• Title, Summary, Keyword: Active Immunization

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Active and Passive Protective Effect of CFC-101 (Pseudomonas Vaccine) in Mice (CFC-101(녹농균 백신)의 능동 및 수동면역 효과)

  • 박완제;조양제;김영지;김제학;박관하;김유삼;함경수
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.2 no.4
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    • pp.326-330
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    • 1994
  • The treatment of pseudomonal infection is a perplexed problem because of its modest susceptibility to most of the major antibiotics. A novel Pseudomonas vaccine(CFC-101) was prepared from the outer membrane protein fractions of several Pseudomonas strains. In this study, we examined CFC-101's effectiveness in both active and passive immunization models. CFC-101 in mice at 0.2 mg/kg, i.p., given three times at two-day intervals, completely prevented the death caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Antibody titer, in accordance with the protective effect in this active immunization, was elevated to its peak level following three consecutive administrations of CFC-101. Thereafter, antibody titer stayed at a constantly high level. Each outer membrane protein fraction from the four CFC-101 producers, exhibited good cross-protective effects in mouse infection models against different Fisher types of P. aeruginosa. In the passive immunization model, 21~336 $\mu\textrm{g}$/kg of anti-rabbit IgG to CFC-101, when mice being infected with a challenge strain, prevented the Pseudomonhas-induced death up to 60%. Therefore, the preventive effect of CFC-101 was verified in both the active and passive immunization models.

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The effect of active immunization with Acanthamoebn culbeksoni in mice born to immune mother (수동면역이 Acanthmoeba culbertsoni 능동면역 형성에 미치는 영향)

  • 공현호;서성아
    • The Korean Journal of Parasitology
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    • v.31 no.2
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    • pp.157-164
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    • 1993
  • Acanthamoebn culbertsoni is a pathogenic free-living amoeba causing primary amoebic meningoencephalltls (PAME) in human and mouse. Several reports on the immune responses in mice with this amoebic infection have been published, but the effects of transferred passive Immunity on the active immunization In offspring mice have not been demonstrated. This experiment was done to observe the effect of active Acanthamoebn culbertsoni was cultured in the CGV medium axenlcally. Female BALB/c mice weighing about 20g were immunized through the intraperitoneal injection of Acanthamoeba cuLbensoni trophozoites 1 × 106 each three times at the interval of one week. Offspring mice were immunized two times. The mice were inoculated Intranasally with 1 × 104 trophozoites under secobarbital anesthesia. There was a statistical difference in mortality between the transferred immunity group and the active immunization group. Statistical differences were not demonstrated in antibody titer between both groups. But L3T4+ T ce11/Ly2+T cell ratio was increased in the transferred Immunity group more than active immunization group of the offspring mice at the age of 5 weeks. There was no differences statistically in mortality between both groups. It was recognized that active immunization in offspring mice born to immune mother could modulate the immune status according to the time of Immunization.

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Active Immunization Study of Colon Cancer Derived 1-8D Peptide in HHD Mice

  • Jung, Hun-Soon;Ahn, In-Sook;Do, Hyung-Ki;Lemonnier, Francois A.;Song, Kuk-Hyun;Do, Myoung-Sool
    • IMMUNE NETWORK
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    • v.5 no.3
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    • pp.157-162
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    • 2005
  • Background: 1-8D gene is a member of human 1-8 interferon inducible gene family and was shown to be overexpressed in fresh colon cancer tissues. Three peptides 1-6, 3-5 and 3-7 derived from human 1-8D gene were shown to have immunogenicity against colon cancer. Methods: To study tumor immunotherapy, of three peptides we established an active immunization model using HHD mice. $D^{b-/-}{\times}{\beta}2$ microglobulin $({\beta}2m)$ null mice transgenic for a chimeric HLA-$A2.1/D^{b-}\;{\beta}2m$ single chain (HHD mice) were challenged with B16/HHD/1-8D tumor cells and were immunized with irradiated peptide-loaded RMA- S/HHD/B7.1 transfectants. In therapy model tumor growth was retarded in HHD mice that were injected with 3-5 peptide-loaded RMA-S/HHD/B7.1. In survival test vaccination with 1-8D-derived peptide protects HHD mice from tumor progression after tumor challenge. Results: These studies show that peptide 3-5 derived from 1-8D gene can be the most effective candidate for the vaccine of immunotherapy against colon cancer and highlight 1-8D gene as putative colon carcinoma associated antigens. Conclusion: We demonstrated that RMA-S/HHD/ B7.1 loaded with 1-8D peptides, especially 3-5, immunization generates potent antitumor immunity against tumor cells in HHD mice and designed active immunization as proper immunotherapeutic protocols.

Effects of Active and Passive Distraction Intervention on Pain Responses of Preschool Children during Immunization (능동적 및 수동적 관심전환 중재가 예방접종 시 학령전기 아동의 통증반응에 미치는 효과)

  • Im, Eun-Seon;Kim, Jin-Sun
    • The Journal of the Korea Contents Association
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    • v.16 no.12
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    • pp.102-112
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    • 2016
  • The purposes of this study were to identify the effects of distraction strategies compared to usual pain management, and to compare the effects of passive and active distraction on pain responses of preschool children during immunization. A quasi experimental with non-equivalent control group posttest design was used. Participants for each group were 30 preschool children who visited a pediatric clinic to have influenza immunization. Children in experimental groups selected one of two distraction types. Pain responses were measured by children, parents, and researcher. Pain responses by children, parents, and researcher during immunization were significantly different between groups. Children in passive or active distraction group were more distracted than children in control group. Moreover, self-reported pain response by children($2.70{\pm}0.88$) and researcher($12.97{\pm}2.39$) in active group were higher than pain scores by children($2.27{\pm}0.64$) and researcher($10.63{\pm}1.65$) in passive group. Results of this study identified that distraction intervention is an effective method for decreasing pain responses in preschool children during immunization. Passive distraction is more effective than active distraction. Use of distraction strategies during immunization should be facilitated. Further research comparing distraction strategies by types and forms is needed.

AN INVESTIGATION OF IMMUNIZATION AGAINST SOMATOSTATIN BY MEASURING ANTIBODY TITRES, SOMATOSTATIN AND SOMATOTROPIN PROFILES IN GILTS

  • Du, Z.L.;Hacker, R.R.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.211-218
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    • 1993
  • The effect of active immunization against porcine somatostatin (SRIF-14) on somatostation and somatotropin secretion profile in 18 gilts was investigated. Gilts were assigned to the following treatments: control (sham injection, n = 6); bovine serum albumin (BSA) (injection of BSA with bacterial protein adjuvant, n = 6); SRIF (injection of BSA-SRIF-14 conjugate with bacterial protein adjuvant n = 6). Serum SRIF and pST were assayed from the blood samples taken on day 7 after the last immunization injection. Anti-SRIF antibody titres were assayed in weekly samples two weeks after the initial immunization to one week after the last immunization. Results revealed that the immunization protocol used in the present investigation failed to produce antibodies capable of neutralizing endogenous somatostatin. In addition, the porcine somatotropin assay revealed no significant differences in baseline pST concentration, mean peak amplitude and number of peaks during a 24 h secretory period among SRIF, BSA and control treatment. There were also no differences in SRIF baseline concentration, peak amplitude, and number of peaks during a 24 h secretory period among any of the three treatments. Circulating concentrations of pST and pSRIF were highly correlated (r = -0.09). Furthermore, anti-SRIF antibody titre was not detected in the serum of the gilts actively immunized against SRIF. These data, collectively, suggest that the protocol employed in the present investigation for active immunization against SRIF is not an effective method for changing SRIF and pST secretion profiles of the gilt and thus to enhance performance.

Effects of Active Immunization against Somatostatin or its Analogues on Milk Protein Synthesis of Rat Mammary Gland Cells

  • Kim, J.Y.;Cho, K.K.;Chung, M.I.;Kim, J.D.;Woo, J.H.;Yun, C.H.;Choi, Y.J.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.570-575
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    • 2002
  • Effects of active immunization against native 14-mer somatostatin (SRIF, somatotropin releasing inhibiting factor) and its two 14-mer-somatostatin analogues on the milk production in rat mammary cells were studied. Native SRIF, Tyr11-somatostatin (Tyr11-SRIF), and D-Trp8, D-Cys14-somatostatin (Trp8Cys14-SRIF) were conjugated to bovine serum albumin (BSA) for immunogen preparation. Twenty-four female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups and immunized against saline (Control), SRIF, Tyr11-SRIF, and Trp8Cys14-SRIF at five weeks of age. Booster immunizations were performed at 7, 9, and 11 weeks of age. SRIFimmunized rats were mated at 10 weeks of age. The blood and mammary glands were collected at day 15 post-pregnancy and -lactation. To measure the amount of milk protein synthesis in the mammary gland, mammary cells isolated from the pregnant and the lactating rats, were cultured in the presence of $^3H$-lysine. No significant differences in growth performance, concentration of growth hormone in the circulation, and the amount of milk protein synthesis were observed among the groups. Inductive levels of serum anti-SRIF antibody in the SRIF and Tyr11-SRIF groups but not in the Trp8Cys14-SRIF group, were significantly higher than that of the control group during the pregnancy and lactation periods. The result suggests that active immunization against native 14-mer SRIF and Tyr11-SRIF was able to induce anti-SRIF antibodies, but did not affect the milk protein synthesis.

Reproductive fecundity of Iraqi Awassi ewes immunized against synthetic inhibin-α subunit or steroid-free bovine follicular fluid

  • Al-Sa'aidi, Jabbar Abbas Ahmed;Khudair, Khalisa Khadim;Khafaji, Sura Safi
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.31 no.8
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    • pp.1169-1175
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    • 2018
  • Objective: The present study was conducted to investigate the impacts of active and passive immunization against synthetic inhibin and steroid-free bovine follicular fluid, respectively, on reproductive fecundity out of breeding season in Iraqi Awassi ewes. Methods: Follicular fluid was aspired from mature bovine follicles, treated with activated charcoal, and used for immunization of male rabbits for obtaining steroid free bovine follicular fluid (SFBFF) antiserum. Forty non-pregnant Awassi ewes were allocated into 4 groups (n = 10 each). At day 38 of experiment, ewes were treated with intra-vaginal MPA sponge (60 mg for 12 days). At days 0, 28, and 50, ewes were treated with 4, 2, and 2 mL of normal saline (control; C-ve), 400, 200, and $200{\mu}g$ of ovalbumin (C+ve), 400, 200 and $200{\mu}g$ of inhibin (SI group), respectively, and 4 mL of normal saline at day 0, and 4 and 2 mL of SFBFF antiserum at days 28 and 50, respectively, (AI group). After mating with Awassi rams, pregnancy and embryo number were diagnosed, at day 38 of pregnancy, using ultrasonography. Blood samples were collected at days 30, 60, 90, and 120 of pregnancy, for assessment of estradiol-$17{\beta}$ (E2) and progesterone (P4) levels. After parturition, numbers of delivered lambs were recorded. Results: The results revealed significant increase of P4 and significant decrease of E2 levels in SI and AI pregnant ewes than controls at days 30, 60, 90, and 120. Newborn number increased significantly in SI and AI treated than control ewes. Conclusion: Active or passive immunization against endogenous inhibin could augment reproductive fecundity out of breeding season in Iraqi Awassi ewes.

AN INVESTIGATION OF IMMUNIZATION AGAINST SOMATOSTATIN BY MEASURING GROWTH AND CARCASS PARAMETERS IN GILTS

  • Du, Z.L.;Hacker, R.R.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.5 no.4
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    • pp.665-671
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    • 1992
  • To investigate the effects of immunization against somatostatin (SRIF) on growth rate, feed efficiency and carcass quality; forth-eight Yorkshire gilts ($age=37.5{\pm}4.3d,\;wt=8.2{\pm}1.6kg$) were randomly assigned to one of the following three treatments (1) control, (2) bovine serum albumin (BSA) and (3) SRIF. Cyclic SRIF was conjugated to BSA as the antigen containing 1 mg of SRIF diluted in 3 ml of saline. The conjugate was injected subsutaneously together with bacterial cell protein (BP) adjuvant on both sides of the neck of each gilt as the initial injection with three subsequent booster injections. Throughout the experiment all pigs were fed ad libitum a corn-soy diet containing 20% protein. Body weight and feed intake were measured on a weekly basis. All pigs in the experiment were slaughtered when they approached 101 kg body weight on the weekly weigh day. After slaughter, carcass parameters were analyzed to assess carcass quality. Results revealed that there were no differences among SRIF, BSA and control treatments for average daily gain, feed efficiency and feed intake during the first 5 wk of the experiment and from 6 wk to slaughter. The results for carcass analysis indicated that active immunization against SRIF had no effect on fat content, lean yield, water content and Canadian carcass index These data, collectively, suggest that the protocol employed in the present investigation for active immunization against SRIF is not an effective method for the enhancement of pig growth and improvement of feed efficiency and carcass quality.

The Effects of Somatotropin Passive Immunization on Milk Yield, Plasma Hormone and Metabolite Concentrations in Rats

  • Sun, S.S.;Jang, K.;Kuk, K.;Myung, K.H.;Choi, Y.J.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.10 no.3
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    • pp.324-328
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    • 1997
  • The objectives of this study were to measure growth rate and endocrine changes and to improve milk production by somatostatin passive immunization in rat. Experimental animals were 10 weeks old 20 Sprague-Dawley rats. The rats were randomly assigned each 10 in control (normal sheep serum injected: NSS) and treatment (anti-somatostatin injected), and pre-fed for 2 weeks. Anti-somatostatin was purified from serum of 1 year old sheep after somatostatin active immunization, and was injected daily to rats, and growth rate and milk yield were measured for 14 days. Growth rate of litters was 2.15 g/d and 2.32 g/d in NSS and anti-somatostatin injected, respectively. Milk production was increased 6.2% in day 8 and 6.5% in day 12 by anti-somatostatin injection. Plasma growth hormone, insulin, glucose, and urea-N were increased, but non-esterified fatty acid was decreased by anti-somatostatin injection. In summary, passive immunization of somatostatin improved growth rate of litters and milk production in rats.

Assessment of the Knowledge and Attitude of Female Students towards Cervical Cancer Prevention at an International University in Japan

  • Ghotbi, Nader;Anai, Akane
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.897-900
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    • 2012
  • Cervical cancer resulting from prior infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) is a significant public health threat against young Japanese women. A national immunization plan to vaccinate 13~16 year old female students against HPV infection has been started in Japan since 2010, and may reach almost full coverage by the end of 2012. Older age females who may already be sexually active are not targeted by this plan but should follow safer sex practices as well as periodic screening of the cervix cytology to reduce their risk of developing cervical cancer. HPV vaccination alone does not offer full protection either, because only some HPV types are covered by the vaccines and the long-term efficacy of the vaccines has not been determined yet. Therefore, we did a survey at an international university in Japan to study the knowledge and attitude of female college students towards prevention of cervical cancer, to examine the age when they start sexual activity and other related attributes that may influence the risk of cervical cancer. We discuss the results of our survey and what they imply for the possible impact of an HPV immunization plan on the risk of cervical cancer in Japan, and conclude by an emphasis on the need to increase awareness among Japanese female adolescents and to enhance the cervical screening rates among older females who are already sexually active.