• Title, Summary, Keyword: Aerosol

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Atmospheric Aerosol Detection And Its Removal for Satellite Data

  • Lee, Dong-Ha;Lee, Kwon-Ho;Kim, Young-Joan
    • Korean Journal of Remote Sensing
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    • v.22 no.5
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    • pp.379-383
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    • 2006
  • Satellite imagery may contain large regions covered with atmospheric aerosol. A highresolution satellite imagery affected by non-homogenous aerosol cover should be processed for land cover study and perform the radiometric calibration that will allow its future application for Korea Multi-Purpose Satellite (KOMPSAT) data. In this study, aerosol signal was separated from high resolution satellite data based on the reflectance separation method. Since aerosol removal has a good sensitivity over bright surface such as man-made targets, aerosol optical thickness (AOT) retrieval algorithm could be used. AOT retrieval using Look-up table (LUT) approach for utilizing the transformed image to radiometrically compensate visible band imagery is processed and tested in the correction of satellite scenery. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), EO-l/HYPERION data have been used for aerosol correction and AOT retrieval with different spatial resolution. Results show that an application of the aerosol detection for HYPERION data yields successive aerosol separation from imagery and AOT maps are consistent with MODIS AOT map.

Effects of Aerosol Hygroscopicity on Fine Particle Mass Concentration and Light Extinction Coefficient at Seoul and Gosan in Korea

  • Choi, Eun-Kyung;Kim, Yong-Pyo
    • Asian Journal of Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.55-61
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    • 2010
  • The sensitivity of aerosol light extinction coefficient to the aerosol chemical composition change is estimated by (1) calculating the aerosol water content and chemical concentrations by a gas/particle equilibrium model and (2) calculating the aerosol light extinction coefficient by a Mie theory based optical model. The major chemical species are total (gas and particle phase) sulfuric acid, total nitric acid, and total ammonia which are based on the measurement data at Seoul and Gosan. At Seoul, since there were enough ammonia to neutralize both total sulfuric acid and total nitric acid, the dry ionic concentration is most sensitive to the variation of the total nitric acid level, while the total mass concentration (ionic concentration plus water content) and thus, the aerosol light extinction coefficient are primarily determined by the total sulfuric acid. At Gosan, since the concentration of ambient sulfuric acid was the highest among the inorganic species, sulfate salts determined aerosol hygroscopicity. Thus, both ionic and total mass concentration, and resultant aerosol light extinction coefficient are primarily determined by the sulfuric acid level.

Error Accumulation and Transfer Effects of the Retrieved Aerosol Backscattering Coefficient Caused by Lidar Ratios

  • Liu, Houtong;Wang, Zhenzhu;Zhao, Jianxin;Ma, Jianjun
    • Current Optics and Photonics
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    • v.2 no.2
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    • pp.119-124
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    • 2018
  • The errors in retrieved aerosol backscattering coefficients due to different lidar ratios are analyzed quantitatively in this paper. The actual calculation shows that the inversion error of the aerosol backscattering coefficients using the Fernald backward-integration method increases with increasing inversion distance. The greater the error in the lidar ratio, the faster the error in the aerosol backscattering coefficient increases. For the same error in lidar ratio, the smaller actual aerosol backscattering coefficient will get the larger relative error of the retrieved aerosol backscattering coefficient. The errors in the lidar ratios for dust or the cirrus layer have great impact on the retrievals of backscattering coefficients. The interval between the retrieved height and the reference range is one of the important factors for the derived error in the aerosol backscattering coefficient, which is revealed quantitatively for the first time in this paper. The conclusions of this article can provide a basis for error estimation in retrieved backscattering coefficients of background aerosols, dust and cirrus layer. The errors in the lidar ratio of an aerosol layer influence the retrievals of backscattering coefficients for the aerosol layer below it.

A Study on the Characteristics Analysis of Cutting Fluid Aerosol Using Dual-PDA System(II) - for Cutting Fluid Aerosol Prediction in Turning Process (Dual-PDA를 이용한 절삭유 에어로졸 특성분석에 관한 연구(II) - 선삭공정의 절삭유 에어로졸 예측)

  • Chung, E.S.;Hwang, D.C.;Woo, C.K.;Hwang, J.
    • Journal of ILASS-Korea
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.32-40
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    • 2005
  • This paper presents the analytical approaches to predict cutting fluid aerosol formation characteristics in machining process. The prediction model which is based on the rotary atomization theory analyzes aerosol behaviors in terms of size and concentration. Experiments were tarried out to verify the aerosol formation prediction model under various operational conditions. The experimental results which are obtained by Dual-PDA measurement show resonable agreement with prediction results of aerosol concentration. This study can be provided as a basis to estimate and control the hazardous cutting fluid aerosol in machining process in view of environmental consciousness.

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Derivation of aerosol vertical profiles in Seoul based on O4 measurements using UV scanning spectrometer

  • Lee, Hanlim;Hwang, JungBae;Son, Yoonhee
    • Korean Journal of Remote Sensing
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    • v.29 no.3
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    • pp.325-329
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    • 2013
  • This present study describes an application of UV scanning spectrometer $O_4$ data for retrieval of aerosol vertical profiles in Seoul during the measurement period that includes two Asian dust event days. The results show large variations of aerosol load in vertical and temporal scales. Large variations in aerosol were observed at 1 km in height during the daytime in the measurement period when the Asian dust events took place. The aerosol load, however, was found to be largest at the surface compared to those retrieved at the higher atmospheric layers. The results also clearly identified the diurnal patterns of aerosol vertical distributions. The aerosol load was high in the morning and noon whereas it was low in the afternoon. This study demonstrates that UV scanning spectrometer observations of the oxygen dimer can serve as a potential method for determination of atmospheric aerosol vertical distributions and optical properties.

A Preliminary PAM Measurement of Ambient Air at Gosan, Jeju to Study the Secondary Aerosol Forming Potential (이차 에어러솔 생성 잠재력 평가를 위한 Potential Aerosol Mass (PAM) 챔버의 제주도 고산 대기분석 적용)

  • Kang, Eun-Ha;Brune, William H.;Kim, Sang-Woo;Yoon, Soon-Chang;Jung, Mu-Hyun;Lee, Mee-Hye
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.27 no.5
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    • pp.534-544
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    • 2011
  • The secondary aerosol forming potential of ambient air was first measured with the Potential Aerosol Mass(PAM) chamber at Gosan supersite on Jeju island from October 22 to November 5, 2010. PAM chamber is a small flowthrough photo-oxidation chamber with extremely high OH and $O_3$ levels. The OH exposure in the PAM chamber was $(2{\pm}0.4){\times}10^{11}{\sim}(6{\pm}1.2){\times}10^{11}$ molecules $cm^{-3}$ s and was similar to 2 to 5 days of aging in the atmosphere. By periodically turning on and off UV lamps in the PAM chamber, ambient aerosol and newly formed aerosol (e.g. called as PAM aerosol) was alternately measured. Aerosol number and mass concentration in the range of 10~487 nm in diameter was measured by SMPS 3034. With UV lamps on, the nucleation mode particles smaller than 50 nm in diameters were formed. Their number concentration was greater than 105 $cm^{-3}$, leading to increase in aerosol mass by 0~8 ${\mu}gm^{-3}$. The variations of PAM and ambient aerosols were greatly dependent on characteristics of air masses such as precursor concentrations and degree of aging. This preliminary results suggests that PAM chamber is useful to assess the aerosol formation potential of air mass and its impact on the air quality. The further analysis of data with gaseous and particulate measurements will be done.

Development of a Fission Product Transport Module Predicting the Behavior of Radiological Materials during Severe Accidents in a Nuclear Power Plant

  • Kang, Hyung Seok;Rhee, Bo Wook;Kim, Dong Ha
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.41 no.3
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    • pp.237-244
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    • 2016
  • Background: Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute is developing a fission product transport module for predicting the behavior of radioactive materials in the primary cooling system of a nuclear power plant as a separate module, which will be connected to a severe accident analysis code, Core Meltdown Progression Accident Simulation Software (COMPASS). Materials and Methods: This fission product transport (COMPASS-FP) module consists of a fission product release model, an aerosol generation model, and an aerosol transport model. In the fission product release model there are three submodels based on empirical correlations, and they are used to simulate the fission product gases release from the reactor core. In the aerosol generation model, the mass conservation law and Raoult's law are applied to the mixture of vapors and droplets of the fission products in a specified control volume to find the generation of the aerosol droplet. In the aerosol transport model, empirical correlations available from the open literature are used to simulate the aerosol removal processes owing to the gravitational settling, inertia impaction, diffusiophoresis, and thermophoresis. Results and Discussion: The COMPASS-FP module was validated against Aerosol Behavior Code Validation and Evaluation (ABCOVE-5) test performed by Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory for comparing the prediction and test data. The comparison results assuming a non-spherical aerosol shape for the suspended aerosol mass concentration showed a good agreement with an error range of about ${\pm}6%$. Conclusion: It was found that the COMPASS-FP module produced the reasonable results of the fission product gases release, the aerosol generation, and the gravitational settling in the aerosol removal processes for ABCOVE-5. However, more validation for other aerosol removal models needs to be performed.

ATMOSPHERIC AEROSOL DETECTION AND ITS REMOVEAL FOR SATELLITE DATA

  • Lee, Dong-Ha;Lee, Kwon-Ho;Kim, Young-Joon
    • Proceedings of the KSRS Conference
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    • v.2
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    • pp.598-601
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    • 2006
  • Satellite imagery may contain large regions covered with atmospheric aerosol. A high-resolution satellite imagery affected by non-homogenous aerosol cover should be processed for land cover study and perform the radiometric calibration that will allow its future application for Korea Multi-Purpose Satellite (KOMPSAT) data. In this study, aerosol signal was separated from high resolution satellite data based on the reflectance separation method. Since aerosol removal has a good sensitivity over bright surface such as man-made targets, aerosol optical thickness (AOT) retrieval algorithm could be used. AOT retrieval using Look-up table (LUT) approach for utilizing the transformed image to radiometrically compensate visible band imagery is processed and tested in the correction of satellite scenery. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), EO-1/HYPERION data have been used for aerosol correction and AOT retrieval with different spatial resolution. Results show that an application of the aerosol detection for HYPERION data yields successive aerosol separation from imagery and AOT maps are consistent with MODIS AOT map.

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A Modeling Study on Aerosol Property Changes due to Sea-Salts (해염성분에 의한 에어로솔 물성변화 모사연구)

  • 김용표
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.113-120
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    • 2000
  • Effects of sea-salts on the properties of aerosol collected in a coastal region were studied by applying a gas-particle equilibrium model SCAPE to the measurement data from Korea Cheju Island in summer 1994. It was found that the observed higher ammonium concentrations in fine particles (PM2.5) than in TSP were caused by forced evaporation of ammonium in coarse fraction of aerosol by sea-salts and the degree of evaporation was quantified through an application of SCAPE. By subtracting the sea-salt fraction from the measured concentra-tions the changes of aerosol property were also studied. The concentrations of nitrate at both TSP and PM2.5 decreased when alkaline sea-salt fraction was removed from the measured data. Estimates of aerosol acidity increased for most samples with sea salt loadings, However in some cases with high mass fractions of sea-salt components the aerosol acidity of PM2.5 decreased slightly. This is though to be related with the formation of solid salt with the removal of sea-salts.

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Aerosol radiative forcing over East Asia determined from ground-based sunphotometry measurements

  • Kim, Do-Hyeong;Sohn, B.J.;Nakajima, T.
    • Proceedings of the KSRS Conference
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    • pp.1243-1245
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    • 2003
  • Mean radiative forcing efficiencies (${\Delta}$F/${\Delta}{\tau}_{0.5}$) over East Asia range from -65 to -95 W m$^{-2}$ at the surface while -20 to -40 W m$^{-2}$ at TOA under clear-sky conditions. These aerosol direct radiative forcings over East Asia are similar to other experimental results for different regions, i.e., the Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX) and the Tropospheric Aerosol Radiative Forcing Observational Experiment (TARFOX), from which radiative forcing efficiencies of -75 Wm$^{-2}$ and -70 Wm$^{-2}$ for the Indian Ocean and the East Coast of the United States are reported. Nevertheless, the differences in aerosol parameters and relatively large STD values with regard to spatiotemporal variations suggest that the impact of aerosol on ARF over East Asia is more significant than previously recognized for other regions and should be continuously observed to determine the relation between increasing aerosols and associated radiative forcings in the region.

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