This study investigates the relevance between the subjective age and clothing shopping orientation by adults women located in the cities of Seoul and Gyeonggi. The results are following. First, subjective age was identified with interest age, look age, and physical age. Customers were segmented into following five subdivisions: young activity group, actual age group, young appearance group, physical aging group and youth-oriented group. When the study examined differences between real age and subjective age, the study could see that they perceived themselves younger four years than real age- 50s: 7 years, 40s: 5 years, the latter half of 30s: 2.7 years and the former half of 30s: 1.7 years. Second, clothing shopping orientation was identified with planned shopping orientation, leisure shopping orientation, loyal shopping orientation, economic shopping orientation and convenient shopping orientation. Customers were segmented into following three subdivisions: shopping low-involved group, loyal leisure group and planned leisure oriented group. Third, interest age was of no relevance to clothing shopping orientation. On the other hand, look age had negative correlation with leisure shopping orientation and convenient shopping orientation and physical age had a negative relationship with leisure shopping orientation and loyal shopping orientation but had positive correlation with economic shopping orientation. Fourth, in clothing purchase, clothing purchase answerers who were younger five years than actual age had the highest frequency. It means that they purchase clothing according to subjective age perceived younger four years on average.
Purpose - This research aims to understand the different behaviors of consumers according to cognitive age. Specifically, this research is focused on pro-social behavior. Pro-social behavior is defined as behavior benefiting others, rather than behavior benefiting one's self. It often entails individual risk or cost, such as when giving resources to others, waiting in line, asking for or paying a fair price, or risking one's life in battle. Therefore, we sought to understand consumer psychology and cognitive age as a reflection of inner psychology. People frequently perceive themselves as younger or older than their chronological ages. This self-perceived or cognitive age is a subjective age perception independent of actual chronological age. The discrepancy degree between chronological and cognitive age represents how much individuals perceive themselves as younger than they are. This study examines the gap in donation intention based on cognitive age. In order to investigate cognitive age, composed of four sub-categories (feel-age, look-age, do-age, and interest-age), this study explores the differential donation intention based on cognitive age, which determines the relationship between the young age and old age. Research design, data, and methodology - Data research was conducted by gathering 216 survey samples, excluding those with unreliable answers. Data coding and cleaning were used and SPSS 19.0 software for the data analysis. The respondents were categorized into two types, younger cognitive ages and older cognitive ages. Additionally, we analyzed the moderating variables. In particular, we used cognitive age degree and congruency level (cognitive age low vs. cognitive age high) × (congruency close vs. congruency distant) between - subjects design. First, regression was done to verify the difference between chronological age and cognitive age. Second, a t-test was done to verify the difference of cognitive age level in donations. Third, ANOVA (analysis of variance) was done to verify the difference between cognitive age and congruency in donations. Last, ANOVA was done to verify the difference between cognitive age and moral judgments in donations. Result - The results show most respondents perceive themselves as younger than their chronological ages. In particular, older respondents feel they are younger than their actual age. Moreover, the result of the comparison between low degree and high degree groups of cognitive age, show high donations at the higher degree of cognitive age groups. In addition, the closer the distance to the beneficiaries, the higher the donation in high degree cognitive age groups. The higher moral judgment groups also show relatively high contributions in lower degree cognitive age groups. Conclusions - Donations belong to the category of pro-social behavior reflecting an individual's psychological state. Therefore, it is important in understanding cognitive age. This study implies that it is necessary to take into account both cognitive age and chronological age when segmenting donors. Moreover, this study confirmed that there are different factors affecting the motives behind donations. Thus, it may be utilized to create differential donation strategies.
Purpose: Age estimation is often used in the identification of living persons. Various methods are used for age estimation using teeth, and there are many studies on the methodology. But the study of changes in the social aspects of age estimation with the passage of times is still insufficient. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to analyze the age estimation cases in the social aspects and to investigate the changes of age estimation cases in Jeollabuk-do. Methods: From January 2008 to December 2015, 76 cases of age estimation were collected. The collected data were organized and analyzed. The distribution of patients by age and year, the difference between alleged and registered age, the purpose of age estimation, and regional distribution were examined. In addition, we compared the previous study which analyzed the age estimation cases in Jeollabuk-do from 2000 to 2007. Results: According to the distribution by age, the age distribution was the largest in the 50s and 60s, with 69.8%. The most reason to correct age was related to welfare benefits (38.2%), and most of the people who corrected for welfare benefits were over 50 years old. The age correction for purpose of welfare benefits existed every year during the study period. As the result of comparison with previous study, total number of age estimation cases was decreased very sharply, and distribution by age group was also changed. Conclusions: Changes in age estimation cases were observed when compared to the previous study. A significant decrease in the total number of age estimation cases was observed, but the number of age estimation in the 50s did not decrease. Although the total number of age estimation requests decreases, age estimation in the elderly are likely to persist. Thus, it is necessary to study new age estimation methods suitable for the elderly.
Objectives: The purpose of the study is to investigate the relationship between life satisfaction, awareness of their old age, and preparation for their old age among dental hygienists. Methods: A self-reported questionnaire was completed by 258 dental hygienists in Seoul, Gyeonggido, Incheon and Gangwondo from September 30 to October 30, 2016. The questionnaire consisted of general characteristics (10 items), life satisfaction (10 items), awareness of old age (13 items) and preparation for old age (23 items). Respondents were asked to choose on the Likert 5-point scale. Results:Significant relationships were found between life satisfaction, awareness about old age and preparation for old age among dental hygienists (p<0.01): physical preparation for old age was related to life satisfaction; economic preparation for old age was related to life satisfaction, awareness for old age, 10 or more years of experience as dental hygienist and having offspring (two or more children). Psycho-emotional preparation for old age was related to life satisfaction and awareness for old age. Conclusions:It is necessary to find ways to increase life satisfaction and awareness of old age for their old age among dental hygienists.
For the purpose of an estimation of age based on the changes in the human dental cavity caused by increase in age, 1,208 extracted teeth in the parts from central incisors and lateral incisors and lateral incisors to second premolars of upper and lower, right and left side were evaluated and analized all of surface index of pulp cavity. The results are as follows : 1. The surface index of pulp caxities of upper and lower, central and lateral incisors, and tend to decrease regularly as the age increase. So above teeth are more applicable to age estimation than canine and premolars. 2 For the purpose of age estimation by surface index of pulp cavity of central and lateral incisor, linear equations are as follows. Upper central incisor: X=(16.301-Y)/0.12 Upper lateral incisor: X=(16.620-Y)/0.11 Lower central incisor: X=(20.963-Y)/0.16 X=Age Y=Surface index of pulp cavity Correlation coefficient between chronologic age and estimated age is 0.699 3.The least error(3.3 yrs of age)reveals in 41-45 age group, which shows the highest possibility of estimation of age. The highest error(4.1 yrs of age)reveals in 61-65 age group and 56-60 age group.
Objective: The purpose of this study was two-fold: first to explore the effects of mother-child attachment and effortful control at age 1 on preschoolers' school readiness at age 6, and second, to determine the mediating effect of a child's effortful control on the relationship between mother-child attachment at age 1 in relation to school readiness at age 6. Methods: Participants in this study were 205 five-year-old toddlers(106 boys, 99 girls) recruited for the Korea Child Panel Study. Mother-child attachment was assessed using the Attachment Q-sort(Waters, 1989). Preschooler's effortful control was measured by the Early Childhood Behavior Questionnaire: ECBQ(Putnam, Gartstein & Rothbart, 2006). Preschooler's school readness was measured by the School Readiness Scale Murphey & Burns, 2002). Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, correlations, and the structural equation modeling analysis. Results: First, mother-child attachment at age 1 effected school readiness at age 6. Effortful control at age 1 effected school readiness at age 6. Second, effortful control at age 1 mediated the effect of mother-child attachment at age 1 in relation to school readiness at age 6. Conclusion/Implications: Mother-child attachment at age 1 affects school readiness at age 6, and toddlers' effortful control at age 1 mediates the relationship between mother-child attachment in relation to school readiness at age 6.
Purpose:It has been known that the prognosis of a young woman's breast cancer is Poorer than the other woman However, the effect of age on the prognosis is not well-defined We performed this study to investigate age as a prognostic factor of breast cancer. Materials and Methods : A retrospective study was conducted for 3209 breast cancer patients who underwent operations in Department of Surgery, Seoul National University Hospital from January 1981 to December 2000. Patients were divided into two groups, young age(≤35) and old age(>35) groups. And tumor stage, histopathologic characteristics(such as histology, nuclear grade, histologic grade, hormonal receptor, etc), overall survival and disease free survival rates were compared between age groups. Results . The age ranged from 17 to 88 years. 396 patients(12.3%) were included in young age group(median=32) and 2813 Patients(87.7%) in old age group(median=47).There are more advanced stages and poor nuclear grades in young age group(p=0.000, p=0.003), By log-rank test, the young age group had poorer overall survival and disease free survival rates(p<0.05, p=0.0002). Although, the young age group had more advanced TMN stages(p=0.000) and poorer nuclear grade than the old age group(p=0.003) in multi variate analysis, the age was not a significant independent prognostic factor. (P=0.642)Conclusion: Our study showed that the age was not a significant independent prognostic factor.
A study on the nutritional status for school-children has been carried out 1,700 school- children of Song-do primary school located in Song-do beach, Busan, Korea, from November to-December, 1972. The evaluation of the nutritional status has been carried out through skin-fold thickness and hemoglobin. The summarized results were as follows. : 1. Skinfolds thickness 1) Subcellular skinfolds thickness . Among boys, that was 3.5mm in the age 6 and 5.4mm in the age 11 Among girls, that was 4.2mm in the age 6 and 7.6mm in the age 11. Girls were thicker than toys in the all age. 2) Upper-arm skinfolds thickness Among boys, that was 5.0mm in the age 6 and 6.8mm in the age 11. Among girls, that was 6.2mm in the age 6 and 8.7mm in the age 11. Girls were thicker than toys in the all age. 3)Abdominal skinfolds thickness. Among boys, that was 4.0mm in the age 6, and 6.4mm in the age 11. Among girls that was 4.0mm in the age 0, and 8.4mm in the age 11. Girls were thicker than boys in the all age. 2. Hemoglobin Proportional range of hemoglobin were observed as 12.2-12.8 gm/㎗.
The purpose of this study was to examine children's dramatic play and dramatic play themes in the same-age and mixed-age kindergarten classrooms. The subjects were 45 children in three classrooms of 4-year-olds, 69 children in three classrooms of 5-year-olds, and 60 children in three mixed-age classrooms of 4-and 5-year-olds. Observations were conducted by videotape recordings. Observation periods were of five-minutes duration. There were ten observations of children's indoor free-play periods. Four-and five-year-olds in mixed-age classrooms were more likely to engage in group-dramatic play than 4-and 5-year-olds in same-age classrooms. Four-year-olds in mixed-age classrooms were more likely to engage in domestic and family, war/violence, school, animal, and vehicle play themes than 4-year-olds in same-age classrooms. However, 5-year-olds in mixed-age classrooms were more likely to engage in family and school play themes than 5-year-olds in same-age classrooms. 5-year-olds in same-age classrooms were more likely to engage in vehicle and animal play themes than 5-year-olds in mixed-age classrooms. 5-year-olds in same-age classrooms did not differ from 5-year-olds in mixed-age classrooms on the war/violence themes used during dramatic play. In terms of sex differences, boys were more likely to engage in violence, adventure fantage themes than girls. Conversely girls were more likely to engage in family/marriage static play themes than boys.
This study aims to analyze the relative importance of bone age and chronological age in physique according to gender and to identify the relative importance of bone age, chronological age, and physique in physical fitness and motor coordination according to gender in order to alleviate the imbalance between physique and physical fitness in children. A total of 666 children(346 males, 320 females) between the ages of 11-14 were enrolled as subjects, and the skeletal maturation The skeletal maturation were measured by taking hand-wrist. Physical fitness were measured through a total of 4 components: muscular strength. The results of this study. First, physique variables for both males and females aged 11-14 were found to be more significant predictors of bone age than chronological age. Second, for physical fitness in males, in the order of %fat, body water, waist-hip ratio, weight, fat-free mass, and chronological age were more significant predictor variables; and in females, in the order of %fat, fat-free mass, height, chronological age, weight, bone age, fat mass, and body water were more significant predictor variables. For bone age and chronological age in physical fitness, bone age in males and chronological age in females found to be the more representative variables respectively.
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