• Title, Summary, Keyword: Aggression

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MENTAL REPRESENTATION OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN:ASSOCIATION WITH PARENTAL MENTAL REPRESENTATION (학령전기 아동의 심적 표상 : 부모에 대한 심적 표상과의 관계를 중심으로)

  • Lee, Kyung-Sook;Lee, Hae-Ran;Shin, Yee-Jin
    • Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.21-33
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    • 1999
  • The clinical assessment for preschool children who are known to have problems in selfreporting tends to be dependent on outsiders' reporting. Thus, the direct assessment of children's inner experience, thoughts and feelings is difficult. MacArthur Story-Stem Battery(MSSB) developed to learn more about preschool children's mental representation in play is used in this study to help assess clinical preschool children through developmental study of normal children's mental representation. Fifty five children(32boys and 23girls) who performed MSSB, IQ Test, Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised(PPVT) were videotaped and were analyzed. The results of this study were as follows:1) Children frequently displayed negative mental representation such as atypical negative response, reparation/guilt, punishment, personal injury and so on during emotionally laden play situation. 2) Mental representation of parent appeared positive, disciplinary, and negative in respective. 3) As a result of factor analysis of MSSB content themes, aggressive, prosocial, and oppositional content theme composites were generated. Aggressive content included atypical negative response, aggression, personal injury, and exclusion. Prosocial content included affection, affiliation, and reparation/guilt. Oppositional content included punishment and non-compliance. 4) Mental representation of parent and content themes showed significant correlation. Positive, negative, and disciplinary representation were significantly correlated for prosocial(r=0.40), aggressive (r=0.52), and oppositional(r=0.75) content theme respectively. 5) Among the correlations between parental mental representations and emotional responses, positive parental representation and anxiety showed significant negative correlation(r=-0.43). 6) Among the correlations between content themes and emotional responses, there were significant positive correlations between aggressive(r=0.28) and oppositional content themes(r=0.29) and distress, and were significant negative correlations between prosocial content theme and concern(r=-0.29) and anxiety(r=-0.43). According to the above results, preschool children frequently displayed negative mental representation in emotionally conflictual play situation. Children with more prosocial themes in their stories exhibit more positive parental mental representation. Also, children with more aggressive themes tend to display more negative parental representation and negative emotional responses.

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PRELIMINARY STUDY OF MENTAL REPRESENTATIONS OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN EXPERIENCING SINGLE, SEVERE TRAUMA (심한 정신적 외상 경험을 한 학령 전기 아동의 정신적 표상에 대한 예비연구)

  • Eon, So-Yong;Song, Won-Woung;Oh, Kyung-Ja;Choi, Eui-Gyum;Shim, Eun-Ji;Shin, Yee-Jin
    • Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.61-74
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    • 2004
  • Objectives:This study was performed to introduce a psychoeducational family therapy model for the families of schizophrenic patient and to investigate the effect of this model on the changes in coping style and depressive symptoms of the family members, and in perception of emotional support by families and depressive symptoms of patients. Methods:Nine preschool children, 3-5 years old, experiencing physical injuries caused by attack from a psychotic patient at kindergarten, were evaluated for psychological assessments;Intelligence test, MSSB(MacArthur Story-Stem Battery), H-T-P test(House-Tree-Person test). And their parents completed rating scale, KPI-C(Korean Personality Inventory for Children about children’s psychological conditions). Results:With respects to the contents and emotional reactions of MSSB, 9 preschool children showed generally high levels of anxiety, depression, avoidance, aggression, probably related to the traumatic experiences. Even though children couldn't verbally report directly about their traumatic experiences, in both MSSB, structured play narrative assessment tool, and HPT, free drawing and association test, they demonstrated psychiatric problems through reenactment plays, regardless of clinical diagnoses. Conclusion:Present study allowed us the chance to see beyond the outer pathological behaviors of PTSD in preschool children, through deeper evaluations of their mental representation. These preliminary data suggest deep understanding of internal representation would be of help for thorough evaluations and treatment plan for preschool children, experiencing severe trauma.

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ATTACHMENT AND PSYCHOPATHOLOGY (애착과 정신병리)

  • Choi, Jee-Eun;Ahn, Dong-Hyun
    • Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.40-60
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    • 2004
  • Introduction:Research on attachment in view point of the developmental perspective which began in the 1940s progressed during several decades. Many investigators focused mother-child separation in early attachment studies, and moved to the relationship with childhood psychopathology. Recently attachment theory and research are moving forward along the intergenerational transmission of attachment patterns, and adolescents and adult mental disorders in the developmental perspectives. Methods:We surveyed the research papers through Medline search, attachment-related monographs, and review or original papers published in Korean journal. Results:Developmental attachment researches have demonstrated convincingly that insecure attachment in infancy is associated with attachment disorder; several childhood psychopatholgy, such as institutional care and adoption, aggression and behavioral problems, childhood anxiety disorders and depressive disorders, gender identity disorder and feeding disorder, and child abuse and maltreatment; peer relationship and social competency, and parental behaviors. Recently the methodological advances including the Adult Attachment Interview that systematically assesses the adults' recollections of the earlier parent-child relationship they experienced could move beyond attachment researcher's initial concern with infancy to consider attachment processes throughout the life span. We could find that the quality of attachment was associated with several mental disorders in adolescents and adults significantly. Conclusion:Attachment theory would have focused on more specific parent-child relationship than general parental behavior. Recent attachment theory underscores its evolutionary origins to promote development of infant and contribute to human survival in psychobiological bases. Advances in attachment research could unite interests in evolutional biology and developmental psychology in understanding early parent-child relationship, and apply to clinical issues concerning mental health throughout the life span.

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The Influence of Musical Activities on Social and Emotional Behavior of Infants (음악활동이 영아의 사회·정서적 행동에 미치는 영향 - 만 2세(25-36개월) 영아를 중심으로)

  • Nam, Ok Seon
    • Journal of Music and Human Behavior
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    • v.4 no.2
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    • pp.18-40
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    • 2007
  • The purpose of this study was to verify the influence of musical activities on social and emotional behavior of infants, through providing musical activities to the infants who were cared in a nursery and observing the interactions between peer group, or a therapist and an infant derived during them. The subject is 24 infants who are under 2 years of age(25~36months) at two nurseries located in Bundang area, and 13 infants among them are randomly assigned as study group and 11 infants as control group. Pretest and posttest about social and emotional behavior are performed, and ITSEA developed by Brggs-Gowan and Carter(2001) and amended by Shin Ji Yeon(2004) was used as an evaluation tool. Infants' changes of interaction behaviors during musical play were also analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively, and for the analysis, infant's social play behavior examination tool developed by Holloway and Reichhart-Erickson(1988) was adopted. Based on time sampling method, each item of this tool was evaluated. Each session was performed for 15 minutes, and 60 times of analysis about interactions per session was conducted at every 15 seconds. The analysis result was showed with a table and a graph, and described qualitatively about behavior changes. When compared social and emotional positive behavior average figures and negative behavior average figures between study group and control group, this study showed that the positive behavior figure of study group was increased and the negative behavior figure was decreased. While concentration and empathy among positive behaviors increased meaningfully, aggression, defiance, separation anxiety and rejection to new things among negative activities also decreased meaningfully. The conclusion of this study is as follows. First, interactions with peers or a therapist based on music and musical experience make an effect on strengthening positive behavior among social and emotional behavior and decreasing negative behavior. Second, music has influence on negative behaviors more than positive behaviors of an infant, and produces a good effect on sub behaviors of negative behaviors specially.

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A Study on the Correlation Analysis of EEG and Vibraimage due to Auditory and Olfactory Stimulation (청각 및 후각자극에 의한 뇌파(EEG)와 진동이미지기술의 상관성 분석에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Jung-Min;Kim, Myung-Ho
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.16 no.6
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    • pp.4291-4297
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    • 2015
  • EEG has been used to measure the emotion of amenity and discomfort in the interior space. EEG is limited to the experiment, because it is a equipment of contact type. However, Vibraimage can measure the emotion with a web camera. Because Vibraimage is a equipment of non-contact type, it is more suitable for the interior space than EEG. Therefor, it tries to find a correlation variable between EEG and Vibraimage to measure the human emotions. In this study, it were analyzed correlation of EEG and vibraimage due to variation of loudness 60[dB], 90[dB] and rosemary, jasmine scents. Check the health status of subjects who were selected 3 male students, and the period of this experiment was about months. The condition of the environmental test room was in temperature 25[$^{\circ}C$], relative humidity 50[RH%], air current speed 0.02[m/s] and illuminance 1000[lux]. It were analyzed correlation of twenty-three index of EEG(absolute ${\theta}$, relative ${\theta}$, absolute $S{\alpha}$, relative $S{\alpha}$, absolute ${\alpha}$, relative ${\alpha}$, absolute ${\beta}$, relative ${\beta}$, absolute $\gamma$, relative $\gamma$, absolute $F{\alpha}$, relative $F{\alpha}$, absolute SMR, relative SMR, $SMR/{\theta}$, $SMR+M{\beta}/{\theta}$, absolute $H{\beta}$, relative $H{\beta}$, $H{\beta}/{\alpha}$, absolute $M{\beta}$, relative $M{\beta}$, SEF50, ASEF50) and ten index of Vibraimage(Aggression, Stress, Tension/Anxiety, Suspect, Balance, Charm, Energy, Self regulation, Inhibition, Neuroticism). As a result, I was found that relative ${\gamma}$ index of EEG and neuroticism index of Vibraimage have a high correlation as (${\pm}$).414 and (${\pm}$).424.

Nuclear Weapons and Extended Deterrence in the U.S.-ROK Alliance (핵무기와 한·미 핵 확장억제 능력)

  • Huntley, Wade L.
    • Strategy21
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    • pp.236-261
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    • 2014
  • The future role of nuclear extended deterrence in the security alliance between the United States and the Republic of Korea is currently a central concern. The gradually lessening role of reliance on nuclear weapons in US security policies broadly, combined with increasing North Korean nuclear capabilities and belligerence, raise fresh questions about the sufficiency of the "nuclear umbrella" as a pillar of the US-ROK defense posture. This article addresses the current and future role of nuclear extended deterrence in Korea in this dynamic context. The article reviews the longstanding trend toward reducing the overall size of the US nuclear arsenal, and assesses developments in US-ROK outlooks toward extended deterrence in response to the Obama administration's nuclear policies and North Korea's recent smaller-scale aggressions. The analysis finds that the challenges of deterrence credibility and allied reassurance are difficult and long-term. The analysis explains how these challenges emerge less from a shrinking US numerical arsenal size than from the sufficiency of specific nuclear and non-nuclear capabilities to meet emerging smaller-scale threats. The analysis also highlights the importance of broader strategic and political interaction in sustaining allied confidence in any joint security posture. The evaluation concludes that a strong US-ROK alliance relationship can be maintained while the size of the US nuclear arsenal continues to decline, in part because nuclear weapons in any deployment configuration are relatively ineffective means for deterring smaller-scale aggression. Nevertheless, continuing adjustment of the US-ROK extended deterrence posture to the evolving, complex and uncertain Korean peninsula security environment will remain an ongoing challenge. Finally, the article encourages further examination of the potential specific role ROK maritime forces might serve in enhancing deterrence of smaller-scale threats while minimizing risks of conflict escalation.

Psychological Characteristics of Psychiatric outpatients with High Suicide Risk : Using MMPI-2-RF (정신건강의학과 외래 환자 중 자살 고위험 집단의 심리적 특성 : MMPI-2-RF를 이용하여)

  • Nam, Jisoo;Kim, Daeho;Kim, Eunkyeong
    • Korean Journal of Psychosomatic Medicine
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.8-19
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    • 2020
  • Objectives : The purpose of this study was to examine whether the MMPI-2-RF serves as a useful tool to differentiate between the subtypes of high risk of suicide among psychiatric outpatients. Methods : Patients were recruited from the department of psychiatry of university hospital. Participants were diagnosed using DSM-5 criteria by board certified psychiatrists. Their medical records were reviewed retrospectively. And participants were put into 4 groups (Suicide ideation, Suicide attempt, Non-suicidal self-injury, and general psychiatric diagnosis as a control group). For statistical comparison, the MANCOVA with gender as a covariate was used. Results : The results indicated that as previous research with non-clinical sample suggested, psychiatric outpatients with high suicide risk also have significantly higher Emotional/Internalizing Dysfunction, Helplessness/Hopelessness, Suicidal/Death Ideation, Demoralization, Cognitive complaints, Cynicism, Dysfunctional negative thoughts than general psychiatric patients group. But group differences within the high suicide risk patients have not been observed. However, suicide attempt group and NSSI group has higher Behavioral/Externalizing Dysfunction, RC4, AGG than general psychiatric patients group. But there was no difference between suicidal idea group and general psychiatric patients group. Conclusions : There was no group difference observed between all three subtypes, which mean the MMPI2-RF may not be the useful diagnostic tool to navigate high suicide risk subtypes. Even though there was no difference observed in the suicide ideation group, suicide attempt group and NSSI group have higher aggression and externalization. So those indexes could serve as a useful marker to investigate riskiness of suicide related symptoms.

A Study on Oriental Medical Diagnosis of Musculoskeletal Disorders using Moire Image (Moire 영상을 이용한 근골격계 질환의 한의학적 진단에 관한 연구)

  • Lee Eun-Kyoung;Yu Seung-Hyun;Lee Su-Kyung;Kang Sung-Ho;Han Jong-Min;Chong Myong-Soo;Chun Eun-Joo;Song Yung-Sun;Lee Ki-Nam
    • Journal of Society of Preventive Korean Medicine
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    • v.4 no.2
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    • pp.72-92
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    • 2000
  • This research has conducted studies on an Oriental medicine-based method of diagnosing of occupational musculoskeletal system diseases. This researcher has searched through existing relevant medical literature. Also, this researcher has worked on a moire topography using moire topography. In this course, this researcher has reached the following conclusion in relation to the possibility of using a moire topography as a diagnosing device of musculoskeletal system diseases under Oriental medicine . 1 The Western medicine outlines its criteria of screening occupational musculoskeletal system diseases as follows A. The occupational musculoskeletal diseases must clearly include one or more of the subjective symptoms characterized by pain, hypoesthesia dysaesthesia, anaesthesia. etc . B, There should be clinically admitted objective observations and diagnosis outlining that the disease concerned shows symptoms such as tenderness, induration. and edema that can appear with occupational musculoskeletal system diseases. dyscinesia should be admitted with the disease concerned, or there should be observations and diagnosis outlining that abnormality exists in electric muscular or nervous diagnosis and examination . C. It should be admitted that prior to the occurrence of symptoms or observations and diagnosis on musculoskeletal system-related diseases, a patient has been engaged in works with conditions requiring improper work posture or work movement. That is, this is an approach whereby they see abnormality in the musculoskeletal system come from material and structural defect, and adjust and control abnormality in the musculoskeletal system and secreta . 2. The Oriental medicines sees that a patient develops the pain of occupational musculoskeletal diseases as he cannot properly activate the flow of his life force and blood thus not only causing formation of lumps in the body and blocking the flow of life force and blood in some parts of the body. Hence, The Oriental medicine focuses on resolving the cause of weakening the flow of life force and blood, instead of taking material approach of correcting structural abnormality Furthermore , Oriental medicine sees that when muscle tension builds up, this presses blood vessels and nerves passing by, triggering circulation dyscrasia and neurological reaction and thus leading to lesion. Thus, instead of taking skeletal or neurophysiological approach. it seeks to fundamentally resolve the cause of the flow of the life force and blood in muscles not being activated. As a result Oriental medicine attributes the main cause of musculoskeletal system diseases to muscle tension and its build-up that stem from an individual's long formed chronicle habit and work environment. This approach considers not only the social structure aspect including companies owners and work environment that the existing methods have looked at, but also individual workers' responsibility and their environmental factors. Hence, this is a step forward method. 3 The diagnosis of musculoskeletal diseases under Oriental medicine is characterized by the fact that an Oriental medicine doctor uses not only photos taken by himself, but also various detection devices to gather information and pass comprehensive judgment on it. Thus, it is the core of diagnosis under Oriental medicine to develop diagnosing devices matching the characteristics of information to be induced and to interpret information so induced from the views of Oriental medicine. Diagnosis using diagnosing devices values the whole state of a patient and formal abnormality alike, and the whole balance and muscular state of a patient serves as the basis of diagnosis. Hence, this method, instead of depending on the information gathered from devices under Western medicine, requires devices that provide information on the whole state of a patient in addition to the local abnormality information that X-ray. CT, etc., can offer. This method sees muscle as the central part of the abnormality in the musculoskeletal system and thus requires diagnosing devices enabling the muscular state. 4. The diagnosing device using moire topography under Oriental medicine has advantages below and can be used for diagnosing musculoskeletal system diseases with industrial workers . First, the device can Provide information on the body in an unbalanced state. and thus identify the imbalance and difference of height in the left and right stature that a patient can not notice at normal times. Second, the device shows the twisting of muscles or induration regions in a contour map. This is not possible with existing shooting machines such as X-ray, CT, etc., thus differentiating itself from existing machines. Third, this device makes it possible for Oriental medicine to take its unique approach to the abnormality in the musculoskeletal system. Oriental medicine sees the state and imbalance state in muscles as major factors in determining the lesion of musculoskeletal system, and the device makes it possible to shoot the state of muscles in detail. In this respect, the device is significant. Fourth, the device has an advantage as non-aggression diagnosing device.

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