• Title, Summary, Keyword: Adipocytes

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Regulation of Lipoprotein Lipase by Fasting in Epididymal and Mesenteric Adipocytes of Rats

  • Lee, Jae Joon;Chung, Chung Soo;Lee, Myung Yul
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.21 no.5
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    • pp.715-722
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    • 2008
  • There are marked variations in the activity of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) among adipose depots. The aim of this study was to compare the mechanisms of 24 h of fasting on LPL regulation between epididymal (EPI) adipocytes and mesenteric (MES) adipocytes in rats. 1-Day fasting consistently decreased activities of heparin-releasable LPL, total extractable LPL and cellular LPL markedly in both EPI and MES fat pads. LPL activity in MES fat pads was relatively lower than in the EPI fat pads. Consistent with data on LPL activity, the levels of expression of LPL mRNA in both nutritional states were lower in MES than EPI adipose tissue and isolated adipocytes. The decreased LPL activity after 1 day of fasting in MES adipocytes was explained mainly by a 50% decrease in the relative abundance of LPL mRNA level and a parallel 50% decrease in relative rate of LPL synthesis. In contrast, fasting of 1 day in EPI adipocytes decreased total LPL activity by 47% but did not affect LPL mRNA level or relative rate of LPL synthesis. A decrease in overall protein synthesis contributed to the decreased LPL activity after 1 day fasting both in EPI and MES adipocytes. In MES adipocytes the decrease in LPL activity, LPL mRNA and LPL synthesis were comparable, but in EPI adipocytes the changes in LPL activity were substantially larger than the changes in LPL mRNA level and LPL synthesis. Therefore, fasting decreased fat cell size, LPL activity, LPL mRNA level and relative rate of LPL synthesis in rats, and these effects were more marked in the MES adipocytes. These results clearly demonstrate the regional variations in the metabolic response of adipose tissue and LPL functions to fasting.

Allogenic Grafting of Cryopreserved Fat Cell (냉동보관된 지방세포의 동종이식)

  • Lee, Jong Hoon;Choi, Hong Hyeuk
    • Archives of Plastic Surgery
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    • v.35 no.4
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    • pp.385-392
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    • 2008
  • Purpose: The most effective methods of harvesting, preparing, and injecting autologous fat grafts have been inconsistent and conflicting. With its limitation as resorption in fat grafting, handling various techniques affect adipocyte survival, and is crucial to optimizing its long-term survival. To improve graft survival, re-implantation of cryopreserved adipocytes was developed. In addition, adipocytes do not induce immune rejection in response to non-self lymphocytes in a mixed lymphocyte reaction. The purpose of this study is to analyze the changes in cryopreserved adipocytes so as to determine the most efficient long-term storage period, and to analyze the changes in cryopreserved allografted adipocytes so as to determine the efficacy of cryopreserved adipocytes allografting. Methods: Fat tissues were harvested from the inguinal and retroperitoneal fat pad of mice. After the centrifugation of the harvested fat tissues, they were disintegrated with collagenase. The adipocytes were obtained by centrifugation of the disintegrated fat tissues. The adipocytes were treated as follows: (1) They were examined for weight and then frozen at $-20^{\circ}C$(n=25). For four months, each five frozen samples were taken and examined for weight and histologic changes in the 1st week, the 1st month, the 2nd month, the 3rd month, and the 4th month, respectively. (2) The adipocytes were immediately frozen at $-20^{\circ}C$(n=125). For four months, five frozen samples were taken, and allografted in the same time period as above. Finally, for four months, five cryopreserved allografted adipocytes were taken and examined for histologic changes in the same time period as above. Results: (1) Significant weight changes and histologic findings with inflammatory and destructive changes were observed in the cryopreserved adipocytes in three months. (2) Significant fat necrotic changes in the histologic changes with Hematoxylin and eosin stain were observed in the cryopreserved allografted adipocytes since the first week, independent of the freezing period. Conclusion: The study results show that the adipocytes that were cryopreserved for more than three months underwent obvious weight reductions and necrotic changes, and the adipocytes that were allografted without freezing were viable for four months, but the cryopreserved allografted adipocytes had obvious necrotic changes since the first week regardless of the freezing period.

Evaluation of the inhibition of the differentiation of pre-adipocytes into matures adipocytes

  • Morvan, Pierre Yves
    • Proceedings of the SCSK Conference
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    • pp.440-447
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    • 2003
  • Up until today, the key to contouring has been resumed in these two alternatives, either limiting the adipocyte storing capacity by modulating lipogenesis, or by stimulating lipolysis to eliminate adipocyte lipid content. Another interesting way could be the regulation of adipocyte differentiation. In this work, we have evaluated the effect of a brown algal extract of Sphacelaria scoparia (SSE) on the differentiation of pre-adipocytes into adipocytes. A pre-adipocyte line (3T3-L 1) was used. The differentiation was evaluated by the measure of produced lipids thanks to red oil coloration and spectrophotometry, and also by the expression of adipocyte differentiation markers: enzymes such as fatty acid synthase (FAS) and stearoyl CoA desaturase (SCD), or membrane proteins such as glucose transporters (GLUT -4) and fatty acid transporters (FAT) expressed on the surface of human adipocytes. These genes are under control of two transcription factors: CAAT-enhancer binding protein (c/EBP alpha) and sterol response element binding protein (SREBP1). All these markers were analysed at different stages of differentiation by RT -PCR. Sphacelaria extract (SSE) inhibits pre-adipocytes differentiating into adipocytes following a dose-dependant relation, using a kinetics similar to retinoic acid. It decreases the expression of mRNA specific to FAS, FAT, GLUT -4, SCD1, c/EBP alpha and SREBP1. Moreover, SSE regulated on collagen 1 and collagen 4 expression. A stimulation of collagen 1 was also measured in human skin fibroblasts. Thus, SSE performs as a genuine differentiation inhibitor and not only as a lipogenesis inhibitor, and could be used in slimming products.

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Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Adipocytes as a Primary Cause of Adipose Tissue Inflammation

  • Woo, Chang-Yun;Jang, Jung Eun;Lee, Seung Eun;Koh, Eun Hee;Lee, Ki-Up
    • Diabetes and Metabolism Journal
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    • v.43 no.3
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    • pp.247-256
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    • 2019
  • Adipose tissue inflammation is considered a major contributing factor in the development of obesity-associated insulin resistance and cardiovascular diseases. However, the cause of adipose tissue inflammation is presently unclear. The role of mitochondria in white adipocytes has long been neglected because of their low abundance. However, recent evidence suggests that mitochondria are essential for maintaining metabolic homeostasis in white adipocytes. In a series of recent studies, we found that mitochondrial function in white adipocytes is essential to the synthesis of adiponectin, which is the most abundant adipokine synthesized from adipocytes, with many favorable effects on metabolism, including improvement of insulin sensitivity and reduction of atherosclerotic processes and systemic inflammation. From these results, we propose a new hypothesis that mitochondrial dysfunction in adipocytes is a primary cause of adipose tissue inflammation and compared this hypothesis with a prevailing concept that "adipose tissue hypoxia" may underlie adipose tissue dysfunction in obesity. Recent studies have emphasized the role of the mitochondrial quality control mechanism in maintaining mitochondrial function. Future studies are warranted to test whether an inadequate mitochondrial quality control mechanism is responsible for mitochondrial dysfunction in adipocytes and adipose tissue inflammation.

Effect of Thyroid hormone on Lipogenesis in Rat White and Brown Adipocytes Culture System

  • Kim, Yangha -Moon
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.3 no.4
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    • pp.362-367
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    • 1998
  • Thyroid hormone(T3) stimulates hepatic lipogenesis by increasing expression of genes, indluding acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthase. S14 protein, which is thougth to be involved in lipid metabolism , appears to respond in parallel . Effect of T3 on lipogenesis in white and brown adipose tissue are less clear, and may be complicated by indirect effects of the hormone. We developed an adipocytes system where the indirect effects of thyroid hormone are abolished and direct effects of T3 on lipogenesis could be tested. Fat accumulation was mesured by Oil-Red O staining. Insulin clearly enhanced fat accumulation by 2-fold . Isobutylemethylxanthie(IBMX) apeared to inhibit insulin -stimulated fat accumulation. Dexamethasone increased insulin-stimulatedfat accumulation about 1.3-fold. confluent adipocytes were cultured in serum-free medium or medium containing 10% fetal calf serum or 10% fetal calf serum stripped of thyroid hormone and lipogenesis, assessed by the incorporation of 3H2O , was measured. Medium without serum or supplemented with T3-depleted serum did not amplify the stimulatory effect of T3 on lipogenesis compared to medium containing 10% fetal calf seru. Dexamethasone alone led to a decrease inlopogenesis of about 50 % in white adipocytes and 25% in brown adipocytes. However, dexamethasone amplified the lipogenic respnse to T3 by about 30% in whit eadipocytes and 60% in brown adipocytes. T3(1$\mu$M) stimulated lipogenesis and acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid syntase mRNA levels up to 2 -fold in both types of adipocytes. It seems that these adipocytes systems are as useful model to study the effects of hormones on lipogenic gene expression as well as lipogenesis.

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Carnosic acid inhibits TLR4-MyD88 signaling pathway in LPS-stimulated 3T3-L1 adipocytes

  • Park, Mi-Young;Mun, Seong Taek
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.8 no.5
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    • pp.516-520
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    • 2014
  • BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Carnosic acid (CA), found in rosemary (Rosemarinus officinalis) leaves, is known to exhibit anti-obesity and anti-inflammatory activities. However, whether its anti-inflammatory potency can contribute to the amelioration of obesity has not been elucidated. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of CA on Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) pathways in the presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. MATERIALS/METHODS: 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with CA ($0-20{\mu}M$) for 1 h, followed by treatment with LPS for 30 min; mRNA expression of adipokines and protein expression of TLR4-related molecules were then measured. RESULTS: LPS-stimulated 3T3-L1 adipocytes showed elevated mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-${\alpha}$, interleukin-6, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and CA significantly inhibited the expression of these adipokine genes. LPS-induced up regulation of TLR4, myeloid differentiation factor 88, TNF receptor-associated factor 6, and nuclear factor-${\kappa}B$, as well as phosphorylated extracellular receptor-activated kinase were also suppressed by pre-treatment of 3T3-L1 adipocytes with CA. CONCLUSIONS: Results of this study suggest that CA directly inhibits TLR4-MyD88-dependent signaling pathways and decreases the inflammatory response in adipocytes.

Ginseng Saponin-Re and Coix lachrymajobi var. mayuen Regulate Obesity Related Genes Expressions, TNF-alpha, Leptin, Lipoprotein Lipase and Resistin in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes (지방세포 3T3-L1에 인삼 사포닌 Re와 의이인 추출액 처리시 비만관련 유전자인 TNF-α, lipoprotein lipase, leptin 및 resistin 발현 조절에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Sung-Ok
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.17 no.11
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    • pp.1523-1532
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    • 2007
  • In order to determine if the mRNA and protein expression levels of 3T3-L1 adipocytes are influenced by oriental medicines, adipocytes were treated with $100\;{\mu}g/ml$ of G-Re and aqueous extract of a Coix lachrymajobi var. mayuen (AEC) every other day for 12 days, respectively. The tumor necrosis factor alpha ($TNF-{\alpha}$). mRNA and protein expressions were suppressed markedly in treated mature adipocytes. Those of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) levels were found to increase gradually in preadipocytes differentiating into mature adipocytes. Those were higher than that of the untreated mature adipocytes. The treated adipocytes showed reduction of leptin expression levels, while in untreated mature adipocytes cell, those of levels were significantly higher after the conversion of preadipocytes into mature adipocytes. The resistin levels in the treated adipocytes were significantly decreased comparing to that of the untreated mature adipocytes. In conclusion, the expression levels of LPL, $TNF-{\alpha}$, leptin and resistin mRNA and proteins are shown to be regulated by G-Re and AEC, making them potential candidates for controlling fat mass related obesity.

An Exploration on physiology of Vasa, Meda, Majja in Ayurveda w.s.r. to adipose tissue.

  • Agrawal, Sonam;Verma, Vandana;Gehlot, Sangeeta
    • CELLMED
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    • v.9 no.3
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    • pp.3.1-3.7
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    • 2019
  • Recent researches on adipocytes in human and mice model have reported that the adipocytes are not only the fat depots but having role in maintenance of physiology and metabolism through adipokines released by them in accordance to their anatomical location. Ayurveda scholars too have mentioned different tissues like Vasa (inter muscular fat), Meda (visceral fat) and Majja (bone marrow) which are predominantly rich in adipocytes similar to adipose tissues, with a different sites, functions, compositions and pathological outcomes. The metabolic effect of Meda and Majja Dhatu on other tissues like muscle (Mamsa Dhatu), bone (Asthi Dhatu) and reproductive tissue (Shukra Dhatu) shows their functional interdependence. The detailed description of therapeutic indications of Vasa and Majja under Snehakarma (oleation therapy) illustrates that clinical physiology of these tissues have been elaborated rather than general physiology. This article is an attempt to comprehend the physiological aspect of Vasa, Meda and Majja retrospectively on the basis of their therapeutic indication for the management of variety of disorders, in the form of Sneha through different therapeutic procedures. An effort has been also taken to distinguish Vasa, Meda, Majja based on the functional peculiarities of adipocytes present in different sites of body like omentum, muscle and bone marrow. Critical observation of explanations of Vasa, Meda and Majja in Ayurveda compendia and advanced research in field of adipocytes reflected that Ayurveda scholars had deep insights regarding the various dimensions of adipocytes, most of which are in consistent with the advanced physiology and biomolecular studies of adipocytes.

Increased Lipolytic Activity by High-pungency Red Pepper Extract(var. Chungyang) in Rat Adipocytes in vitro

  • Do, Myoung-Sool;Hong, Sung-Eui;Ha, Jung-Heun;Park, Sun-Mi;Ahn, In-Sook;Yoon, Ji-Young;Park, Kun-Young
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.34-38
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    • 2004
  • High-pungency red pepper and capsaicin modulate circulating hormone levels and induce lipolysis in adipose tissue in vivo. This study was designed to investigate the lipolytic activity of adipocytes by high-pungency red pepper extract in vitro. High-pungency red pepper (var. Chungyang) powder showed 126.1 mg% of capsaicinoid which was 3 x higher than low-pungency red pepper powder (var. Daemyung). To study the effects of high-pungency red pepper extract on lipolytic activity, preadipocytes were separated from the epidermal fat of 14 day-old rats, induced to differentiate into adipocytes and were treated with red pepper extracts. The amount of glycerol released from adipocytes into the culture medium was analysed to measure lipolytic activity. Glycerol release from adipocytes was increased in a dose-dependent manner with high-pungency red pepper extract treatment. However, there was no significant change in the glycerol release when adipocytes were treated with low-pungency red pepper extract. To investigate whether lipolysis by high-pungency red pepper extract is caused by capsaicin, glycerol release was detected after the treatment of adipocytes with capsaicin. Glycerol release was significantly increased by capsaicin. These results suggest that high-pungency red pepper extract might have a direct lipolytic activity in adipocytes that is mediated by capsaicin.

The Effects of Oryungsan-gagampang on Leptin Levels, Leptin Receptor Levels and Differentiation of 3T3-L1 Adipocyte (오차산감방이 3T3-L1 adipocyte의 leptin 및 leptin receptor 함량과 differentiation에 미치는 영향)

  • Kang Jung-Won;Choi Do-Young;Park Dong-Suk;Lee Jae-Dong
    • The Journal of Korean Medicine
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.241-251
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    • 2005
  • Objectives: This experimental study was designed to investig:ue the effects of Oryungsan-gagampang on leptin and leptin receptor levels and differentiation of 3T3-L1 adipocyte. Methods: After 3T3-L1 adipocytes were incubated with various concentrations of Oryungsan-gagampang and Reductil(r) for 7 days, leptin and leptin receptor levels in 3T3-Ll adipocytes were measured by ELISA. To elucidate the mechanism of inhibitory effects of Oryungsan-gagampang on obesity, the 3T3-L1 adipocytes after oil red 0 staining were taken by digital photo system. Results: 1. Oryungsan-gagampang $1,000{\mu}g/ml$ significantly increased leptin levels in 3T3-L1 adipocytes in comparison with the control group (p<0.05), and Oryungsan-gagampang 0.1 10, $1,000{\mu}g/ml$ significantly increased leptin receptor levels in 3T3-L1 adipocytes in comparison with the control group (p<0.05). 2. Oryungsan-gagampang inhibited of differentiation of 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Conclusions: Oryungsan-gagampang showed significant effects on inhibiting differentiation of 3T3-Ll adipocytes, and increasing leptin levels and leptin receptor levels in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Therefore, Oryungsan-gagampang could be used to treat obesity, but further studies are required.

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