• Title, Summary, Keyword: Advanced cervical carcinoma

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Significance and Expression of Aquaporin 1, 3, 8 in Cervical Carcinoma in Xinjiang Uygur Women of China

  • Shi, Yong-Hua;Chen, Rui;Talafu, Tuokan;Nijiati, Rehemu;Lalai, Suzuke
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.5
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    • pp.1971-1975
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    • 2012
  • Overexpression of several aquaporins (AQPs) has been reported in different types of human cancer but their role in carcinogenesis, for example in the cervix, have yet to be clearly defined. In this study, expression of AQPs in cervical carcinomawas investigated by real-time PCR, immunofluorescent and immunohistochemical assays and evaluated for correlations with clinicopathologic variables. AQP1, 3, 8 exhibited differential expression in cervical carcinoma, corresponding CIN and mild cervicitis. AQP1 was predominantly localized in the microvascular endothelial cell in the stroma of mild cervicitis, CIN and cervical carcinoma. AQP3 and AQP8 were localized in the membrane of normal squamous epithelium and carcinoma cells, local signals being more common than diffuse staining. AQP1 and AQP3 expression was remarkably stronger in cervical cancer than in mild cervicitis and CIN2-3 (P<0.05). AQP8 expression was highest in CIN2-3 (91.7%), but levels in cervical carcinoma were also higher than in mild cervicitis. AQP1, AQP3, AQP8 expression significantly increased in advanced stage, deeper infiltration, metastatic lymph nodes and larger tumor volume (P<0.05). Our findings showed that AQPs might play important roles in cervical carcinogenesis and tumour progression in Uygur women.

Clinical Significance of Atypical Squamous Cells of Undetermined Significance among Patients Undergoing Cervical Conization

  • Nishimura, Mai;Miyatake, Takashi;Nakashima, Ayaka;Miyoshi, Ai;Mimura, Mayuko;Nagamatsu, Masaaki;Ogita, Kazuhide;Yokoi, Takeshi
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.18
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    • pp.8145-8147
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    • 2016
  • Background: Atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) feature a wide variety of cervical cells, including benign and malignant examples. The management of ASCUS is complicated. Guidelines for office gynecology in Japan recommend performing a high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) test as a rule. The guidelines also recommend repeat cervical cytology after 6 and 12 months, or immediate colposcopy. The purpose of this study was to determine the clinical significance of ASCUS. Materials and Methods: Between January 2012 and December 2014, a total of 162 patients underwent cervical conization for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (CIN3), carcinoma in situ, squamous cell carcinoma, microinvasive squamous cell carcinoma, and adenocarcinoma in situ at our hospital. The results of cervical cytology prior to conization, the pathology after conization, and high-risk HPV testing were obtained from clinical records and analyzed retrospectively. Results: Based on cervical cytology, 31 (19.1%) of 162 patients were primarily diagnosed with ASCUS. Among these, 25 (80.6%) were positive for high-risk HPV, and the test results of the remaining 6 patients (19.4%) were uncertain. In the final pathological diagnosis after conization, 27 (87.1%) and 4 patients (12.9%) were diagnosed with CIN3 and carcinoma in situ, respectively. Conclusions: Although ASCUS is known as a low-risk abnormal cervical cytology, approximately 20% of patients who underwent cervical conization had ASCUS. The relationship between the cervical cytology of ASCUS and the final pathological results for CIN3 or invasive carcinoma should be investigated statistically. In cases of ASCUS, we recommend HPV tests or colposcopic examination rather than cytological follow-up, because of the risk of missing CIN3 or more advanced disease.

A CLINICO-STATISTICAL STUDY ON CERVICAL LYMPH NODE METASTASIS OF ORAL SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA (구강 편평세포암종의 경부 림프절전이에 대한 임상통계학적 연구)

  • Lee, Jae-Wook;Kim, Jin-Wook;Kim, Chin-Soo
    • Journal of the Korean Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons
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    • v.34 no.6
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    • pp.594-601
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    • 2008
  • Cervical lymph node metastasis is one of the most important predicting factors that influence the prognosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma. Correct diagnosis on cervical lymph node metastasis is essential in determining the extent of operation and treatment modality. So we investigated a clinico-statistical evaluation on cervical lymph node metastasis in 183 patients who were diagnosed with oral squamous cell carcinoma at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery in Kyungpook National University Hospital, from January 1st, 1999 to December 31st, 2007. The following results were obtained : 1. Among 183 patients who were diagnosed with oral squamous cell carcinoma, 149 were male and 49 were female. The average age of the patients was 61.8 years old. 2. Patients with advanced T classification showed higher incidence of cervical lymph node metastasis than those with lower T classification. 3. Patients with less differentiated tumors had higher tendency of manifesting cervical lymph node metastasis than those with more differentiated tumors. 4. Sensitivity and specificity on PET/CT was 87.5% and 58.3% respectively. PET/CT showed higher sensitivity and lower false-negative values than those of CT or USG. 5. The 5 - year survival rate of all the oral squamous cell carcinoma patients appeared to be 63.2% By N classification, patients in N0 stage showed a higher survival rate than patients in N1 or N2. 5 - year survival rates according to the modality of neck dissection were as follows in increasing order: no neck dissection group, MRND group, SND group, and RND group.

Prognostic Impact of Histology in Patients with Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Adenocarcinoma and Small Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma

  • Intaraphet, Suthida;Kasatpibal, Nongyao;Siriaunkgul, Sumalee;Sogaard, Mette;Patumanond, Jayanton;Khunamornpong, Surapan;Chandacham, Anchalee;Suprasert, Prapaporn
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.9
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    • pp.5355-5360
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    • 2013
  • Background: Clarifying the prognostic impact of histological type is an essential issue that may influence the treatment and follow-up planning of newly diagnosed cervical cancer cases. This study aimed to evaluate the prognostic impact of histological type on survival and mortality in patients with cervical squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), adenocarcinoma (ADC) and small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (SNEC). Materials and Methods: All patients with cervical cancer diagnosed and treated at Chiang Mai University Hospital between January 1995 and October 2011 were eligible. We included all patients with SNEC and a random weighted sample of patients with SCC and ADC. We used competing-risks regression analysis to evaluate the association between histological type and cancer-specific survival and mortality. Results: Of all 2,108 patients, 1,632 (77.4%) had SCC, 346 (16.4%) had ADC and 130 (6.2%) had SNEC. Overall, five-year cancer-specific survival was 60.0%, 54.7%, and 48.4% in patients with SCC, ADC and SNEC, respectively. After adjusting for other clinical and pathological factors, patients with SNEC and ADC had higher risk of cancer-related death compared with SCC patients (hazard ratio [HR] 2.6; 95% CI, 1.9-3.5 and HR 1.3; 95% CI, 1.1-1.5, respectively). Patients with SNEC were younger and had higher risk of cancer-related death in both early and advanced stages compared with SCC patients (HR 4.9; 95% CI, 2.7-9.1 and HR 2.5; 95% CI, 1.7-3.5, respectively). Those with advanced-stage ADC had a greater risk of cancer-related death (HR 1.4; 95% CI, 1.2-1.7) compared with those with advanced-stage SCC, while no significant difference was observed in patients with early stage lesions. Conclusion: Histological type is an important prognostic factor among patients with cervical cancer in Thailand. Though patients with SNEC were younger and more often had a diagnosis of early stage compared with ADC and SCC, SNEC was associated with poorest survival. ADC was associated with poorer survival compared with SCC in advanced stages, while no difference was observed at early stages. Further tailored treatment-strategies and follow-up planning among patients with different histological types should be considered.

The Level of Squamous Cell Carcinoma Antigen and Lymph Node Metastasis in Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer

  • Lekskul, Navamol;Charakorn, Chuenkamon;Lertkhachonsuk, Arb-Aroon;Rattanasiri, Sasivimol;Ayudhya, Nathpong Israngura Na
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.11
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    • pp.4719-4722
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    • 2015
  • Background: This study aimed to determine the utility and a cut-off level of serum squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC-Ag) to predict lymph node metastasis in locally advanced cervical cancer cases. We also investigated the correlation between SCC-Ag level and lymph node status. Materials and Methods: From June 2009 to June 2014, 232 patients with cervical cancer stage IB2-IVA, who were treated at Ramathibodi Hospital, were recruited. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to identify the best cut-off point of SCC-Ag level to predict lymph node metastasis. Quantile regression was performed to evaluate the correlation between SCC-Ag levels and pelvic lymph node metastasis, paraaortic lymph node metastasis, and parametrial involvement as well as tumor size. Results: Pelvic lymph node metastasis and paraaortic lymph node metastasis were diagnosed in 46.6% and 20.1% of the patients, respectively. The median SCC-Ag level was 6 ng/mL (range, 0.5 to 464.6 ng/mL). The areas under ROC curves between SCC-Ag level and pelvic lymph node metastasis, paraaotic lymph node metastasis, parametrial involvements were low. SCC-Ag level was significantly correlated with paraaortic lymph node status (p=0.045) but not with pelvic lymph node status and parametrial involvement. SCC-Ag level was also related to the tumor diameter (p<0.05). Conclusions: SCC-Ag level is not a good predictor for pelvic and paraaortic lymph node metastasis. However, it is still beneficial to assess the tumor burden of squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix.

Survival Outcomes of Advanced and Recurrent Cervical Cancer Patients Treated with Chemotherapy: Experience of Northern Tertiary Care Hospital in Thailand

  • Boupaijit, Kuanoon;Suprasert, Prapaporn
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.1123-1127
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    • 2016
  • Chemotherapy is the primary treatment for advanced and recurrent cervical cancer. To evaluate the survival outcomes of chemotherapy and the prognostic factors in this setting, we conducted a retrospective study by reviewing the medical records of advanced and recurrent cervical cancer patients treated with systemic chemotherapy at our institute between January, 2008 and December, 2014. One hundred and seventy-three patients met the criteria with a mean age of 50.9 years. 4.1% of them were HIV positive. The most common initial stage was stage IVB (30.1%) and the most common histology was squamous cell carcinoma (68.6%). Ninety-two (53.2%) patients were previously treated with concurrent chemoradiation with 53% developing combined sites of recurrence. The median recurrence free interval was 16.7 months. Cisplatin + 5 fluorouracil (5FU) (53.2%) was the most frequent first line chemotherapy followed by carboplatin + paclitaxel (20.2%) with an objective response of 39.3%. Seventy-two patients received subsequent chemotherapy. The median overall survival of all studied patients was 13.2 months. Only a recurrence free interval of less than 12 months was an independent prognostic factor for survival outcome. In conclusion, chemotherapy treatment for advanced and recurrent cervical cancer patients showed modest efficacy with a shorter recurrence free survival less than 12 months as a significant poor prognosis factor.

Clinical significance of lymph node size in locally advanced cervical cancer treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy

  • Oh, Jinju;Seol, Ki Ho;Choi, Youn Seok;Lee, Jeong Won;Bae, Jin Young
    • Yeungnam University Journal of Medicine
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    • v.36 no.2
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    • pp.115-123
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    • 2019
  • Background: This study aimed to assess the in-field lymph node (LN) failure rate according to LN size and to investigate effect of LN size on the survival outcome of patients with locally advanced cervical carcinoma treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT). Methods: A total of 310 patients with locally advanced cervical carcinoma treated with CCRT were enrolled in retrospective study. LN status was evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging. All patients received conventional external beam irradiation and high-dose rate brachytherapy, and concurrent cisplatin-based chemotherapy. In-field LN failure rate according to LN size was analyzed. Results: The median follow-up period was 83 months (range, 3-201 months). In-field LN failure rate in patients with pelvic LN size more than 10 mm was significantly higher than that in patients with pelvic LN size less than 10 mm (p<0.001). A similar finding was observed in the infield para-aortic LN (PALN) failure rate (p=0.024). The pelvic and PALN size (${\geq}10mm$) was a significant prognostic factor of overall-survival (OS) and disease-free survival rate in univariate and multivariate analyses. The OS rate was significantly different between groups according to LN size (<10 mm vs. ${\geq}10mm$). Conclusion: A LN of less than 10 mm in size in an imaging study is controlled by CCRT. On the other hand, in LN of more than 10 mm in size, the in-field LN failure rate increase and the prognosis deteriorate. Therefore, a more aggressive treatment strategy is needed.

Concurrent Chemoradiation with Weekly Paclitaxel and Cisplatin for Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer

  • Kalaghchi, Bita;Abdi, Robab;Amouzegar-Hashemi, Farnaz;Esmati, Ebrahim;Alikhasi, Afsaneh
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.sup3
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    • pp.287-291
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    • 2016
  • Cervical cancer is one of the most common gynecological cancers in Iranian women. This study was initiated to assess whether the combination of paclitaxel and cisplatin with radiation might feasible for these patients. The aim was to assess tumor response and toxicity of weekly cisplatin and paclitaxel along with radiotherapy in the treatment of cervical cancer. Women with primary untreated squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix with FIGO stages IB2 to IIIB were treated with weekly injections of cisplatin 30 mg/m2 and paclitaxel 35 mg/m2 for 5-6 weeks along with radiotherapy. A total of 25 patients were enrolled in this study who completed the intended treatment. Disease was assessed prior to treatment by pelvic examination and contrast enhanced MRI of the abdomen and pelvis. Response was assessed 1 month after completion of treatment by physical examination and 3 months after also by MRI.Toxicity was assessed and was graded using RTOG grading. There was a complete response rate of 84% after 3 months. The major toxicity was grade 1 and 2 anemia (92%). The mean duration of treatment was 58 days. In conclusion, combination chemotherapy with cisplatin and paclitaxel along with radiotherapy in patients with locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of cervixwas well tolerated, in contrast to other studies, but it seems that there was no increase in tumor response and progression free survival with this treatment regimen.

A Case of Locally Invasive and Recurred Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma Metastatizing to Cervical Lymphatic Chains and Mediastinum (광범위한 국소재발 및 경부, 종격동 전이를 동반한 유두상 갑상선암 1례)

  • Choi Hong-Shik;Lee Ju-Hyoung;Kim Jae-Won;Yang Hae-Dong
    • Korean Journal of Head & Neck Oncology
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.62-68
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    • 1997
  • The papillary carcinoma is the most common malignant neoplasm of thyroid gland and the prognosis is better than anyother type of thyroid carcinoma. However, the thyroid is closed to the important organs such as esophagus, trachea and larynx, there are some possibilities to invade these organs. In case of advanced disease, not only surrounding structures but also mediastinum and cervical lymphatic chain can be involved or distant metastasis develops frequently. Therefore in these cases the prognosis is worse and the rate of inoperable case is more than those of non-metastatic group. Generally, the treatment modality for papillary thyroid carcinoma consists of surgery, postoperative thyroid hormone and radioiodine therapy. If the tumor invades surrounding structures, cervical lymph node or mediastinum, total thyroidectomy and wide excision of tumor invaded area including mediastinal dissection and neck dissection is necessary. Recently, the authors have experienced a case of locally invasive and recurred papillary thyroid carcinoma without treatment for 7 years. The patient was performed previously thyroid lobectomy and isthmusectomy 13 years ago. We had determinded surgical therapy for this patient and performed mass excision with overlying skin, completion total thyroidectomy, right type I modified radical neck dissection, left lateral neck dissection, thoracotomy with supramediastinal dissection, shaving of diffusely involved trachea and skin defect reconstruction with pectoralis major myocutaneous flap. After operation 2 cycles of radioiodine therapy were taken. Now the patient is following up at the outpatient base and no evidence of disease state for postoperative 16 months. So we report on this case with a brief review of literature.

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$^{18}F-FDG-PET/CT$ in Endometrial Carcinoma (자궁내막암에서 $^{18}F-FDG-PET/CT$)

  • Jeon, Tae-Joo
    • Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
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    • v.42 no.sup1
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    • pp.110-112
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    • 2008
  • Endometrial carcinoma is one of the most common gynecologic malignancies and which is predominant in postmenopausal women. Clinically many patients are hospitalized in early stage due to clinical sign and symptom such as vaginal bleeding and in this case, patient's prognosis is known to be good. However, considerable number of patients with advanced and relapsed disease reveal poor prognosis. Therefore, exact staging work up is essential for proper treatment as is primary lesion detection. $^{18}F-FDG-PET$ has been widely used for the evaluation of gynecologic malignancies such as cervical carcinoma and ovarian cancer. In contrast, FDG PET application to endometrial carcinoma is limited until now and there is no sufficient data to validate the usefulness of FDG PET for this disease yet. However, several studies showed promising results that FDG PET is sensitive and specific in detection of recurrent or metastatic lesions. Therefore further active investigation in this field can facilitate the use of FDG PET for endometrial carcinoma.