• Title, Summary, Keyword: Aflatoxin B1

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Variation of Aflatoxin $B_1$ Production in Brown Rice Inoculated with Aspergillus parasiticus under Different Storage Conditions (현미의 저장조건에 따른 aflatoxin $B_1$ 생성의 변화)

  • 김종규
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.47-52
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    • 1998
  • A rice cultivar (Japonica type), Cheong-cheong, was used to examine the ability as a substrate for aflatoxin production. Brown rice samples were inoculated with Aspergillus parasiticus, stored at various conditions, and observed the production of aflatoxin $B_1$ during storage. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was performed to detect aflatoxin $B_1$ in the samples. A temperature of $28^{\circ}C$ favored the aflatoxin production in the samples. Remoisturizing brown rice to 15.8% encouraged the fungus to produce the aflatoxin significantly (p$B_1$ production in rice, and also indicated that other factors such as husking and storage periods were also risk determinants. This study provided evidence that rice could be an efficient medium for aflatoxin production.

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Studies on the Chemical Synthesis of Aflatoxin-DNA Adduct (Aflatoxin-DNA Adduct의 화학합성에 관한 연구)

  • Choi, Sang-Kyung;Kim, Sung-Young;Kang, Jin-Soon;Chung, Duck-Hwa
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.367-370
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    • 1992
  • Aflatoxins are highly carcinogenic agents consistantly found as contaminants in human food supplies in many areas of the world and epidemiologically linked to incidence of human liver cancer. To examine the carcinogenic action of aflatoxin $B_1$, aflatoxin $B_1-DNA$ adducts were chemically synhtesized with the reaction of 20 mg calf thymus DNA, and 8 mg standard aflatoxin $B_1$. Since DNA molecule was too large for analysis, it was fragmented by acid hydrolysis and heat. The fragmented aflatoxin $B_1-DNA$ adducts were selectively concentrated by immunoaffinity column procedure and confirmed by HPLC method. The main component was aflatoxin $B_1-guanine$ adduct, which was quantatively measured as 5.2 mg aflatoxin $B_1$.

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Analysis of Peanut and Peanut Butter Retailed in Korea for Aflatoxin $B_1$ (국내 시판 땅콩 및 땅콩버터 중 Aflatoxin $B_1$ 오염 분석)

  • Park, Je-Won
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.38 no.2
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    • pp.309-312
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    • 2006
  • Aflatoxin $B_1$ in 70 retail samples, including 40 food-grade peanut (28 domestic, 12 imported) and 30 peanut butter (12 domestic, 18 imported) samples, was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection (FD), and positive samples were confirmed using HPLC with mass spectrometry (MS). Recoveries of aflatoxin $B_1$ spiked at 2 ppb exceeded 80% in both commodities. Detection limits for aflatoxin $B_1$ by HPLC-FD and MS analysis were 0.8 and 0.1 ppb, respectively. Four domestic and six imported peanut samples contained detectable levels of aflatoxin $B_1$ with means of 19 and 32 ppb, respectively. Aflatoxin $B_1$ was found in two domestic and three imported peanut butter samples with mean aflatoxin $B_1$ of 10 and 12 ppb, respectively. Peanut commodity showed more frequent aflatoxin $B_1$ contamination compared to its processed peanut butter product, and levels of aflatoxin $B_1$, especially in imported peanuts, were significantly (p<0.05) higher than those of other commodities. These results suggest peanut and peanut butter are not major contributors to dietary intake of aflatoxin $B_1$ in South Korea.

Incubation Conditions and Physico-Chemical Factors Affecting Aflatoxin B1 Binding of Lactic Acid Bacteria (Aflatoxin B1에 대한 유산균의 결합력에 영향을 미치는 배양조건과 물리화학적 인자)

  • Lim, Sung-Mee;Ahn, Dong-Hyun
    • Korean Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.49 no.3
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    • pp.253-261
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    • 2013
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the aflatoxin $B_1$ binding of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from Korean traditional soybean paste and to evaluate the effect of incubation conditions and physico-chemical factors on the binding ability of LAB to this mutagen. The amount of aflatoxin $B_1$ bound by Enterococcus faecium DJ22, Lactobacillus fermentum DJ35, Lactobacillus rhamnosus DJ42, and Lactobacillus pentosus DJ47 was strain specific with the percent bound ranging from 19.3% to 52.1%. However, Enterococcus faecalis DJ14, Lactobacillus panis DJ29, and Pediococcus halophilus DJ50 strains did not exhibit any of the binding ability to aflatoxin $B_1$. For most strains, the binding ability was significantly affected by the environmental conditions such as the aflatoxin $B_1$ level, incubation time and temperature, and the initial cell count of LAB. The stability of the aflatoxin $B_1$-bacteria complexes was significantly more unstable after washing. In addition, the binding stability between viable and nonviable cells was not statistically significant. Treatment with heating, acidic pH, ${\alpha}$-amylase, protease, lysozyme, or sodium metaperiodate caused a significant (P<0.05) decrease in aflatoxin $B_1$ binding for the tested strains, suggesting that carbohydrates or proteins in the cell walls may be involved in aflatoxin $B_1$ binding ability. Since the aflatoxin $B_1$ binding of LAB was significantly reduced (P<0.05) by the pretreatment of the urea, the binding force observed in this study may have resulted from hydrophobic interaction.

A Study on the Aflatoxin B1 Contents in Domestic and Import Foods (수입식품 및 국내식품중의 아플라톡신 함유량 조사연구)

  • 윤미혜;김국주;김종화;조규홍;김세진
    • Journal of environmental and Sanitary engineering
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.115-120
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    • 1998
  • This Study was performed to investigate the contents of aflatoxin $B_{1}$ in cereal, pulse, nuts and these products of domestic and import. These results were as follows. 1. Average concentration(in ${\mu}g/kg$) of aflatoxin $B_{1}$ in domestic foods were 2.6 in cereal, 3.9 in pulse, 4.2 in nuts and 1.4 grain products. The contents of aflatoxin B$_{1}$ in pulse and nuts were much higher than those of cereal and grain products. But their values were still within $10{\mu}g/kg$ the maximum residual level of aflatoxin $B_{1}$ for food of Korea. 2. Average contents of aflatoxin $B_{1}$ in import foods were 4.8, 5.4, 6.0, $3.8{\mu}g/kg$ for cereal pulse , nuts and popcorn & peanuts butter, respectively. And these values were found to be below the maximum residual level ($10{\mu}g/kg$) of aflatoxin $B_{1}$ for food of Korea. 3. The concentration of aflatoxin $B_{1}$ in 2 samples of domestic and 9 samples of import foods were over the tolerance limit for aflatoxin $B_{1}$ in food of Korea. Therefore, the hygienic managements of the foods should be required during storage and circulation at market.

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Determination of Aflatoxins Using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with Optimized Fluorescence Detection (HPLC에 의한 aflatoxin 분석법에 관한 연구-형광검출의 최적조건)

  • 김종규
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.41-46
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    • 1998
  • A postcolumn derivatization method was tried for the simultaneous determination of four major aflatoxins ($B_1,\;B_2,\;G_1,\;and\;G_2$) by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. As compared with a previous precolumn derivatization method, it was found that the postcolumn derivatization combined with an electrochemical cell (Kobra cell) was less time-consuming, safer, improved the sensitivity and selectivity, and provided good recoveries for aflatoxin $B_1$ (88.9%) and $G_1$ (100.5%). This method showed linearity from 10~100 ppb for aflatoxin $B_1\;and\;G_1$, and from 3~30 ppb for aflatoxin $B_2\;and\;G_2$. However, aflatoxin Bz and Gz were not detected satisfactorily although they showed good resolution.

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Hygienic Studies on the Agricultural Products in Youngnam Districts (Part II) Determination of Aflatoxin B1 by ELISA Method (영남지방 농상물에 대한 위생학적 연구(제2보) ELISA 법에 의한 Aflatoxin B1 검색)

  • ;;;;James J. Pestka
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.4 no.3
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    • pp.171-176
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    • 1989
  • A rapid, simple method of ELISA was applied for the determination of aflatoxin BI in cereals from Y oungnam districts. Antibodies obtained cross reacted with aflatoxin B2 and to a less extent with other aflatoxin BI analogs. Response range for a typical standard curve was between I and 100 ppb. Fewer interference by spiked methanol-PBSdimethylformamide extracts ofrice was evidenced. Contents of aflatoxin BI from rice (65) and barley (116) were determined by competitive direct enzyme- linked immunosorbent assay as follows. Three out of 65 rices samples were positive. Rice samples of R-IS, R-30, and R-59 represent the aflatoxin B1 levels of $7.5\;\mu\textrm{g}.kg,\;6.0\;\mu\textrm{g}/kg,\;3.5\;\mu\textrm{g}/kg,\;3.3\;\mu\textrm{g}/kg$, respectively, and showed 4.6% aflatoxin BI contamination in rice samples. Meanwhile, four out of 116 barley samples were positive. VB-37 showed the highest aflatoxin Bllevels of $9.6\;\mu\textrm{g}/kg$ and VB-35, VB-15 and VB-54 represent $7.5\;\mu\textrm{g}.kg,\;6.0\;\mu\textrm{g}/kg\;and\;3.6\;\mu\textrm{g}/kg$, respectively, and showed 3.4% aflatoxin B1 contamination in barley samples.

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Effects of Some Herbal Extracts on Aflatoxin $B_1$ Production from Aspergillus parasiticus (생약추출물이 Aspergillus parasiticus Aflatoxin $B_1$ 생성에 미치는 영향)

  • Chung, Sang-Jin
    • Korean Journal of Medicinal Crop Science
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    • v.11 no.5
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    • pp.385-391
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    • 2003
  • The influences of the extracts from Cinnamomi Cortex, Eucommiae Cortex, Puerariae Radix, Lycii Fructus, Zizyphi Fructus, Schisandrae Fructus, Mume Fructus, Chaenomelis Fructus on mycelial growth and aflatoxin $B_1$ production from Aspergillus parasiticus were analyzed. The pH of the culture media were reduced to below pH 4 by all the herbal extracts after 3 days incubation. However, the pH of the culture media increased above pH 6 after 6 days incubation using the extracts from Cinnamomi Cortex, Eucommiae Cortex, Puerariae Radix and Lycii Fructus. The mycelial growth of A. parasiticus was increased over the amount of the control. Puerariae Radix produced the largest amount of mycelial growth and Chaenomelis Fructus produced the smallest amount of mycelial growth. The productions of aflatoxin $B_1$ from A. parasticus culture were increased by the extracts of Puerariae Radix and Zizyphi Fructus, while inhibited by the extracts of Cinnamomi Cortex, Eucommiae Cortex, Lycii Fructus, Schisandrae Fructus, Mume Fructus and Chaenomelis Fructus. In particular, the extracts of Cinnamomi Cortex, Lycii Fructus and Schisandrae Fructus almost inhibited the production of aflatoxin $B_1$. The production of the total protein from Cinnamomi Cortex, which produced much less aflatoxin $B_1$, and Puerariae Radix, which produced a great deal of aflatoxin $B_1$ from A parasticus were slightly higher than the production of the total protein of the control medium.

Inhibitory Effects of Quinizarin Isolated from Cassia tora Seeds Against Human Intestinal Bacteria and Aflatoxin $B_1$ Biotransformation

  • Lee, Hoi-Seon
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.529-536
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    • 2003
  • The growth-inhibitory activity of Cassia tora seed-derived materials against seven intestinal bacteria was examined in vitro, and compared with that of anthraquinone, anthraflavine, anthrarufin, and 1-hydroxyanthraquinone. The active constituent of C. tore seeds was characterized as quinizarin, using various spectroscopic analyses. The growth responses varied depending on the compound, dose, and bacterial strain tested. At 1 mg/disk, quinizarin exhibited a strong inhibition of Clostridium perfringens and moderate inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus without any adverse effects on the growth of Bifidobacterium adolescentis, B. bifidum, B. longum, and Lactobacillus casei. Furthermore, the isolate at 0.1 mg/disk showed moderate and no activity against C. perfringens and S. aureus. The structure-activity relationship revealed that anthrarufin, anthraflavine, and quinizarin moderately inhibited the growth of S. aureus. However. anthraquinone and 1-hydroxyanthraquinone did not inhibit the human intestinal bacteria tested. As for the morphological effect of 1 mg/disk quinizarin, most strains of C. perfringens were damaged and disappeared, indicating that the strong activity of quinizarin was morphologically exhibited against C. perfringens. The inhibitory effect on aflatoxin $B_1$ biotransformation by anthraquinones revealed that anthrarufin ($IC_50,\;11.49\mu\textrm{M}$) anthraflavine ($IC_50,\;26.94\mu\textrm{M}$), and quinizarin ($IC_50,\;4.12\mu\textrm{M}$), were potent inhibitors of aflatoxin ${B_1}-8,9-epoxide$ formation. However, anthraquinone and 1-hydroxyanthraquinone did not inhibit the mouse liver microsomal sample to convert aflatoxin $B_1$ to aflatoxin ${B_1}-8,9-epoxide$. These results indicate that the two hydroxyl groups on A ring of anthraquinones may be essential for inhibiting the formation of aflatoxin ${B_1}-8,9-epoxide$. Accordingly, as naturally occurring inhibitory agents, the C. tora seed-derived materials described could be useful as a preventive agent against diseases caused by harmful intestinal bacteria, such as clostridia, and as an inhibitory agent for the mouse liver microsomal conversion of aflatoxin $B_1$ to aflatoxin ${B_1}-8,9-epoxide$.

A Study on the Concentration of Aflatoxin B1 in Granule and Globular Types of Herbal Medicines (엑스과립과 환으로 만들어진 한방생약제제의 aflatoxin B1 연구)

  • Bae, Jong-Sup;Kim, Yong-Ung;Park, Moon-Ki
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.209-215
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    • 2010
  • This study is an endeavor to evaluate the risk assessment of hazardous(aflatoxin $B_1$) in medicines from oriental medical prescription which are circulated much recently. For that, twelve globular and granule types, seven liquid types of herbal medicine were bought to compare and analyze the content of aflatoxin aflatoxin B_1), which are harmful to human body. Woo Hwang Cheong Sim Hwan of Aflatoxin $B_1$ concentration lower than the standard accepted by all the products have been detected, B company(tradition) is the concentration of $1.24\;{\mu}g/kg$, C company $1.04\;{\mu}g/kg$, A company(tradition) and B company did not detect. And the general pill of aflatoxin B1 concentration lower than the standard accepted by all the products have been detected, S-1 is the concentration of $1.8\;{\mu}g/kg$, S-2 of $1.04\;{\mu}g/kg$, S-3 of $0.88\;{\mu}g/kg$, S-4 of $9.32\l\;{\mu}g/kg$, S-6 of $7.8\;{\mu}g/kg$, S-5 did not detect. All the products eundan allowed in the concentration of aflatoxin $B_1$ levels were lower than detection, D company of $0.96\;{\mu}g/kg$, E company concentration was not detected. The liquid product of aflatoxin $B_1$ concentration was found liwer than the standard accepted by all the product, L-3 concentration of $0.8\;{\mu}g/kg$, K-4 was detected in the $1.16\;{\mu}g/kg$, L-1 and L-2 is not detected, L-5 concentration of $15\;{\mu}g/kg$, L-7 is detected as $1.08\;{\mu}g/kg$ and, L-6 was not detected.