• Title, Summary, Keyword: Aging

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Blood Pressure Reactivity during Nasal Continuous Positive Airway Pressure in Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (폐쇄성(閉鎖性) 수면무호흡증(睡眠無呼吸症)에서 지속적(持續的) 상기도(上氣道) 양압술(陽壓術)이 혈력학적(血力學的) 변화(變化)에 끼치는 영향(影響))

  • Park, Doo-Heum;Jeong, Do-Un
    • Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.24-33
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    • 2002
  • Objectives: Nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) corrected elevated blood pressure (BP) in some studies of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) but not in others. Such inconsistent results in previous studies might be due to differences in factors influencing the effects of CPAP on BP. The factors referred to include BP monitoring techniques, the characteristics of subjects, and method of CPAP application. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of one night CPAP application on BP and heart rate (HR) reactivity using non-invasive beat-to-beat BP measurement in normotensive and hypertensive subjects with OSAS. Methods: Finger arterial BP and oxygen saturation monitoring with nocturnal polysomnography were performed on 10 OSAS patients (mean age $52.2{\pm}12.4\;years$; 9 males, 1 female; respiratory disturbance index (RDI)>5) for one baseline night and another CPAP night. Beat-to-beat measurement of BP and HR was done with finger arterial BP monitor ($Finapres^{(R)}$) and mean arterial oxygen saturation ($SaO_2$) was also measured at 2-second intervals for both nights. We compared the mean values of cardiovascular and respiratory variables between baseline and CPAP nights using Wilcoxon signed ranks test. Delta ($\Delta$) BP, defined as the subtracted value of CPAP night BP from baseline night BP, was correlated with age, body mass index (BMI), baseline night values of BP, BP variability, HR, HR variability, mean $SaO_2$ and respiratory disturbance index (RDI), and CPAP night values of TWT% (total wake time%) and CPAP pressure, using Spearman's correlation. Results: 1) Although increase of mean $SaO_2$ (p<.01) and decrease of RDI (p<.01) were observed on the CPAP night, there were no significant differences in other variables between two nights. 2) However, delta BP tended to increase or decease depending on BP values of the baseline night and age. Delta systolic BP and baseline systolic BP showed a significant positive correlation (p<.01), but delta diastolic BP and baseline diastolic BP did not show a significant correlation except for a positive correlation in wake stage (p<.01). Delta diastolic BP and age showed a significant negative correlation (p<.05) during all stages except for REM stage, but delta systolic BP and age did not. 3) Delta systolic and diastolic BPs did not significantly correlate with other factors, such as BMI, baseline night values of BP variability, HR, HR variability, mean SaO2 and RDI, and CPAP night values of TWT% and CPAP pressure, except for a positive correlation of delta diastolic pressure and TWT% of CPAP night (p<.01). Conclusions: We observed that systolic BP and diastolic BP tended to decrease, increase or remain still in accordance with the systolic BP level of baseline night and aging. We suggest that BP reactivity by CPAP be dealt with as a complex phenomenon rather than a simple undifferentiated BP decrease.

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Meat Quality and Nutritional Properties of Hanwoo and Imported New Zealand Beef (한우고기와 뉴질랜드산 냉장수입육의 육질 및 영양성분 비교)

  • Cho, Soo-Hyun;Kang, Geun-Ho;Seong, Pil-Nam;Park, Beom-Young;Jung, Seok-Geun;Kang, Sun-Moon;Kim, Young-Chun;Kim, Ji-Hee;Kim, Dong-Hun
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.31 no.6
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    • pp.935-943
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    • 2011
  • This study was conducted to investigate the proximate composition, meat color, Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBS), cooking loss (CL), fatty acids composition, amino acid composition and mineral contents of Hanwoo beef (QG $1^+$, 1) and imported New Zealand black Angus beef with loin, strip loin, eye of round and chuck tender. The intramuscular fat contents were higher in the strip loin, loin and chuck tender of Hanwoo beef than New Zealand beef (p<0.05). Hanwoo QG 1 beef had higher Fe contents in the strip loin (30.52 mg/100g) and chuck tender (40.70 mg/100g) (p<0.05). Hanwoo beef had lower cooking loss and than those of New Zealand beef, whereas New Zealand beef had higher protein and amino acids contents (%) than their counterpart. There was no significant difference in the WBS between two origin samples except the chuck Hanwoo beef had significantly lower saturated fatty acids (SFA) and higher monounsaturated fatty acids contents than New Zealand beef (p<0.05). WBS values indicated that Hanwoo and New Zealand beef had similar tenderness in the loin, striploin and eye of round due to the longer aging periods of the New Zealand beef than Hanwoo beef during the distribution.

Evaluation of the Neural Fiber Tractography Associated with Aging in the Normal Corpus Callosum Using the Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) (확산텐서영상(Diffusion Tensor Imaging)을 이용한 정상 뇌량에서의 연령대별 신경섬유로의 변화)

  • Im, In-Chul;Goo, Eun-Hoe;Lee, Jae-Seung
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Radiology
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    • v.5 no.4
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    • pp.189-194
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    • 2011
  • This study used magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to quantitatively analyze the neural fiber tractography according to the age of normal corpus callosum and to evaluate of usefulness. The research was intended for the applicants of 60 persons that was in a good state of health with not brain or other disease. The test parameters were TR: 6650 ms, TE: 66 ms, FA: $90^{\circ}$, NEX: 2, thickness: 2 mm, no gap, FOV: 220 mm, b-value: $800s/mm^2$, sense factor: 2, acquisition matrix size: $2{\times}2{\times}2mm^3$, and the test time was 3 minutes 46 seconds. The evaluation method was constructed the color-cored FA map include to the skull vertex from the skull base in scan range. We set up the five ROI of corpus callosum of genu, anterior-mid body, posterior-mid body, isthmus, and splenium, tracking, respectively, and to quantitatively measured the length of neural fiber. As a result, the length of neural fiber, for the corpus callosum of genu was 20's: $61.8{\pm}6.8$, 30's: $63.9{\pm}3.8$, 40's: $65.5{\pm}6.4$, 50's: $57.8{\pm}6.0$, 60's: $58.9{\pm}4.5$, more than 70's: $54.1{\pm}8.1mm$, for the anterior-mid body was 20's: $54.8{\pm}8.8$, 30's: $58.5{\pm}7.9$, 40's: $54.8{\pm}7.8$, 50's: $56.1{\pm}10.2$, 60's: $48.5{\pm}6.2$, more than 70's: $48.6{\pm}8.3mm$, for the posterior-mid body was 20's: $72.7{\pm}9.1$, 30's: $61.6{\pm}9.1$, 40's: $60.9{\pm}10.5$, 50's: $61.4{\pm}11.7$, 60's: $54.9{\pm}10.0$, more than 70's: $53.1{\pm}10.5mm$, for the isthmus was 20's: $71.5{\pm}17.4$, 30's: $74.1{\pm}14.9$, 40's: $73.6{\pm}14.2$, 50's: $66.3{\pm}12.9$, 60's: $56.5{\pm}11.2$, more than 70's: $56.8{\pm}11.3mm$, and for the splenium was 20's: $82.6{\pm}6.8$, 30's: $86.9{\pm}6.4$, 40's: $83.1{\pm}7.1$, 50's: $81.5{\pm}7.4$, 60's: $78.6{\pm}6.0$, more than 70's: $80.55{\pm}8.6mm$. The length of neural fiber for normal corpus callosum were statistically significant in the genu(P=0.001), posterior-mid body(P=0.009), and istumus(P=0.012) of corpus callosum. In order of age, the length of neural fiber increased from 30s to 40s, as one grows older tended to decrease. For this reason, the nerve cells of brain could be confirmed through the neural fiber tractography to progress actively in middle age.

The Demand and Supply of Nutritionist Workforce in Korea and Policy Recommendations (국민영양관리를 위한 영양사 인력의 적정수급에 관한 연구)

  • Oh, Young-Ho
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.43 no.5
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    • pp.533-542
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    • 2010
  • The objective of this study is to provide basic information and policy implications needed to balance the supply and demand for dietitian by projecting supply and demand for dietitian. The data from the Ministry of Health Welfare and Family on the number of licensed nutritionist, resident registration data of the Ministry of Public Administration and Security, and health insurance qualification data of the National Health Insurance Corporation were used to examine the current status of supply. To project the supply of nutritionist workforce, the in-out moves method and demographic method were used. The ratios of nutritionist to population and GDP, and that of other countries were applied as the demand projection method. According to the study results, the projection on the imbalance of supply and demand for dietitian by year 2021 differs depending on the method used. First, according to the results based on age-adjusted population ratio, there is an oversupply of 1,643 dietitians in year 2010, and 2,076 dietitians in year 2020. Second, although the projection on the imbalance of the supply and demand for dietitian differs depending on whether the GDD is calculated in won(₩) or dollar($). it is expected that there will be an oversupply in general. Third, as to the scenario using the nutritionist ratio in foreign countries, the oversupply of dietitian is likely in Korea, under any scenario, when comparing the nutritionist supply projection with the demand projection based on the nutritionist ratio in the United States. However, the projection of the supply and demand varies in each scenario when the European nutritionist ratio is applied. Under European 'scenario 1', an oversupply is expected, whereas under 'scenario 2', a shortage of supply is expected. A careful approach is required in interpreting the supply and demand projection using criteria of other countries, because dietitian assumes different roles and functions in each country. Although a slight oversupply of nutritionist workforce is projected, it does not cause a major problem as the demand for diet therapy is expected to rise due to aging and the increase of chronic diseases, and as the demand for clinical dietitians in hospitals increases. Accordingly, the demand for dietitians will rise and, in this context, the oversupply of nutritionist will not incur much problem. However, the nutritionist qualification is much too open in Korea, and this has a negative effect on the quality of the nutritionist workforce. Therefore, it is important that the nutritionist qualifications and requirements are reinforced in the future, enhance the quality level of the nutritionist supply, and maintain the balance between the supply and demand.

Comparison of Dietary Patterns, Health, and Blood Parameters of Elderly Women and College Women in the Seoul Area (노화 과정에 따른 노인과 여대생의 식생활, 건강 상태 및 혈액 성상 비교 연구)

  • Shin, Kyung-Ok;Chung, Keun-Hee;Choi, Kyung-Soon
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.19 no.5
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    • pp.703-712
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    • 2009
  • The principal objective of this study was to supply basic material determine basic information regarding effective health promotion regimens for elderly women via a comparative survey of health status by aging age between elderly women (=70 y) and college women. The subject groups of elderly women (=70 y) and college women were selected and surveyed from March to October, 2008, in the Seoul area. The average age of the elderly women assessed in this study was $78.64{\pm}7.30$, the average height was $147.07{\pm}5.72$ cm, and the average weight was $50.47{\pm}7.44$ kg. As compared with college women, a higher percentage of elderly women ate breakfast regularly, but the elderly women also experienced difficulties in chewing due to dentures, and therefore ate their meals with large quantities of liquids, and usually ate their meals within 10 minutes. The majority of elderly women suffered from at least one disease, and the most common symptom reported was hypertension (25%). 52.2% of elderly women and 47.8% of college women reported that they exercised 1~2 times per week. They reported that their favorite exercise was light exercise, such as jogging and athletics (73.1%). As compared with college women, the smoking rate was lower among elderly women, but some of the elderly women were long-time smokers or alcoholics. The differences in red blood cells counts, Hb, hematocrit, and MCV of the between elderly women and college women were significant. In addition, but the MCH and MCHC were higher in elderly women compared with college women and the total cholesterol of elderly woman ($175.62{\pm}38.89$ mg/dL) was significantly lower compared with college woman ($186.13{\pm}28.19$ mg/dL). TG ($127.89{\pm}51.25$ mg/dL) and LDL-cholesterol ($120.51{\pm}32.88$ mg/dL) of elderly woman were significantly higher than TG ($79.71{\pm}40.9$ 6mg/dL) and LDL-cholesterol($103.78{\pm}22.94$ mg/dL) of college woman (p<0.05). The levels of HDL-cholesterol ($58.78{\pm}12.90$ mg/dL) in the college women was significantly higher than the HDLcholesterol levels ($48.17{\pm}13.79$ mg/dL) of the elderly women (p<0.05). Serum vitamin C levels in elderly women were significantly higher than those of college women (p<0.05), whereas no significant difference was detected between the two groups. Consequently, it can be concluded that the appropriate education programs for dietary habits and health promotion are necessary for a healthier life. Additionally, it is necessary for individuals to precisely determine precisely their own health status, and develop appropriate dietary programs for themselves.

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Results of Hyperfractionated Radiation Therapy in Bulky Stage Ib, IIa, and IIb Uterine Cervical Cancer (종괴가 큰 병기 Ib, IIa, IIb 자궁경부암에서 다분할 방사선치료의 결과)

  • Kim, Jin-Hee;Kim, Ok-Bae
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.349-356
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    • 1997
  • Purpose : To evaluate the efficacy of hyperfractionated radiation therapy in carcinoma of the cervix, especially on huge exophytic and endophytic stage Ib, IIa and IIb Materials and Materials : Fourty one patients with carcinoma of the cervix treated with hyperfractionated radiation therapy at the Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Dongsan Hospital, Keimyung University. School of Medicine from Jul, 1991 to Apr, 1994. According to FIGO s1aging system, therewere stage Ib (3 patients) IIa (6 patients) with exophytic ($\geq$5cm in dinmeter) and huge endophytic mass. and IIb (32 patients) with median age of 55 yeavs old. Radiation therapy consisted of hyperfractionated external irradition to the whole pelvis (120cGy/fraction, 2 fraction/day (minimum interval of 6 hours), 3600-5520cGy) and boost parametrial doses (for a total of 4480-6480cGy) with midline shield $(4\times10cm)$, and combined with intracavitary irradiation (up to 7480-8520cGy in Ib, IIa and 8480-9980cGy in IIb to point A). The maximum and mean follow up durations were 70 and 47 months respectively . Results : Five year local control rate was $78\%$ and the actuarial overall five year survival rate was $66.1\%$ for all patients, $44.4\%$ for stage Ib, IIa and $71.4\%$ for stage IIb. In bulky IIb (above 5cm in tumor size, 11 patients) five year local control rate and five rear survival rate was $88.9\%,\;73\%$ respectively Pelvic lymph node status (negative : $74\%,\;positive:25\%$, p=0.0015) was significant Prognostic factor affecting to five rear survival rate. There was marginally significant survival difference by total dose to A point ($>84Gy\;:\;70\%,\;>84Gy\;:\;42.8\%$, p=0.1). We consider that the difference of total dose to A point by stage (mean Ib,IIa : 79Gy. IIb 89Gy P=0.001) is one of the causes in worse local control and survival of Ib,IIa than IIb The overall recurrence rate was $39\%$ (16/41). The rates of local failure alone. distant failure alone. and combined local and distant failure were $9.7\%,\;19.5\%,\;and\;9.7\%$, respectively. Two Patients developed leukopenia ($\geq$ grade 3) and Three patients develoued grade 3 gastrointestinal complication. Above grade 3 complication was not noted. There was no treatment related death noted. Conclusion : We thought that it may be necessary to increase A point dose to more than 85Gy in hyperfractionated radiotherapy of huge exophytic and endophvtic stage Ib,IIa. We considered that hyperfractionated radiation therapy may be tolerable in huge exophytic and endophytic stage IIb cervical carcinoma with acceptable morbidity and possible survival gain but this was results in small patient group and will be confirmed by long term follow up in many patients.

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Introduction of region-based site functions into the traditional market environmental support funding policy development (재래시장 환경개선 지원정책 개발에서의 지역 장소적 기능 도입)

  • Jeong, Dae-Yong;Lee, Se-Ho
    • Proceedings of the Korean DIstribution Association Conference
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    • pp.383-405
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    • 2005
  • The traditional market is foremost a regionally positioned place, wherein the market directly represents regional and cultural centered traits while it plays an important role in the circulation of facilities through reciprocal, informative and cultural exchanges while sewing to form local communities. The traditional market in Korea is one of representative retail businesses and premodern marketing techniques by family owned business of less than five members such as product management, purchase method, and marketing patterns etc. Since the 1990s, the appearance of new circulation-type businesses and large discount convenience stores escalated the loss of traditional competitiveness, increased the living standard of customers, changed purchasing patterns, and expanded the ubiquity of the Internet. All of these changes in external circulation circumstances have led the traditional markets to lose their place in the economy. The traditional market should revive on a regional site basis through the formation of a community of regional neighbors and through knowledge-sharing that leads to the creation of wealth. For the purpose of creating a wealth in a place, the following components are necessary: 1) a facility suitable for the spatial place of the present, 2)trust built through exchanges within the changing market environment, which would simultaneously satisfy customer's desires, 3) international bench marking on cases such as regionally centered TCM (England), BID (USA), and TMO (Japan) so that the market unit of store placement transfers from a spot policy to a line policy, 4)conversion of communicative conception through a surface policy approach centered around a macro-region perspective. The budget of the traditional market funding policy was operational between 2001 and 2004, serving as a counter move to solve the problem of the old traditional market through government intervention in regional economies to promote national economic strength. This national treasury funding project was centered on environmental improvement, research corps, and business modernization through the expenditure of 3,853 hundred million won (Korean currency). However, the effectiveness of this project has yet to be to proven through investigation. Furthermore, in promoting this funding support project, a lack of professionalism among merchants in the market led to constant limitations in comprehensive striving strategies, reduced capabilities in middle-and long-term plan setup, and created reductions in voluntary merchant agreement solutions. The traditional market should go beyond mere physical place and ordinary products creative site strategies employing the communicative approach must accompany these strategies to make the market a new regional and spatial living place. Thus, regarding recent paradigm changes and the introduction of region-based site functions into the traditional market, acquiring a conversion of direction into the newly developed project is essential to reinvestigate the traditional market composed of cultural and economic meanings, for the purpose of the research. Excavating social policy demands through the comparative analysis of domestic and international cases as well as innovative and expert management leadership development for NPO or NGO civil entrepreneurs through advanced case research on present promotion methods is extremely important. Discovering the seeds of the cultural contents industry cored around regional resource usages, commercializing regionally reknowned products, and constructing complex cultural living places for regional networks are especially important. In order to accelerate these solutions, a comprehensive and systemized approach research operated within a mentor academy system is required, as research will reveal distinctive traits of the traditional market in the aging society.

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Forecasting Substitution and Competition among Previous and New products using Choice-based Diffusion Model with Switching Cost: Focusing on Substitution and Competition among Previous and New Fixed Charged Broadcasting Services (전환 비용이 반영된 선택 기반 확산 모형을 통한 신.구 상품간 대체 및 경쟁 예측: 신.구 유료 방송서비스간 대체 및 경쟁 사례를 중심으로)

  • Koh, Dae-Young;Hwang, Jun-Seok;Oh, Hyun-Seok;Lee, Jong-Su
    • Journal of Global Scholars of Marketing Science
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.223-252
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    • 2008
  • In this study, we attempt to propose a choice-based diffusion model with switching cost, which can be used to forecast the dynamic substitution and competition among previous and new products at both individual-level and aggregate level, especially when market data for new products is insufficient. Additionally, we apply the proposed model to the empirical case of substitution and competition among Analog Cable TV that represents previous fixed charged broadcasting service and Digital Cable TV and Internet Protocol TV (IPTV) that are new ones, verify the validities of our proposed model, and finally derive related empirical implications. For empirical application, we obtained data from survey conducted as follows. Survey was administered by Dongseo Research to 1,000 adults aging from 20 to 60 living in Seoul, Korea, in May of 2007, under the title of 'Demand analysis of next generation fixed interactive broadcasting services'. Conjoint survey modified as follows, was used. First, as the traditional approach in conjoint analysis, we extracted 16 hypothetical alternative cards from the orthogonal design using important attributes and levels of next generation interactive broadcasting services which were determined by previous literature review and experts' comments. Again, we divided 16 conjoint cards into 4 groups, and thus composed 4 choice sets with 4 alternatives each. Therefore, each respondent faces 4 different hypothetical choice situations. In addition to this, we added two ways of modification. First, we asked the respondents to include the status-quo broadcasting services they subscribe to, as another alternative in each choice set. As a result, respondents choose the most preferred alternative among 5 alternatives consisting of 1 alternative with current subscription and 4 hypothetical alternatives in 4 choice sets. Modification of traditional conjoint survey in this way enabled us to estimate the factors related to switching cost or switching threshold in addition to the effects of attributes. Also, by using both revealed preference data(1 alternative with current subscription) and stated preference data (4 hypothetical alternatives), additional advantages in terms of the estimation properties and more conservative and realistic forecast, can be achieved. Second, we asked the respondents to choose the most preferred alternative while considering their expected adoption timing or switching timing. Respondents are asked to report their expected adoption or switching timing among 14 half-year points after the introduction of next generation broadcasting services. As a result, for each respondent, 14 observations with 5 alternatives for each period, are obtained, which results in panel-type data. Finally, this panel-type data consisting of $4{\ast}14{\ast}1000=56000$observations is used for estimation of the individual-level consumer adoption model. From the results obtained by empirical application, in case of forecasting the demand of new products without considering existence of previous product(s) and(or) switching cost factors, it is found that overestimated speed of diffusion at introductory stage or distorted predictions can be obtained, and as such, validities of our proposed model in which both existence of previous products and switching cost factors are properly considered, are verified. Also, it is found that proposed model can produce flexible patterns of market evolution depending on the degree of the effects of consumer preferences for the attributes of the alternatives on individual-level state transition, rather than following S-shaped curve assumed a priori. Empirically, it is found that in various scenarios with diverse combinations of prices, IPTV is more likely to take advantageous positions over Digital Cable TV in obtaining subscribers. Meanwhile, despite inferiorities in many technological attributes, Analog Cable TV, which is regarded as previous product in our analysis, is likely to be substituted by new services gradually rather than abruptly thanks to the advantage in low service charge and existence of high switching cost in fixed charged broadcasting service market.

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The Risk of Onset of the Illnesses Based on Gender, Age, and Monthly Income;Focusing on cancer, hypertension, stroke, diabetes, arthritis, cardiac disorders (성별, 연령별, 월소득차이에 따른 질병발생의 위험성 차이연구;암, 고혈압, 중풍, 당뇨병, 관절염, 심장병을 중심으로)

  • Lee, Jun-Oh;Kim, Se-Jin;Lee, Sun-Dong
    • Journal of Society of Preventive Korean Medicine
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.19-48
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    • 2008
  • In order to verify the risk of onset of the illnesses based on gender, age, and monthly income 1,739 subjects from Hongcheon county, Gangwon province were selected. Questionnaire on demographic sociology, health condition, existence of illnesses(cancer, hypertension, stroke, diabetes, arthritis, cardiac disorders), and usage of public health services was surveyed from October 1, 2006 to October 20, 2006. Following conclusions were reached on the basis of the questionnaire : - For demographic sociological peculiarities, gender, age, occupation, and education level were evenly distributed. Most were under normal marriage(67.38%), health insurance(86.39%), 494(36.0%) individuals with less than monthly income of 1 million won, 494(36.0%) individuals with monthly income between 1 and 2 million won, 219(16.0%) with monthly income between 2 and 3 million won, and 164(12.0%) individuals with more than 3 million won, thus showing relatively low income. - For health status, 1,199(70.28%) individuals are non-smokers, 209(45.63%) individuals smoke $10{\sim}20$ cigarettes a day, 754(44.02%) individuals exercise less than twice a week are the major sector of the population. 1,518(88.10%) individuals have regular checkup more than once and 1,131(65.49%) stated their health condition less than average. - For comparison of existence of illnesses between genders, there was no statistical significance on cancer, stroke, and diabetes. But statistical significance was shown on hypertension(P value 0.025), arthritis(P value 0.000), and cardiac disorders(P value 0.016). Statistical significance was seen in the age comparison, and OR(confidence interval) drastically increased with increase in age. - There was no difference between the primary health clinic(P value 0.000), most visited clinic(P value 0.000), selection criteria(P value 0.000), and satisfaction on efficacy(P value 0.000). There was a tendency preferring hospital than public health center with increase in income. - For correlation between the existence of illnesses among different income levels, except for cancer(P value 0.172), statistical significance was seen in hypertension(P value 0.000), stroke(P value 0.003), diabetes (P value 0.001), arthritis(P value 0.000), and cardiac disorders(P value 0.000). The number of individuals suffering from illnesses and ratio all decreased for all illnesses with increase in income. - After adjusting confounding factors(gender, age, income, marriage, occupation, education) and male (1) as the standard, OR (confidence interval) of cancer, hypertension, stroke, diabetes, arthritis, cardiac disorders were 0.47(0.11${\sim}$2.05), 1.27(0.89${\sim}$1.81), 0.58(0.21${\sim}$1.59), 0.71(0.41${\sim}$1.23), 1.79(1.34${\sim}$2.39, P<0.01), and 1.46(0.72${\sim}$2.96), respectively. Risk of arthritis is significantly high in female and 20's (1) as the standard, OR(confidence interval) of cancer, hypertension, stroke, diabetes, arthritis, cardiac disorders were 1.01(0.96${\sim}$1.07), 1.06(1.04${\sim}$1.07, P<0.01), 1.05(1.01${\sim}$1.10, P<0.01), 1.06(1.03${\sim}$1.08, P<0.01), 1.05(1.03${\sim}$1.06, P<0.01), and 1.06(1.04${\sim}$1.09, P<0.01), respectively. Risk of onset for illnesses significantly increased with yearly aging except for cancer. - For comparison between monthly income after adjusting confounding factors(gender, age, income, marriage, occupation, education), with less than 1 million won (1) as the standard, OR(confidence interval) of cancer for 1 to 2 million won, 2 to 3 million won, and more than 3 million won were 0.23(0.03${\sim}$2.16), 2.53(0.41${\sim}$15.43), and 1.73(0.15${\sim}$19.50), respectively. OR(confidence interval) of hypertension were 1.12(0.76 ${\sim}$1.66), 0.68(0.34${\sim}$1.34), and 2.04(1.08${\sim}$3.86, P<0.01), respectively. OR(confidence interval) of stroke were 0.96(0.30${\sim}$3.08) for 1 to 2 million won, and 0.80(0.08${\sim}$8.46) for 2 to 3 million won. OR(confidence interval) of diabetes were 0.73(0.38${\sim}$1.38), 0.65(0.24${\sim}$1.71), and 0.69(0.24${\sim}$2.01), respectively. The values were 0.76(0.55${\sim}$1.03), 1.14(0.75${\sim}$1.73), and 0.90(0.56${\sim}$1.46), respectively for arthritis. OR(confidence interval) of cardiac disorders were 1.15(0.53${\sim}$2.48), 0.63(0.13${\sim}$3.12), and 1.20(0.28${\sim}$5.14), respectively. Risks of cancer, hypertension, stroke, diabetes, arthritis, and cardiac disorders were dependent of monthly income, and stroke and diabetes decreased with increase in income. Summarizing above data, arthritis was significantly higher in women and increase in age by each year brought significant increase in the chance of onset in hypertension, stroke, diabetes, arthritis, and cardiac disorders except for cancer. Stroke and diabetes decreased with increase in income. Above findings can be applied and reflected in public health policies at the national level, and it can also be applied at the personal level for individual health maintenance and prevention.

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Analysis on Factors Influencing Welfare Spending of Local Authority : Implementing the Detailed Data Extracted from the Social Security Information System (지방자치단체 자체 복지사업 지출 영향요인 분석 : 사회보장정보시스템을 통한 접근)

  • Kim, Kyoung-June;Ham, Young-Jin;Lee, Ki-Dong
    • Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.141-156
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    • 2013
  • Researchers in welfare services of local government in Korea have rather been on isolated issues as disables, childcare, aging phenomenon, etc. (Kang, 2004; Jung et al., 2009). Lately, local officials, yet, realize that they need more comprehensive welfare services for all residents, not just for above-mentioned focused groups. Still cases dealt with focused group approach have been a main research stream due to various reason(Jung et al., 2009; Lee, 2009; Jang, 2011). Social Security Information System is an information system that comprehensively manages 292 welfare benefits provided by 17 ministries and 40 thousand welfare services provided by 230 local authorities in Korea. The purpose of the system is to improve efficiency of social welfare delivery process. The study of local government expenditure has been on the rise over the last few decades after the restarting the local autonomy, but these studies have limitations on data collection. Measurement of a local government's welfare efforts(spending) has been primarily on expenditures or budget for an individual, set aside for welfare. This practice of using monetary value for an individual as a "proxy value" for welfare effort(spending) is based on the assumption that expenditure is directly linked to welfare efforts(Lee et al., 2007). This expenditure/budget approach commonly uses total welfare amount or percentage figure as dependent variables (Wildavsky, 1985; Lee et al., 2007; Kang, 2000). However, current practice of using actual amount being used or percentage figure as a dependent variable may have some limitation; since budget or expenditure is greatly influenced by the total budget of a local government, relying on such monetary value may create inflate or deflate the true "welfare effort" (Jang, 2012). In addition, government budget usually contain a large amount of administrative cost, i.e., salary, for local officials, which is highly unrelated to the actual welfare expenditure (Jang, 2011). This paper used local government welfare service data from the detailed data sets linked to the Social Security Information System. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the factors that affect social welfare spending of 230 local authorities in 2012. The paper applied multiple regression based model to analyze the pooled financial data from the system. Based on the regression analysis, the following factors affecting self-funded welfare spending were identified. In our research model, we use the welfare budget/total budget(%) of a local government as a true measurement for a local government's welfare effort(spending). Doing so, we exclude central government subsidies or support being used for local welfare service. It is because central government welfare support does not truly reflect the welfare efforts(spending) of a local. The dependent variable of this paper is the volume of the welfare spending and the independent variables of the model are comprised of three categories, in terms of socio-demographic perspectives, the local economy and the financial capacity of local government. This paper categorized local authorities into 3 groups, districts, and cities and suburb areas. The model used a dummy variable as the control variable (local political factor). This paper demonstrated that the volume of the welfare spending for the welfare services is commonly influenced by the ratio of welfare budget to total local budget, the population of infants, self-reliance ratio and the level of unemployment factor. Interestingly, the influential factors are different by the size of local government. Analysis of determinants of local government self-welfare spending, we found a significant effect of local Gov. Finance characteristic in degree of the local government's financial independence, financial independence rate, rate of social welfare budget, and regional economic in opening-to-application ratio, and sociology of population in rate of infants. The result means that local authorities should have differentiated welfare strategies according to their conditions and circumstances. There is a meaning that this paper has successfully proven the significant factors influencing welfare spending of local government in Korea.