• Title, Summary, Keyword: Adipose Tissue

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The Review on the Subdivision of Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue (피하지방 및 피하지방의 분획과 관련된 임상적 의의에 관한 고찰)

  • Lee, Yoon-Jae;Hwang, Deok-Sang;Lee, Chang-Hoon;Lee, Kyung-Sub
    • Journal of Korean Medicine for Obesity Research
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.15-25
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    • 2007
  • Objectives In clinical studies, the visceral fat obesity has been emphasized because of its correlation with the metabolic syndrome. But the subcutaneous adipose tissue also would correlate with the risk factor of metabolic syndrome. Especially deep tissue, which is a subdivision of the subcutaneous adipose tissue would be more related. This study is to investigate the relationship between subcutaneous adipose tissue and various diseases. Methods We searched for papers which had subcutaneous adipose tissue, deep subcutaneous adipose tissue and obesity for subjects in the Pubmed site. Results : 24 papers were found. Subcutaneous adipose tissue, deep subcutaneous adipose tissue especially, was related with the insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, sex hormones and other diseases. Conclusions Subcutaneous adipose tissue is a risk factor of insulin resistance but not lipoprotein. But deep subcutaneous adipose tissue was related with lipoprotein. So deep tissue, which is a subdivision of the subcutaneous adipose tissue is a more important risk factor of the metabolic syndrome.

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Assessment of The Accuracy of The MR Abdominal Adipose Tissue Volumetry using 3D Gradient Dual Echo 2-Point DIXON Technique using CT as Reference

  • Kang, Sung-Jin
    • Journal of Magnetics
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.603-615
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    • 2016
  • In this study, in order to determine the validity and accuracy of MR imaging of 3D gradient dual echo 2-point DIXON technique for measuring abdominal adipose tissue volume and distribution, the measurements obtained by CT were set as a reference for comparison and their correlations were evaluated. CT and MRI scans were performed on each subject (17 healthy male volunteers who were fully informed about this study) to measure abdominal adipose tissue volume. Two skilled investigators individually observed the images acquired by CT and MRI in an independent environment, and directly separated the total volume using region-based thresholding segmentation method, and based on this, the total adipose tissue volume, subcutaneous adipose tissue volume and visceral adipose tissue volume were respectively measured. The correlation of the adipose tissue volume measurements with respect to the observer was examined using the Spearman test and the inter-observer agreement was evaluated using the intra-class correlation test. The correlation of the adipose tissue volume measurements by CT and MRI imaging methods was examined by simple regression analysis. In addition, using the Bland-Altman plot, the degree of agreement between the two imaging methods was evaluated. All of the statistical analysis results showed highly statistically significant correlation (p<0.05) respectively from the results of each adipose tissue volume measurements. In conclusion, MR abdominal adipose volumetry using the technique of 3D gradient dual echo 2-point DIXON showed a very high level of concordance even when compared with the adipose tissue measuring method using CT as reference.

Molecular Cloning of Adipose Tissue-specific Genes by cDNA Microarray

  • Kim, Kee-Hong;Moon, Yang Soo
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.16 no.12
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    • pp.1837-1841
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    • 2003
  • In an attempt to isolate novel molecules that may play a regulatory role in adipocyte differentiation, we devised an experimental strategy to identify adipose tissue-specific genes by modifying cDNA microarray technique. We used genefilter membranes containing approximately 15,000 rat non-redundant EST clones of which 4,000 EST were representative clones of known genes and 11,000 ESTs were uncharacterized clones. A series of hybridization of genefilter membranes with cDNA probes prepared from various rat tissues and nucleic acids sequence analysis allowed us to identify two adipose-tissue specific genes, adipocyte-specific secretory factor (ADSF) and H-rev107. Verification of tissue-specific expression patterns of these two genes by Northern blot analysis showed that ADSF mRNA is exclusive expressed in adipose tissue and the H-rev107 mRNA is predominantly expressed in adipose tissue. Further analysis of gene expression of ADSF and H-rev107 during 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation revealed that the ADSF and H-rev107 gene expression patterns are closely associated with the adipocyte differentiation program, indicating their possible role in the regulation of adipose tissue development. Overall, we demonstrated an application of modified cDNA microarray technique in molecular cloning, resulting in identification of two novel adipose tissue-specific genes. This technique will also be used as a useful tool in identifying novel genes expressed in a tissue-specific manner.

Two Faces of White Adipose Tissue with Heterogeneous Adipogenic Progenitors

  • Hwang, Injae;Kim, Jae Bum
    • Diabetes and Metabolism Journal
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    • v.43 no.6
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    • pp.752-762
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    • 2019
  • Chronic energy surplus increases body fat, leading to obesity. Since obesity is closely associated with most metabolic complications, pathophysiological roles of adipose tissue in obesity have been intensively studied. White adipose tissue is largely divided into subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT). These two white adipose tissues are similar in their appearance and lipid storage functions. Nonetheless, emerging evidence has suggested that SAT and VAT have different characteristics and functional roles in metabolic regulation. It is likely that there are intrinsic differences between VAT and SAT. In diet-induced obese animal models, it has been reported that adipogenic progenitors in VAT rapidly proliferate and differentiate into adipocytes. In obesity, VAT exhibits elevated inflammatory responses, which are less prevalent in SAT. On the other hand, SAT has metabolically beneficial effects. In this review, we introduce recent studies that focus on cellular and molecular components modulating adipogenesis and immune responses in SAT and VAT. Given that these two fat depots show different functions and characteristics depending on the nutritional status, it is feasible to postulate that SAT and VAT have different developmental origins with distinct adipogenic progenitors, which would be a key determining factor for the response and accommodation to metabolic input for energy homeostasis.

Effects of Carbon Precursors and Hormones on the Lipogenesis and Lipolysis of Hanwoo Cattle Adipose Tissues

  • Lee, S.C.;Lee, H.J.;Kim, D.W.;Park, J.G.;Han, In K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.300-306
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    • 2000
  • This experiment was carried out to determine the contributions of acetate, glucose, amino acids and amino acid metabolites as carbon precursors for the incorporation of radioisotope, in intramuscular and subcutaneous adipose tissue and the effects of insulin on lipogenesis and adrenergic agent, norepinephrine on lipolysis in both tissues. The rate of incorporation of $C^{14}$ labelled acetate, glucose, leucine, isoleucine and ${\alpha}$-ketoisocaproic acid into adipose tissue has been measured in subcutaneous and intramuscular adipose tissues. The rate of incorporation was greater (p<0.05) from acetate than glucose in both subcutaneous and intramuscular adipose tissue and the rate of incorporation of carbon precursors into adipose tissues was greater in subcutaneous than in intramuscular adipose tissues. In comparison of amino acids, the rate was highest (p<0.05) with leucine followed by isoleucine and ${\alpha}$-ketoisocaproic acid in subcutaneous adipose tissue, in which there were no differences. Also, in intramuscular tissue, leucine was highest (p<0.05), and the rate of incorporation decreased in the same order. The rates of carbon precursor incorporation appeared to be higher in subcutaneous than in intramuscular tissue. For incorporation of radio-labelled acetate and glucose into intramuscular adipose tissue. preincubated for 48 hrs with insulin and IGF-1, insulin was the most effective to stimulate the incorporation of precursors in both substrates but there was no difference between insulin and IGF-1 in glucose incorporation. For glyceride-fatty acid synthesis, acetate was significantly (p<0.05) greater than glucose in both subcutaneous and intramuscular adipose tissue, and glyceride-glycerol synthesis was greater (p<0.05) for glucose than acetate in both adipose tissues. The rates of lipogenesis from both precursors were slightly greater in subcutaneous than intramuscular adipose tissue. There was significant (p<0.05) site effect in insulin treatment for glyceride-fatty acid synthesis. But there were no significance in control and norepinephrine. For glyceride-glycerol synthesis, there was no site effect caused by hormonal treatment. Insulin was the most effective (p<0.05) in glyceride fatty acid synthesis, while norepinephrine was the same as control. Compared with control, glyceride-glycerol synthesis from acetate in insulin treatment was significantly (p<0.05) low in subcutaneous, but high in intramuscular tissue. At the same time, in both tissues, it was lower in norepinephrine treatment than in control. Glyceride-glycerol synthesis from glucose was highest (p<0.05) in norepinephrine treatment followed by insulin although there was no significance between insulin and control. Lipolysis was not affected by insulin but was increased by norepinephrine when added to adipose tissue incubations in vitro. Rates of basal lipolysis were greater in subcutaneous adipose tissue than in intramuscular adipose tissue.

Crosstalk between Adipocytes and Immune Cells in Adipose Tissue Inflammation and Metabolic Dysregulation in Obesity

  • Huh, Jin Young;Park, Yoon Jeong;Ham, Mira;Kim, Jae Bum
    • Molecules and Cells
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    • v.37 no.5
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    • pp.365-371
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    • 2014
  • Recent findings, notably on adipokines and adipose tissue inflammation, have revised the concept of adipose tissues being a mere storage depot for body energy. Instead, adipose tissues are emerging as endocrine and immunologically active organs with multiple effects on the regulation of systemic energy homeostasis. Notably, compared with other metabolic organs such as liver and muscle, various inflammatory responses are dynamically regulated in adipose tissues and most of the immune cells in adipose tissues are involved in obesity-mediated metabolic complications, including insulin resistance. Here, we summarize recent findings on the key roles of innate (neutrophils, macrophages, mast cells, eosinophils) and adaptive (regulatory T cells, type 1 helper T cells, CD8 T cells, B cells) immune cells in adipose tissue inflammation and metabolic dysregulation in obesity. In particular, the roles of natural killer T cells, one type of innate lymphocyte, in adipose tissue inflammation will be discussed. Finally, a new role of adipocytes as antigen presenting cells to modulate T cell activity and subsequent adipose tissue inflammation will be proposed.

Proteomics studies of brown adipose tissue (BAT) activation and white adipose tissue (WAT) browning (Proteomics 분석기반 갈색지방 활성화 및 백색지방의 갈색지방화(browning)조절 연구)

  • Bae, Kwang-Hee;Kim, Won-Kon
    • Food Science and Industry
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    • v.50 no.1
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    • pp.26-35
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    • 2017
  • Obesity is a worldwide problem that is associated with metabolic disorders. Obesity is caused by the accumulation of an abnormal amount of body fat in adipose tissue. Adipose tissue is a major metabolic organ, and it has been classified as either white adipose tissue (WAT) or brown adipose tissue (BAT). WAT and BAT are characterized by different anatomical locations, morphological structures, functions, and gene expression patterns. WAT is mainly involved in the storage and mobilization of energy in the form of triglycerides. On the other hand, BAT specializes in dissipating energy as heat through uncoupling protein-1 (UCP-1)-mediated non-shivering thermogenesis. Novel type of brown-like adipocyte within WAT called beige/brite cells was recently discovered, and this transdifferentiation process is referred to as the "browning" or "britening" of WAT. Recently, Brown fat and/or browning of WAT have been highlights as a new therapeutic target for treatment of obesity and its related metabolic disorders. Here, we describe recent advances in the study of BAT and browning of WAT, focusing on proteomic approaches.

Endophilin A2: A Potential Link to Adiposity and Beyond

  • Alfadda, Assim A.;Sallam, Reem M.;Gul, Rukhsana;Hwang, Injae;Ka, Sojeong
    • Molecules and Cells
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    • v.40 no.11
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    • pp.855-863
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    • 2017
  • Adipose tissue plays a central role in regulating dynamic cross-talk between tissues and organs. A detailed description of molecules that are differentially expressed upon changes in adipose tissue mass is expected to increase our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that underlie obesity and related metabolic co-morbidities. Our previous studies suggest a possible link between endophilins (SH3Grb2 proteins) and changes in body weight. To explore this further, we sought to assess the distribution of endophilin A2 (EA2) in human adipose tissue and experimental animals. Human paired adipose tissue samples (subcutaneous and visceral) were collected from subjects undergoing elective abdominal surgery and abdominal liposuction. We observed elevated EA2 gene expression in the subcutaneous compared to that in the visceral human adipose tissue. EA2 gene expression negatively correlated with adiponectin and chemerin in visceral adipose tissue, and positively correlated with $TNF-{\alpha}$ in subcutaneous adipose tissue. EA2 gene expression was significantly downregulated during differentiation of preadipocytes in vitro. In conclusion, this study provides a description of EA2 distribution and emphasizes a need to study the roles of this protein during the progression of obesity.

Chondrogenesis of Mesenchymal Stem Cell Derived form Canine Adipose Tissue

  • Lee, Byung-Joo;Wang, Soo-Geun;Seo, Cheol-Ju;Lee, Jin-Chun;Jung, Jin-Sup;Lee, Ryang-Hwa
    • Proceedings of the KSLP Conference
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    • pp.183-183
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    • 2003
  • Background and Objectives : Cartilage reconstruction is one of medical issue in otolaryngology. Tissue engineering is presently being utilized in part of cartilage repair. Sources of cells for tissue engineering are chondrocyte from mature cartilage and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells that are able to differentiate into chondrocyte. Recent studies have shown that adipose tissue have mesenchymal stem cells which can differentiate into adipogenic, chondrogenic myogenic osteogenic cells and neural cell in vitro. In this study, we have examined chondrogenic potential of the canine adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cell(ATSC). Materials and Methods : We harvested canine adipose tissue from inguinal area. ATSCs were enzymatically released from canine adipose tissue. Under appropriate culture conditions, ATSCs were induced to differentiate into the chondrocyte lineages using micromass culture technique. We used immunostain to type II collagen and toluidine blue stain to confirm chondrogenic differentiation of ATSCs. Results : We could isolate ATSCs from canine adipose tissue. ATSCs expressed CD29 and CD44 which are specific surface markers of mesenchymal stem cell. ATSCs differentiated into micromass that has positive response to immunostain of type II collagen and toluidine blue stain. Conclusion : In vitro, ATSCs differentiated into cells that have characteristic cartilage matrix molecules in the presence of lineage-specific induction factors. Adipose tissue may represent an alternative source to bone marrow-derived MSCs.

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Cellularity of Adipose Tissue Obtained from Different Sex and Growth Stages of Hanwoo Cattle and Sheep

  • Lee, H.J.;Lee, S.C.;Kim, D.W.;Park, J.G.;Han, In K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.155-160
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    • 2000
  • In order to understand the effects of sex or age on cellular characteristics of adipocytes from Hanwoo and sheep, samples were obtained from omental, subcutaneous, intermuscular and intramuscular adipose tissue depots of bulls, steers, heifers and cows in Hanwoo, and perirenal, omental and subcutaneous adipose tissues of fetal lambs, suckling lambs and wethers in sheep. In case of Hanwoo, mean diameter, surface area and volume of adipocytes from each depot were obtained by multisizer II (Coulter Co., UK). Osmium-fixed adipocytes were sized and counted using $560{\mu}m$ aperture. For samples obtained from sheep, cellularity was measured by using microscope and MCV program of Texas Instrument. Bulls had less subcutaneous and kidney fat than steers even though their slaughter and carcass weight were heavier. The amounts of fat from cows were greater in subcutaneous, kidney and internal organs than heifers. Steers had larger adipocytes in subcutaneous, intermuscular and intramuscular adipose tissues than bulls, although the differences were significant only for the subcutaneous adipose tissue depots. Adipocytes appeared to be largest in omental and smallest in intramuscular adipose tissue, although there were no significant differences among tissues. In a comparison of heifers and cows, significant site effects (p<0.05) were shown in adipocyte diameter, surface area and volume, and adipocyte appeared to be largest in omental tissue. Statistical difference (p<0.05) was only shown in cell volume of intramuscular tissue which was higher in cow than heifer. Intramuscular adipose tissue tended to have relatively greater numbers of cells per gram tissue and reflect lesser maturity of intramuscular adipose tissue relative to other adipose tissues. In sheep, regardless of adipose tissue depots, wethers had the greater adipocyte diameters than those at any other growth stage of sheep. Within adipose depots, the ranking of cell size was the greatest in the omental tissue of wether and the lowest in the renal and subcutaneous adipose tissue depots of fetal lamb. The cell size of adipocyte became larger with age, especially from fetal to suckling lamb due to a rapid hypertrophy of both perirenal and subcutaneous adipocytes during the suckling period.