium oriental cv. Siberia) Cut Flowers during Storage at Cold and Dry Condition and Subsequent Exposure to Ambient Temperature (오리엔탈 나리 '시베리아' 절화의 포장내 건식저장 기간별 수분함량과 품질 변화)

  • Lee, Jung-Soo;Rhee, JuHee;Kang, Yun-Im;Choi, Ji Weon
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF PACKAGING SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.27-36
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    • 2017
  • In order to determine the relationship between water content and flower qualities of oriental hybrid lily cv. 'Siberia' cut flower, flowers were subjected to dry and cold storage at $5^{\circ}C$ for 3, 6, and 12 days and subsequently exposed to ambient temperature ($26^{\circ}C$) in bottles with water for up to 16 days. Flowers stored at $22^{\circ}C$ in dry condition for 3 days were used as the control. Changes in fresh weight, moisture content, water balance, flowering stages, osmolality and vase life of cut flowers were observed. Flowers treated with cold and dry storage had higher moisture content compared to control sample. However, this trend was evident only for 3-day cold and dry stored sample during the whole storage period. The fresh weight of cut flowers increased gradually when the samples were transferred to ambient temperature in water bottles and then declined steadily before reaching the peak in between 6-8 days of vase life. However, the changes of fresh weight of control sample were substantially faster than samples pre-treated with cold and dry storage. This was also correlated with the water balance of cut flower as it reached the minus (-) value in 6-8 days of vase life at ambient temperature. Cut lily flowers showed high osmolality values corresponding with the duration of dry storage regardless of low or higher temperature. However, osmolality had no effect on vase life since flower stem absorbed water rapidly at the end of dry storage period. Our vase life results suggest that cold and dry storage of lily cut flowers for a certain period could ensure longer vase life at ambient temperature. It was observed that prolonging the storage period at cold and dry condition for more than a week significantly increased bud abortion, reduced longevity of flowers and reduced the vase life of cut flowers. On the other hand, the shorter cold and dry storage treatment delayed the bud opening and senescence of the flowers, thus, slowering the normal maturation and aging. Results indicated that dry and cold storage at $5^{\circ}C$ for 3 days was effective in maintaining and preserving overall quality and vase life at ambient condition of oriental hybrid lily cut flowers.

Environment-friendly and Low-Carbon Agriculture for Demand-Supply Control and Food Security of Korean Rice (쌀 수급안정과 식량안보를 위한 친환경·저탄소 농업 전환방안)

  • Yang, Seung-Koo;Park, Pyung-Sik;Son, Jang-Hwan;An, Kyu-Nam
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.99-128
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    • 2018
  • The cultivation area of rice as staple grains is decreasing in the domestic situation in Korea. Import volume of a duty in foreign rice is 409,000 tons for a year regardless increasing of production per unit area and decreasing of rice consumption. The total stock of rice is increasing cumulatively despite the effort for production mediation of rice. Therefore, maintenance of cultivation area and reduction of production are necessary for national foodstuffs security problems. Development of environment-friendly and low-carbon technology as alternative of global warming and aging of farm labor power is very important responsibility for descendants with creation of sustainable agriculture environment. As alternative for demand and supply stabilization of rice from all angles, first stage: extension of environment-friendly cultivation area as 17% Jeollanam-do level with maintenance of cultivation area under the present circumstances, second stage: extension of environment-friendly cultivation area as 25%, third stage: extension of environment-friendly cultivation area as 35%. From above mentioned scenario, reduction of rice production (60,000 tons), increases of production cost (59,200,000,000 Won), and reduction of income (201,500,000,000 Won) are estimated in first stage. Reduction of rice production (90,000 tons), increases of production cost (122,100,000,000 Won), and reduction of income (313,700,000,000 Won) are estimated in second stage. Reduction of rice production (380,000 tons), increases of production cost (222,000,000,000 Won), and reduction of income (464,500,000,000 Won) are estimated in third stage. From analysis results for partial tillage in transplanting cultivation complex (10ha), rice production is decreased 1.3~1.5 ton by complex. Production cost of rice is decreased and increases of income cultivation type. Gradual extension of environment-friendly agriculture and low-carbon partial tillage could be expected for environment maintenance of the territorial integrity, confidence of consumer, and high-efficiency of low-cost.

Automatic Detection of Stage 1 Sleep (자동 분석을 이용한 1단계 수면탐지)

  • 신홍범;한종희;정도언;박광석
    • Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.11-19
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    • 2004
  • Stage 1 sleep provides important information regarding interpretation of nocturnal polysomnography, particularly sleep onset. It is a short transition period from wakeful consciousness to sleep. Lack of prominent sleep events characterizing stage 1 sleep is a major obstacle in automatic sleep stage scoring. In this study, we attempted to utilize simultaneous EEC and EOG processing and analyses to detect stage 1 sleep automatically. Relative powers of the alpha waves and the theta waves were calculated from spectral estimation. Either the relative power of alpha waves less than 50% or the relative power of theta waves more than 23% was regarded as stage 1 sleep. SEM (slow eye movement) was defined as the duration of both eye movement ranging from 1.5 to 4 seconds and regarded also as stage 1 sleep. If one of these three criteria was met, the epoch was regarded as stage 1 sleep. Results f ere compared to the manual rating results done by two polysomnography experts. Total of 169 epochs was analyzed. Agreement rate for stage 1 sleep between automatic detection and manual scoring was 79.3% and Cohen's Kappa was 0.586 (p<0.01). A significant portion (32%) of automatically detected stage 1 sleep included SEM. Generally, digitally-scored sleep s1aging shows the accuracy up to 70%. Considering potential difficulties in stage 1 sleep scoring, the accuracy of 79.3% in this study seems to be robust enough. Simultaneous analysis of EOG provides differential value to the present study from previous oneswhich mainly depended on EEG analysis. The issue of close relationship between SEM and stage 1 sleep raised by Kinnariet at. remains to be a valid one in this study.

Mechanisms for Anti-wrinkle Activities from Fractions of Black Chokeberries (블랙초크베리 분획물로부터의 주름억제 효과에 대한 작용기전)

  • Choi, Eun-Young;Kim, Eun-Hee;Lee, Jae-Bong;Do, Eun-Ju;Kim, Sang-Jin;Kim, Se-Hyeon;Park, Jeong-Yeol;Lee, Jin-Tae
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.34-41
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    • 2016
  • Black chokeberries (scientific name Aronia melanocarpa) have been reported to have major effects due to anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer capabilities. In this study, we investigated the anti- wrinkle effects of A. melanocarpa, including collagenase inhibition effects and their molecular biological mechanisms, such as oxidative stress-induced matrix metalloproteinase (MMP), mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase, and activator protein (AP)-1 expression and/or phosphorylation. In collagenase inhibition activity, the ethyl acetate fraction of black chokeberry (AE) was 77.2% at a concentration of 500 μg/ml, which was a significant result compared to that of Epigallocatechin gallate (positive control, 83.9% in 500 μg/ml). In the reactive oxygen species (ROS) assay, the AE produced 78% of ROS in 10 μg/ml and 70% of ROS in 75 μg/ml, which was a much lower percentage than the ROS production of H2O2-induced CCRF S-180II cells. In the MTT assay, cell viability was increased dose-dependently with AE in H2O2-induced cells. In protein expression by western blot assay, the AE suppressed the expression and phosphorylation of MMPs (MMP-1, -3, -9), MAPK (ERK, JNK, and p38), and AP-1 (c-Fos and c-Jun), and expressed the pro-collagen type I in H2O2-induced cells. These results suggest that black chokeberries have anti-wrinkle and collagen-production effects, and they may be used in applications for material development in the functional food and cosmetic industries.

Immune-modulation Effect of Ulmus macrocarpa Hance Water Extract on Balb/c Mice (왕느릅나무 껍질 열수 추출물의 마우스에서의 in vivo 면역조절 효과)

  • Lee, Inhwan;Kwon, Da Hye;Lee, Sun Hee;Lee, Sung Do;Kim, Deok Won;Lee, Jong-Hwan;Hyun, Sook Kyung;Kang, Kyung-Hwa;Kim, CheolMin;Kim, Byoung Woo;Hwang, Hye Jin;Chung, Kyung Tae
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.24 no.10
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    • pp.1151-1156
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    • 2014
  • Traditional medicinal plants are widely used to treat many diseases, such as inflammation, infections, and even cancer. Ulmus macrocarpa Hance, a Chinese elm species, is distributed in Korea, China, and Japan. The stem bark is widely employed in Korean traditional medicine to treat dermatitis, mastitis, and edema. The aim of this study was to investigate whether water extract of U. macrocarpa Hance bark (Ulmus cortex) has a immune-modulating function in a mouse model. Three different concentrations (30 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg, and 300 mg/kg) of Ulmus cortex water extract (UCWE) were orally administered to mice for 14 days, and their immune responses were analyzed. Cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-2, IL-12, and IFN-${\gamma}$, increased in the blood of UCWE-fed groups when compared with a control group. In contrast, the IL-4 level did not change in any of the UCWE-fed groups Cell-mediated cytotoxicity was also assayed using lymphokine-activated killer cells (LAK). LAK showed greater cytotoxicity in the UCWE-fed groups than LAK in the control group. Internal organ indices, such as liver, kidney, spleen, and thymus, were similar in all the groups, including the control group, indicating that UCWE may have been nontoxic in the experimental animals. These data suggest that UCWE has an immune-modulating function in a mouse model.

Job Preference Analysis and Job Matching System Development for the Middle Aged Class (중장년층 일자리 요구사항 분석 및 인력 고용 매칭 시스템 개발)

  • Kim, Seongchan;Jang, Jincheul;Kim, Seong Jung;Chin, Hyojin;Yi, Mun Yong
    • Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.247-264
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    • 2016
  • With the rapid acceleration of low-birth rate and population aging, the employment of the neglected groups of people including the middle aged class is a crucial issue in South Korea. In particular, in the 2010s, the number of the middle aged who want to find a new job after retirement age is significantly increasing with the arrival of the retirement time of the baby boom generation (born 1955-1963). Despite the importance of matching jobs to this emerging middle aged class, private job portals as well as the Korean government do not provide any online job service tailored for them. A gigantic amount of job information is available online; however, the current recruiting systems do not meet the demand of the middle aged class as their primary targets are young workers. We are in dire need of a specially designed recruiting system for the middle aged. Meanwhile, when users are searching the desired occupations on the Worknet website, provided by the Korean Ministry of Employment and Labor, users are experiencing discomfort to search for similar jobs because Worknet is providing filtered search results on the basis of exact matches of a preferred job code. Besides, according to our Worknet data analysis, only about 24% of job seekers had landed on a job position consistent with their initial preferred job code while the rest had landed on a position different from their initial preference. To improve the situation, particularly for the middle aged class, we investigate a soft job matching technique by performing the following: 1) we review a user behavior logs of Worknet, which is a public job recruiting system set up by the Korean government and point out key system design implications for the middle aged. Specifically, we analyze the job postings that include preferential tags for the middle aged in order to disclose what types of jobs are in favor of the middle aged; 2) we develope a new occupation classification scheme for the middle aged, Korea Occupation Classification for the Middle-aged (KOCM), based on the similarity between jobs by reorganizing and modifying a general occupation classification scheme. When viewed from the perspective of job placement, an occupation classification scheme is a way to connect the enterprises and job seekers and a basic mechanism for job placement. The key features of KOCM include establishing the Simple Labor category, which is the most requested category by enterprises; and 3) we design MOMA (Middle-aged Occupation Matching Algorithm), which is a hybrid job matching algorithm comprising constraint-based reasoning and case-based reasoning. MOMA incorporates KOCM to expand query to search similar jobs in the database. MOMA utilizes cosine similarity between user requirement and job posting to rank a set of postings in terms of preferred job code, salary, distance, and job type. The developed system using MOMA demonstrates about 20 times of improvement over the hard matching performance. In implementing the algorithm for a web-based application of recruiting system for the middle aged, we also considered the usability issue of making the system easier to use, which is especially important for this particular class of users. That is, we wanted to improve the usability of the system during the job search process for the middle aged users by asking to enter only a few simple and core pieces of information such as preferred job (job code), salary, and (allowable) distance to the working place, enabling the middle aged to find a job suitable to their needs efficiently. The Web site implemented with MOMA should be able to contribute to improving job search of the middle aged class. We also expect the overall approach to be applicable to other groups of people for the improvement of job matching results.

Future Direction of National Health Insurance (국민건강보험 발전방향)

  • Park, Eun-Cheol
    • Health Policy and Management
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.273-275
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    • 2017
  • It has been forty years since the implementation of National Health Insurance (NHI) in South Korea. Following the 1977 legislature mandating medical insurance for employees and dependents in firms with more than 500 employees, South Korea expanded its health insurance to urban residents in 1989. Resultantly, total expenses of the National Health Insurance Service (NHIS) have greatly increased from 4.5 billion won in 1977 to 50.89 trillion won in 2016. With multiple insurers merging into the NHI system in 2000, a single-payer healthcare system emerged, along with separation policy of prescribing and dispensing. Following such reform, an emerging financial crisis required injections from the National Health Promotion Fund. Forty years following the introduction of the NHI system, both praise and criticism have been drawn. In just 12 years, the NHI achieved the fastest health population coverage in the world. Current medical expenditure is not high relative to the rest of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. The quality of acute care in Korea is one of the best in the world. There is no sign of delayed diagnosis and/or treatment for most diseases. However, the NHI has been under-insured, requiring high-levels of out-of-pocket money from patients and often causing catastrophic medical expenses. Furthermore, the current environmental circumstances of the NHI are threatening its sustainability. Low birth rate decline, as well as slow economic growth, will make sustainment of the current healthcare system difficult in the near future. An aging population will increase the amount of medical expenditure required, especially with the baby-boomer generation of those born between 1955 and 1965. Meanwhile, there is always the problem of unification for the Korean Peninsula, and what role the health insurance system will have to play when it occurs. In the presidential election, health insurance is a main issue; however, there is greater focus on expansion and expenditure than revenue. Many aspects of Korea's NHI system (1977) were modeled after the German (1883) and Japanese (1922) systems. Such systems were created during an era where infections disease control was most urgent and thus, in the current non-communicable disease (NCD) era, must be redesigned. The Korean system, which is already forty years old, must be redesigned completely. Although health insurance benefit expansion is necessary, financial measures, as well as moral hazard control measures, must also be considered. Ultimately, there are three aspects that we must consider when attempting redesign of the system. First, the health security system must be reformed. NHI and Medical Aid must be amalgamated into one system for increased effectiveness and efficiency of the system. Within the single insurer system of the NHI must be an internal market for maximum efficiency. The NHIS must be separated into regions so that regional organizers have greater responsibility over their actions. Although insurance must continue to be imposed nationally, risk-adjustment must be distributed regionally and assessed by different regional systems. Second, as a solution for the decreasing flow of insurance revenue, low premium level must be increased to an appropriate level. Likewise, the national reserve fund (No. 36, National Health Insurance Act) must be enlarged for re-unification preparation. Third, there must be revolutionary reform of benefit package. The current system built a focus on communicable diseases which is inappropriate in this NCD era. Medical benefits must not be one-time events but provide chronic disease management. Chronic care models, accountable care organization, patient-centered medical homes, and other systems that introduce various benefit packages for beneficiaries must be implemented. The reimbursement system of medical costs should be introduced to various systems for different types of care, as is the case with part C (Medicare Advantage Program) of America's Medicare system that substitutes part A and part B. Pay for performance must be expanded so that there is not only improvement in quality of care but also medical costs. Moreover, beneficiaries of the NHI system must be aware of the amount of their expenditure through a deductible payment system so that spending can be profiled and monitored. The Moon Jae-in Government has announced its plans to expand the NHI system; however, it is important that a discussion forum is created so that more accurate analysis of the NHI, its environments, and current status of health care system, can take place for reforming NHI.

Temperature-dependent Oviposition Model and Life Table Parameters of Paromius exiguus (Distant) (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae) Growing on Rice (벼에서 흑다리긴노린재 [Paromius exiguus (Distant)] (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae) 산란모델 및 생명표)

  • Park, Chang-Gyu;Park, Hong-Hyeon;Seo, Bo Yoon
    • Korean journal of applied entomology
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    • v.56 no.4
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    • pp.387-394
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    • 2017
  • Temperature-dependent oviposition model and life table parameters of Paromius exiguus (Distant), the causal agent of 'pecky' rice grain were examined at eight constant temperatures (17.5, 20, 22.5, 25, 27.5, 30, 32.5, and $35{\pm}^{\circ}C$) and a photoperiod of 14:10 (L:D) h. Unit functions of the oviposition model were developed and life table parameters were estimated. The longevity of P. exiguus adults decreased with increasing temperature (123.8 days at $17.5^{\circ}C$ and 23.6 days at $32.5^{\circ}C$). Total fecundity was highest at $30^{\circ}C$ (585.2 eggs/female) and lowest at $17.5^{\circ}C$ (21.5 eggs/female). In order to develop a temperature-dependent oviposition model, adult aging-rate, temperature-dependent fecundity, age-specific survival rate, and age-specific cumulative oviposition rate equations were estimated. All unit equations ($r^2=0.92{\sim}0.98$) except for the temperature-dependent fecundity equation ($r^2=0.83{\sim}0.85$), described oviposition characteristics of P. exiguus adequately. Life table parameters of P. exiguus were estimated at various constant temperatures. Net reproduction rate ($R_0$) was highest at $30^{\circ}C$ (118.21). Mean generation time (T) was shortest at $32.5^{\circ}C$ (32.99 days) and doubling time (Dt) was shortest at $30^{\circ}C$ (5.69 days). The highest values of intrinsic rate of increase ($r_m$) and finite rate of increase (${\lambda}$) were 0.122 and 1.129 at $30^{\circ}C$, respectively.

Genetic Variation and Phylogenetic Relationship of Taraxacum Based on Chloroplast DNA (trnL-trnF and rps16-trnK) Sequences (엽록체 DNA (trnL-trnF, rps16-trnK) 염기서열에 의한 국내 민들레속 유전자원의 유전적 변이와 유연관계 분석)

  • Ryu, Jaihyunk;Lyu, Jae-il;Bae, Chang-Hyu
    • Korean Journal of Plant Resources
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    • v.30 no.5
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    • pp.522-534
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    • 2017
  • This study was investigated genetic variation in 24 Taraxacum accessions from various regions in South Korea based on the sequences of two chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) regions (trnL-trnF and rps16-trnK). T. mongolicum, T. officinale, and T. laevigatum were triploid, and T. coreanum and T. coreanum var. flavescens were tetraploid. The trnL-trnF region in native Korean dandelions (T. mongolicum, T. coreanum, and T. coreanum var. flavescens) were ranged from 931 to 935 bp in length, and that of naturalized dandelions were ranged from 910 bp (T. officinale) to 975 bp (T. laevigatum) in length. The rps16-trnK region in T. mongolicum, T. coreanum, T. coreanum var. flavescens, T. officinale, and T. laevigatum was 882-883 bp, 875-881 bp, 878-883 bp, 874-876 bp, and 847-876 bp, respectively, in length. The sequence similarity matrix of the trnL-trnF region ranged from 0.860 to 1.00 with an average of 0.949, and that of the rps16-trnK region ranged from 0.919 to 1.000 with an average of 0.967. According to the phylogenetic analysis, the Korean native taxa and naturalized taxa were divided independent clade in two cpDNA region. T. coreanum var. flavescens clustered only with T. coreanum, and there were no significant differences in their nucleotide sequences. The finding that two accessions (T. coreanum; Jogesan, T. mongolicum; Gangyang) had a high level of genetic variation suggests their utility for breeding materials.

Comparison of Antioxidant and Matrix Metalloproteinases Inhibitory Effects of Sorbus commixta Twig Extracts before and after Fermentation with Lactobacillus pentosus (Lactobacillus pentosus에 의한 발효 전후 마가목 가지 추출물의 항산화 활성 및 Matrix Metalloproteinases 발현 억제 효과)

  • Park, Young Min;Park, So Hyun;Cha, Mi Yeon;Kang, Hee Cheol;Park, Soo Nam
    • Applied Chemistry for Engineering
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    • v.28 no.6
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    • pp.696-704
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    • 2017
  • In this study, we investigated antioxidative and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) inhibitory effects of Sorbus commixta twig extracts and fermented extracts with Lactobacillus pentosus and analyzed active ingredients. The free radical scavenging activity ($FSC_{50}$) of non-fermented and fermented extracts of S. commixta twig' were 41.04 and $58.2{\mu}g/mL$, respectively. In the $Fe^{3+}-EDTA/H_2O_2$ system, the active oxygen scavenging activity ($OSC_{50}$) was 2.6 and $3.0{\mu}g/mL$, respectively. In the dermal fibroblasts, the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging activity was 35.3% for non-fermented extract and 40.2% for fermented extracts at the concentration of $10{\mu}g/mL$. Also at the same concentration, the expression of MMPs (MMP-1, -2, -3) by western blot was 68.3, 35.0 and 24.2%, respectively for non-fermented extracts and 84.3, 70.5 and 69.2% for fermented extracts. TLC, HPLC, and LC/ESI-MS/MS were used for measuring the changes in the components of the extract before and after fermentation. As a result, caffeic acid, (-)-epicatechin, isoquercitrin, and quercetin were identified. From the results, S. commixta twig fermented extracts by L. pentosus showed greater ROS scavenging activity and inhibitory effects on MMPs expression than those of using non-fermented extracts. Therefore, it is suggested that S. commixta twig fermented extracts can be used as an anti-aging cosmetic material.