• Title, Summary, Keyword: Additives

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Analysis on Recognition, Practice and Information Acquisition Behaviors regarding Food Additives of University Students (식품첨가물에 대한 대학생의 인식과 실천 행동 및 정보 획득 행동 분석)

  • Kim, Hyochung;Kim, Meera
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.24 no.5
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    • pp.572-584
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    • 2014
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the levels of recognition, practice and information acquisition behaviors regarding food additives of university students for development of educational programs. The data were collected from 283 students in the Yeungnam region through a self-administered questionnaire. The level of concern about food additives was intermediate. The level of checking labels for food additives when buying processed foods was not high. The main reason for not checking labels for food additives was "Buying the special brand products repeatedly". In the factor analysis for perception of food additives, three factors were categorized; effect of food additives on human health, administration and regulation of food additives, and necessity of food additives. According to regression analyses, grade, concern about food additives and perception of amount of food additives had significant effects on human health. The significant variables for administration and regulation of food additives were gender, grade, major, monthly allowance and concern about food additives. In addition, major was a significant variable for the necessity of food additives. Many respondents did not reduce intake of food additives; males did less than females. Most respondents answered they did not acquire sufficient information about food additives. Regarding needs for information content on food additives, respondents wanted information about safety of food additives the most, followed by items of labels for food additives, and ways to reduce intake of food additives.

Consumer Attitudes towards Food Additives (식품첨가물에 대한 소비자의 태도)

  • Kim Hyo-Chung;Kim Mee-Ra
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.126-135
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    • 2005
  • The purpose of this study was to examine the consumer awareness and information seeking behaviors towards food additives. The data were collected from 506 adults living in Seoul, Daegu and Rusan by self-administered questionnaires. Frequencies and chi-square tests were conducted with SPSS. The results of the survey were as follows: (1) The consumers' concerns towards food additives were high, (2) Especially, many consumers were highly concerned about preservatives among food additives, (3) Two-fifths of the respondents thought the use of food additives had nothing to do with the quality of food, (4) Many respondents tried to consume the food containing less food additives, (5) Most respondents were not satisfied with the labeling of food additives, and (6) Many consumers needed the information about food additives, especially safety of food additives.

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Effect of Trace Metallic Additives of Al-Fe-X on Microstructure and Properties of Zn Electrodeposits (아연도금층의 조직 및 물성에 미치는 미량금속원소(Al-Fe-X)의 복합첨가의 영향(I))

  • 예길촌;김대영;서경훈;안덕수
    • Journal of the Korean institute of surface engineering
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    • v.36 no.6
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    • pp.444-454
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    • 2003
  • The effect of trace metallic additives of Al-Fe-X on microstructure, glossiness and hardness of Zn electrodeposits was investigated by using sulfate bath. The preferred orientation of Zn deposits with Al-Fe additives was (10 l)(l:3,4,2), while that of Zn deposits with Al-Fe-X(Ni,Co) additives was either (002) or (002)+(103)ㆍ(104) mixed orientation. The preferred orientation of Zn deposits with Al-Fe-Cr additives changed from (002)+(10 l) to (10 l) orientation with increasing amount of Al additive. The surface morphology of the Zn deposits was closely related to the preferred orientation of the deposits. The glossiness of Zn deposits with Al-Fe additives increased in comparison with that of pure Zn deposit. That of the Zn deposits with Al-Fe-X additives was related to the morphology of the deposits and changed according to type of additives. The hardness of Zn deposits with Al-Fe-X(Ni,Co,Cr) additives was noticeably higher than that of Zn deposits with Al-Fe additives.

Effect of Trace Metallic Additives of Mg-Fe-X on Microstructure and Properties of Zn Electrodeposits (아연도금층의 조직 및 물성에 미치는 미량금속원소(Mg-Fe-X)의 복합첨가의 영향(II))

  • 예길촌;김대영;안덕수
    • Journal of the Korean institute of surface engineering
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    • v.37 no.2
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    • pp.99-109
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    • 2004
  • The effect of trace metallic additives on microstructure, glossiness and hardness of Zinc electrodeposits was investigated by using sulfate bath and flow cell system. The preferred orientation of Zn deposits with Mg-Fe additives was (10$\ell$)+(002) mixed texture, while that of Zn deposits with Mg-Fe-Cr additives was ( $10\ell$). The preferred orientation of Zn deposits with Mg-Fe-X(X:Ni,Co) additives changed from ($10\ell$)+(002) to ($10\ell$) with increasing Mg additive from 5 to 10 g/$\ell$. The surface morphology of the Zinc deposits was closely related to the preferred orientation of the deposits. The glossiness of Zn deposits with Mg-Fe additives was similar to that of pure Zn deposit. The glossiness of Zn deposits with Mg-Fe-X(X:Ni,Cr) additives was lower than that of Zn deposits with Mg-Fe additives, while that of Zn deposits with Mg-Fe-Co additives was higher than that of Zn-Mg-Fe deposits. The hardness of Zn deposits with Mg-Fe-X(Ni,Co,Cr) increased with current density and amount of Mg additive. Hardness of Zn deposits was decreased and increased in comparison with Zn-Mg-Fe deposits for Mg-Fe-Co and Mg-Fe-Cr additives, respectively.

Influence of the Kinds and the Content of Expansive Additive on the Properties of Shrinkage of High Performance Concrete (고성능 콘크리트의 수축특성에 미치는 팽창재 종류 및 혼입률의 영향)

  • 배정렬;홍상희;고경택;김성욱;한천구
    • Proceedings of the Korea Concrete Institute Conference
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    • pp.349-354
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    • 2003
  • The objective of this paper is to investigate the length change of high performance concrete using expansive additives to reduce autogenous shrinkage and drying shrinkage. The kinds and the contents of expansive additives are varied. The expansive additives are used made from Japan(CSA type;JEA), China(CSA type;CEA) and Korea(gypsum type; KEA), respectively. According to results, remarkable variations of the properties at fresh concrete are not found with dosage of expansive additives. For compressive strength, it decreases about 6-10% with expansive additives of 10%. Autogenous shrinkage decreases about 32%, and drying shrinkage does about 35%, respectively, with expansive additives of 5%, and about 68% and about 55%, with expansive additives of 10%. Accordingly, expansive additives demand requires 10% by cement weight in order to reduce shrinkage of high performance concrete more effectively in the sphere of this study, and JEA shows the best shrinkage reducing performance among the tested expansive additives.

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The Effect of Trace Metallic Additives on Microstructure, Surface Appearance and Hardness of Zn Electrodeposits (아연도금층의 조직, 외관, 및 경도에 미치는 미량 금속첨가의 영향)

  • 예길촌;김대영;안덕수
    • Journal of the Korean institute of surface engineering
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    • v.37 no.1
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    • pp.28-39
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    • 2004
  • The effect of trace metallic additives on microstructure, surface appearance and hardness of zinc electrodeposits was investigated by using sulfate bath and flow cell system. The preferred orientation of Zn deposit with Fe additive was (103)(104)+(002) mixed texture and that of Zn deposits with both Fe-Ni and Fe-Co additives was (10 1), while Zn deposits with Fe-Cr additives had (002) preferred orientation. The surface morphology of the zinc deposits was closely related to the preferred orientation of the deposits. The glossiness of Zn deposit with Fe-Ni additives was higher than that of pure Zn deposit, while the glossiness of Zn deposits with both Fe-Co and Fe-Cr additives was lower than that of pure Zn deposit. The hardness of Zn deposits with both Fe-Ni and Fe-Co additives was noticeably higher than that of Zn-Fe deposit, while that of Zn deposit with Fe-Cr additives was similar to that of Zn-Fe deposit.

A Study on Rheological Properties of Cement Paste using Expansive Additives by Kind & Replacement Ratio (팽창재 종류 및 치환율에 따른 시멘트 페이스트의 레올로지 특성)

  • Park, Chun-Young;Kang, Byeung-Hee
    • Journal of the Korea Institute of Building Construction
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.99-106
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    • 2008
  • To improve concrete tensile strength and bending strength, New plan that have more economical and simple manufacture process is groped. By an alternative plan, chemical pre-stressed concrete is presented. In this study, we analyzed the rheological properties of cement paste with the kind and replacement ratio of k-type CSA type expansive additives that is used mainly in domestic. and we suggested that the algorithm of a mixing plan in the chemical pre-stressed concrete and from this, we presented the basic report for the right mixing plan. From the results, Flow increased more or less according to use of expansive additives. This phenomenon was observed by increasing paste amount that shows as substitution for expansive additives that specific gravity is smaller than that of cement. As linear regression a result supposing paste that mix expansive additives by Bingham plastic fluid. The shear rate and shear stress expressed high interrelationship. therefore, flow analysis of quantitative was available. The plastic viscosity following to replacement ratio of expansive additives is no change almost, the yield value is decreased in proportion to the added amount of expansive additives. Through this experiment, we could evaluate rheological properties of cement paste using the expansive additives. Hereafter by an additional experiment, we must confirm stability assessment of material separation by using the aggregate with the kind and replacement ratio of expansive additives.

Trends of Perception and Information Needs on Food Additives of Children and Parents by Analyzing the Safety Assessment Reports of Food Additives in 2008~2013 (어린이와 학부모의 식품첨가물에 대한 인식 및 정보요구도 추이 분석: 2008~2013 식품첨가물 섭취 안전성 평가 연구 결과를 중심으로)

  • Kim, Suna;Kim, Ji-Sun;Ko, Joung-Mi;Kim, Jeong-Weon
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.249-261
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    • 2014
  • This study was performed in order to grasp the trends of elementary school children and their parents on their purchasing behavior of processed foods, awareness of food additives and its education experience by analyzing the safety assessment reports of food additives in 2008~2013. The most important factor in purchasing processed foods was safety in both groups followed by nutrition in parents and taste in children, respectively. While purchasing foods, the first item that is checked has been shifted from food additives to the origin of the products. Parents still perceived food additives as the most hazardous factor for food safety; however, recently, children began to regard microbial contaminants as being most hazardous, which is regarded as a desirable educational effect. The most concerned food additives were preservatives, synthetic seasoning and colorants in both groups. However, the awareness level on food additives still remained low as 3.0~3.1/5.0 for parents and 2.4~2.9/5.0 for children. Educational experience on food additives increased in children from 12% in 2008 to 25% in 2013; however, it decreased in parents from 23% in 2008 to 15% in 2013. Information needs for food additives by education and promotion were very high both in parents (4.2~4.5) and children (3.8~4.1). Both groups had an interest in the safety, legal standards of food additives, and foods with food additives, in order. The most reliable resource institutions on food additives were university/research institute and hospital for parents, but, hospital and government for children. The preferred media on food additives were TV and the internet for parents, and school newsletter and TV for children. Overall, the above results demonstrated that the perceptions on food additives did not change much with parents during the last 6 years; however, children's perceptions began to show improvement with the increase of educational experience. Hence, the government needs to make efforts to increase the trust level of consumers by developing educational tools and providing educational experiences including mass media for the promotion of risk communication on food additives.

MODELLING STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF CHEMICAL ADDITIVES ON SOOT PRECURSORS REDUCTION

  • Park, J.K.
    • International Journal of Automotive Technology
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    • v.7 no.4
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    • pp.501-508
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    • 2006
  • The effect of chemical additives, such as dimethyl ether(DME), ethanol, carbon disulfide on the soot formation were examined numerically. ill this study, the Frenklach soot mechanism was used as a base mechanism to predict the soot formation in the ethane flame. The combination of Westbrook's DME mechanism, Marinov's ethanol mechanism, and chemical kinetic mechanism for hydrogen sulfide and carbon disulfide flames was made with the base mechanism because the DME, ethanol, $CS_2$ additives are added into the ethane fuel. CHEMKIN code was used as a numerical analysis software to simulate the effect of chemical additives on reduction of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons(PAH's) which are soot precursors. From the numerical results it is observed that addition of DME, ethanol and $CS_2$ into ethane fuel can reduce PAH species significantly. That means theses additives can reduce soot formation significantly. Results also strongly suggest suppression of soot formation by these additives to be mainly a chemical effect. Hand OH radicals may be the key species to the reduction of PAH species for additives.