• Title, Summary, Keyword: Adipose Tissues

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The Interaction of Adipose Tissue with Immune System and Related Inflammatory Molecules (지방조직과 면역체계의 상호작용 및 관련 염증물질에 관한 고찰)

  • Kim, Yu-Hee;Choi, Bong-Hyuk;Do, Myoung-Sool
    • IMMUNE NETWORK
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    • v.6 no.4
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    • pp.169-178
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    • 2006
  • Background: Adipose tissues were initially introduced as energy storages, but recently they have become famous as an endocrine organ which produces and secretes various kinds of molecules to make physiologic and metabolic changes in human body. It has been studied that these molecules are secreted in abundance as the adipose tissue becomes bigger along with obesity. Furthermore, it has been found that they are mediating systemic inflammation and generation of metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes and atherosclerosis. On the basis of these, we studied previous papers which have been researched about the interaction between preadipocytes and macrophages, adipose tissues and lymph nodes, and adipose tissue secreting molecules. Results: Firstly, preadipocytes and macrophages are expressing similar transcriptomes and proteins, and preadipocytes can be converted to mature macrophages which have phagocytic activity. Moreover, the monocytes, which initially located in the bone marrow, are filtrated to the adipose tissue by monocyte chemotatic protein-1 and are matured to macrophages by colony stimulating factor-1. Secondly, adipose tissues and their associated lymph nodes are interacting each other in terms of energy efficiency. Lymph nodes promote lipolysis in adipose tissues, and polyunsaturated fatty acids in adipocytes become energy sources for dendritic cells. Lastly, adipose tissues produce and secrete proinflammatory molecules such as leptin, adiponectin, TNF-${\alpha}$, IL-6, and acute phase proteins, which induce the inflammation and potentially generate metabolic diseases. Conclusion: According to these, we can link adipose tissues to inflammation, but we need to affirm the actual levels and roles of adipose tissue-derived proinflammatory molecules in human body.

Cloning and Expression of Lactate Dehydrogenase H Chain Gene in Adipose Tissues of Korean Cattle

  • Kim, H.H.;Seol, M.B.;Jeon, D.H.;Sun, S.S.;Kim, K.H.;Choi, Y.J.;Baik, M.G.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.14 no.12
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    • pp.1670-1674
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    • 2001
  • To understand molecular mechanisms that regulate deposition and release of intramuscular fat, a fasting-induced clone was identified by differential screening from cDNA library of adipose tissues of Korean cattle. The clone had a total length of 1,319 nucleotides coding for 334 amino acids. It was identified as one encoding L-lactate dehydrogenase H chain (LDH-B). Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequences of bovine LDH-B with those of pig, human, rat, and mouse showed 98%, 98%, 97%, and 96% identity, respectively. Food deprivation for 48 h increased mRNA levels of LDH-B gene in adipose tissues of Korean cattle compared to fed- and 6 h refed- tissues. The expression of obese mRNA was examined for individual adipose tissue from several fat depots. Fasting induced expression of LDH-B gene in subcutaneous adipose tissues, but it did not affect expression levels in abdominal, perirenal and intramuscular tissues. Results demonstrate that induction of LDH-B gene during fasting may represent a metabolic shift from anaerobic state to aerobic predominance in fasted adipose tissues and that its responses to fasting are different among several adipose tissues.

Crosstalk between Adipocytes and Immune Cells in Adipose Tissue Inflammation and Metabolic Dysregulation in Obesity

  • Huh, Jin Young;Park, Yoon Jeong;Ham, Mira;Kim, Jae Bum
    • Molecules and Cells
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    • v.37 no.5
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    • pp.365-371
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    • 2014
  • Recent findings, notably on adipokines and adipose tissue inflammation, have revised the concept of adipose tissues being a mere storage depot for body energy. Instead, adipose tissues are emerging as endocrine and immunologically active organs with multiple effects on the regulation of systemic energy homeostasis. Notably, compared with other metabolic organs such as liver and muscle, various inflammatory responses are dynamically regulated in adipose tissues and most of the immune cells in adipose tissues are involved in obesity-mediated metabolic complications, including insulin resistance. Here, we summarize recent findings on the key roles of innate (neutrophils, macrophages, mast cells, eosinophils) and adaptive (regulatory T cells, type 1 helper T cells, CD8 T cells, B cells) immune cells in adipose tissue inflammation and metabolic dysregulation in obesity. In particular, the roles of natural killer T cells, one type of innate lymphocyte, in adipose tissue inflammation will be discussed. Finally, a new role of adipocytes as antigen presenting cells to modulate T cell activity and subsequent adipose tissue inflammation will be proposed.

Expression of Steroidogenesis-related Genes in Rat Adipose Tissues

  • Byeon, Hye Rim;Lee, Sung-Ho
    • Development and Reproduction
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.197-205
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    • 2016
  • Adipose tissue is one of the major endocrine gland. More recently, local production of steroids in adipocytes differentiated from mouse 3T3-L1 cell-line was reported. We hypothesized that rat adipocytes have steroidogenic machinery and the expression patterns of the components might be differentially regulated, depending on the distribution and sex. To verify this hypothesis, we collected the adipose tissues depot-and sex-specifically at postnatal day (PND) 30, and performed quantitative RT-PCRs. In overall aspects, the abundances of the transcripts were lower in the brown adipose of both sexes. $3{\beta}-HSD$ transcript levels in female abdominal and reproductive adipose, CYP17 transcript levels in female reproductive adipose, $17{\beta}-HSD$ transcript levels in female abdominal and reproductive adipose, and CYP19 transcript levels in female abdominal adipose were significantly lower than those of male counterparts. Similar to steroidogenic factors, the abundance of the $ER-{\alpha}$ transcripts were generally lower in the brown adipose of both sexes. $ER-{\beta}$ transcripts were more abundant in male white adipose depots than their female counterparts. The levels of LHR transcripts in female reproductive adipose were significantly higher than those of male counterpart. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that the expressions of steroidogenesis-related genes were depot- and sex-specifically occurred in the immature male and female rat adipose tissues. Our study suggested that the adipose tissues are not only targets but de novo synthesizing sites of sex steroid(s), though the synthesizing activities could be much less than in gonads. Further researches in this field will be helpful for understanding the adipose physiology and for medical application such as sex-specific steroid supplement therapies for older populations.

Effects of Carbon Precursors and Hormones on the Lipogenesis and Lipolysis of Hanwoo Cattle Adipose Tissues

  • Lee, S.C.;Lee, H.J.;Kim, D.W.;Park, J.G.;Han, In K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.300-306
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    • 2000
  • This experiment was carried out to determine the contributions of acetate, glucose, amino acids and amino acid metabolites as carbon precursors for the incorporation of radioisotope, in intramuscular and subcutaneous adipose tissue and the effects of insulin on lipogenesis and adrenergic agent, norepinephrine on lipolysis in both tissues. The rate of incorporation of $C^{14}$ labelled acetate, glucose, leucine, isoleucine and ${\alpha}$-ketoisocaproic acid into adipose tissue has been measured in subcutaneous and intramuscular adipose tissues. The rate of incorporation was greater (p<0.05) from acetate than glucose in both subcutaneous and intramuscular adipose tissue and the rate of incorporation of carbon precursors into adipose tissues was greater in subcutaneous than in intramuscular adipose tissues. In comparison of amino acids, the rate was highest (p<0.05) with leucine followed by isoleucine and ${\alpha}$-ketoisocaproic acid in subcutaneous adipose tissue, in which there were no differences. Also, in intramuscular tissue, leucine was highest (p<0.05), and the rate of incorporation decreased in the same order. The rates of carbon precursor incorporation appeared to be higher in subcutaneous than in intramuscular tissue. For incorporation of radio-labelled acetate and glucose into intramuscular adipose tissue. preincubated for 48 hrs with insulin and IGF-1, insulin was the most effective to stimulate the incorporation of precursors in both substrates but there was no difference between insulin and IGF-1 in glucose incorporation. For glyceride-fatty acid synthesis, acetate was significantly (p<0.05) greater than glucose in both subcutaneous and intramuscular adipose tissue, and glyceride-glycerol synthesis was greater (p<0.05) for glucose than acetate in both adipose tissues. The rates of lipogenesis from both precursors were slightly greater in subcutaneous than intramuscular adipose tissue. There was significant (p<0.05) site effect in insulin treatment for glyceride-fatty acid synthesis. But there were no significance in control and norepinephrine. For glyceride-glycerol synthesis, there was no site effect caused by hormonal treatment. Insulin was the most effective (p<0.05) in glyceride fatty acid synthesis, while norepinephrine was the same as control. Compared with control, glyceride-glycerol synthesis from acetate in insulin treatment was significantly (p<0.05) low in subcutaneous, but high in intramuscular tissue. At the same time, in both tissues, it was lower in norepinephrine treatment than in control. Glyceride-glycerol synthesis from glucose was highest (p<0.05) in norepinephrine treatment followed by insulin although there was no significance between insulin and control. Lipolysis was not affected by insulin but was increased by norepinephrine when added to adipose tissue incubations in vitro. Rates of basal lipolysis were greater in subcutaneous adipose tissue than in intramuscular adipose tissue.

mRNA Expression of Ovine Angiopoietin-like Protein 4 Gene in Adipose Tissues

  • Zhang, Jing;Jing, Jiong-Jie;Jia, Xia-Li;Qiao, Li-Ying;Liu, Jian-Hua;Liang, Chen;Liu, Wen-Zhong
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.29 no.5
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    • pp.615-623
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    • 2016
  • Angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4) is involved in a variety of functions, including lipoprotein metabolism and angiogenesis. To reveal the role of ANGPTL4 in fat metabolism of sheep, ovine ANGPTL4 mRNA expression was analyzed in seven adipose tissues from two breeds with distinct tail types. Forty-eight animals with the gender ratio of 1:1 for both Guangling Large Tailed (GLT) and Small Tailed Han (STH) sheep were slaughtered at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 months of age, respectively. Adipose tissues were collected from greater and lesser omental, subcutaneous, retroperitoneal, perirenal, mesenteric, and tail fats. Ontogenetic mRNA expression of ANGPTL4 in these adipose tissues from GTL and STH was studied by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction. The results showed that ANGPTL4 mRNA expressed in all adipose tissues studied with the highest in subcutaneous and the lowest in mesenteric fat depots. Months of age, tissue and breed are the main factors that significantly influence the mRNA expression. These results provide new insights into ovine ANGPTL4 gene expression and clues for its function mechanism.

Production of Leptin in E. coli and Its Effect on Glucose and Acetate Transport and Expression of Uncoupling Protein-2 Gene in Adipose Tissues of Korean Cattle (Hanwoo)

  • Kim, K.S.;Baik, M.G.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.17 no.8
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    • pp.1062-1068
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    • 2004
  • Leptin has a major role in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis. In addition, leptin participates in many physiological functions including regulation of lipid metabolism. Bovine recombinant leptin protein was produced in E. coli cells in order to understand function of leptin in the regulation of lipid metabolism. The leptin expression vector was constructed in pGEX-4T-3 vector and transformed into E. coli BL21 cells. Expression of the GST-leptin fusion protein was induced with IPTG. The fusion protein was purified using glutathione sepharose 4B batch method, and the recombinant leptin was eluted after thrombin protease digestion. The effect of leptin on glucose transport was examined in the differentiated adipocytes of 3T3-L1 cells. Leptin had no effect on basal and insulin-stimulated glucose transport in 3T3-L1 cells (p>0.05). Effect of recombinant leptin on glucose and acetate transport was examined in adipose tissues of Korean cattle (Hanwoo). Insulin stimulated glucose transport in both intramuscular and subcutaneous adipose tissues (p<0.05), but leptin did not affect glucose transport in both adipose tissues (p>0.05). Insulin stimulated acetate transport in bovine adipose tissues (p<0.05), but leptin did not affect acetate transport (p>0.05). Northern and RT-PCR analyses showed that mRNA levels of uncoupling protein-2 were increased by leptin treatment in 3T3-L1 cells without statistical difference (p>0.05). In conclusion, bovine recombinant leptin did not affect glucose and acetate transport in both 3T3-L1 adipocytes and bovine adipose tissues, while it stimulates UCP-2 mRNA expression in 3T3-L1 cells.

Cloning and Expression of β1-Adrenergic Receptor Genes in Adipose Tissues from Korean Native Cattle (Hanwoo)

  • Ha, S.H.;Chung, M.I.;Baik, M.G.;Choi, Y.J.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.13-16
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    • 2001
  • Bovine ${\beta}1$-adrenergic receptor (AR) cDNA was cloned using degenerative primers. Bovine ${\beta}1$-AR coded for 467 amino acids and the comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence with that of sheep showed 93.4% identity. Northern blot analysis indicated that transcript size for the bovine ${\beta}1$-AR was 3.6 kb in the adipose tissue. The expression level of three $\beta$-ARs (1, 2, and 3) in bovine abdominal, subcutaneous, and perirenal adipose tissues were examined using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and the levels of ${\beta}1$- and ${\beta}3$-AR mRNA were found to be lower in the subcutaneous adipose tissue than in the abdominal and perirenal adipose tissues. These results suggest that the expression of $\beta$-ARs mRNA are differentially regulated among the adipose tissues.

Postnatal Expression Pattern of Adipose Type Fatty Acid Binding Protein in Different Adipose Tissues of Porcine

  • Xu, C.L.;Wang, Y.H.;Huang, Y.H.;Liu, J.X.;Feng, J.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.20 no.6
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    • pp.811-816
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    • 2007
  • Adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (A-FABP), which belongs to the FABP family, plays an essential role in long-chain fatty acid uptake and metabolic homeostasis, especially in adipose tissue. The pattern of A-FABP gene mRNA expression in different growth stages and its relation to intramuscular fat (IMF) accretion in pigs was studied. Fifteen female $Duroc{\times}Landrace{\times}Yorkshire$ pigs in five groups of three pigs each, weighing 1, 30, 50, 70 and 90 kg were used to study developmental gene mRNA expression of A-FABP in various adipose tissues by means of semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Results showed that A-FABP mRNA levels in subcutaneous and ventral adipose tissues first increased from 1 to 50 kg, then gradually declined from 50 to 90 kg. Moreover, the rank order of A-FABP mRNA levels determined in three adipose tissues was as follows: subcutaneous adipose>ventral adipose>mesenteric adipose. A-FABP mRNA expression in mesenteric adipose tissue was constant during development. In addition, a positive correlation from 1 to 50 kg BW pigs and a negative correlation from 50 to 90 kg BW between A-FABP mRNA levels in subcutaneous and ventral adipose and IMF content were found.

Utilization of Substrate for the In vitro Lipid Synthesis in the Adipose Tissue of Hanwoo Steers

  • Song, M.K.;Sohn, H.J.;Hong, S.K.;Kim, H.C.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.14 no.11
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    • pp.1560-1563
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    • 2001
  • An ability to utilize the substrates (acetate, glucose and lactate) in the lipid synthesis was measured in vitro with the adipose tissues of 4 locations (subcutaneous, SUBC; intramuscular, INTR; tail and kidney, KIDN) in 12 Hanwoo (Korean native cattle) steers (26 and 28 months of ages, mean body weight 638.6 kg). The rates of lipid synthesis from acetate were higher than those from glucose in SUBC and ITRA adipose tissues, respectively. In contrast, the rates of lipid synthesis from glucose were higher than those from acetate in the adipose tissues of tail and KIDN, respectively. Lactate utilization was lowest in all the locations while that of acetate or glucose had the different trends of utilization in the lipogenesis. The rate of lipid synthesis from acetate was highest in the SUBC adipose tissue but was lowest in the KIDN while that from glucose was also higher in the SUBC adipose tissue than in the other tissue locations. The rate of lipid synthesis from lactate, however, was highest in the tail adipose tissue among the locations.