• Title, Summary, Keyword: Acrylamide

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Analysis of Acrylamide in Mainstream Cigarette Smoke and Effects of Total Nitrogen and Reducing Sugars on Acrylamide Content

  • Kim, Ick-Joong;Lee, John-Tae;Min, Hye-Jeong;Kim, Hyo-Keun;Hwang, Keun-Joong
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Tobacco Science
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.140-145
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    • 2007
  • Acrylamide has been found in many foods. Acrylamide in foodstuffs were analyzed by a GC/MS after bromination of acrylamide or by a LC/MS for underivatized acylamide. Time consuming and laborious clean up procedures is applied for the purification of the extract, in these methods. In this study, a simple and fast method without clean up step for the analysis of acrylamide in mainstream cigarette smoke was developed by using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) and the effects of tobacco leaf constituents on acrylamide content was observed. The analysis of acrylamide in mainstream cigarette smoke started to collect TPM (total particulate matter) from smoking and to extract by 0.1 % acetic acid solution and then to detect by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry using electrospray in the positive mode. The recovery of acrylamide in 2R4F reference cigarette was 98 % and the reproducibility was 2.5 % and the limit of detection was 1.6 ng/mL. Reducing sugars and amino acids are considered to be main precursors of acrylamide in foodstuffs. Cut tobacco contain substantial amounts of reducing sugars and amino acid which may be explained the occurrence of acrylamide in mainstream cigarette smoke. The effects of reducing sugars and total nitrogen studied in an experiment with a various tobacco types. This result indicated that reducing sugars are not limiting factor for acrylamide formation, but the level of acrylamide in cigarette smoke was significantly correlated with the total nitrogen contents.

Evaluation of Nonanchored Inter Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) Marker to Detect DNA Damage in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Exposed to Acrylamide

  • Enan, Mohamed R.
    • Journal of Forest and Environmental Science
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.61-68
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    • 2008
  • Acrylamide is present as a contaminant in heated food products, predominantly from the precursor asparagine. Nonanchored inter simple sequence repeats (ISSRs) are arbitrary multiloci markers produced by PCR amplification with a microsatellite primer. In order to assess the feasibility of microsatellite primers as markers for DNA damage, the study was conducted on common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) exposed to different concentrations of acrylamide. Polymorphisms were abundant among plant samples treated with acrylamide in comparison to control (untreated one) tested with 4- tri-nucleotide, 2 tetra-nucleotide, and 3- dinucelotide primers. The primer (CCG)4 was the best tested primer to generate polymorphism between the DNA of plants treated or not by acrylamide. Polymorphisms became evident as the presence and absence of DNA fragments in treated samples compared with the untreated one. The highest number of DNA variation on ISSR patterns was observed at the micromollar concentrations of acrylamide. Acrylamide was able to induce DNA damage in non concentration-dependent manner with effectiveness at micromollar concentrations. This study demonstrated that ISSR markers can be highly reliable for identification of DNA damage induced by acrylamide.

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Production of Acrylamide Using Immobilized Cells of Rhodococcus rhodochrous M33

  • Kim, Bu-Youn;Hyun, Hyung-Hwan
    • Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering:BBE
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    • v.7 no.4
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    • pp.194-200
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    • 2002
  • The cells of Rhodococcus rhodochrous M33, which produce a nitrile hydratase enzyme, were immobilized in acrylamide-based polymer gels. The optimum pH and temperature for the activity of nitrile hydratase in both the free and Immobilized cells were 7.4 and 45$\^{C}$, respectively, yet the optimum temperature for acrylamide production by the immobilized cells was 20$\^{C}$. The nitrile hydratase of the immobilized cells was more stable with acrylamide than that of the free cells. Under optimal conditions, the final acrylamide concentration reached about 400 g/L with a conversion yield of almost 100% after 8 h of reaction when using 150 g/L of immobilized cells corresponding to a 1.91 g-dry cell weight/L. The enzyme activity of the immobilized cells rapidly de-creased with repeated use. However, the quality of the acrylamide produced by the immobilized cells was much better than that produced by the free cells in terms of color, salt content, turbidity, and foam formation. The quality of the aqueous acrylamide solution obtained was found to be of commercial use without further purification.

Effect of Several Physicochemical Factors on the Biodegradation of Acrylamide by Pseudomonas sp. JK-7 Isolated from Paddy Soil (논 토양에서 분리한 Pseudomonas sp. JK-7에 의한 Acrylamide의 생분해에 영향을 미치는 물리화학적 요인)

  • 천재우;호은미;오계헌
    • Korean Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.40 no.1
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    • pp.29-36
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    • 2004
  • The purpose of this work was to investigate the relationships between acrylamide degradation by Pseudomonas sp. JK-7 and several relevant physicochemical environment parameters. In initial experiments, the bacterial culture, strain JK-7 isolated from paddy soil sample was developed to grow aerobically with acrylamide as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen. The bacterium was identified as genus Pseudomonas in the basis of use BIOLOG test, and designated as Pseudomunas sp. JK-7. Strain JK-7 could degrade 50 mM acrylamide completely within 72 hours of incubation. Major intermediates resulting from acrylamide degradation were not detected with the HPLC methodology except acrylic acid which appeared to accumulate transiently in the growth medium. The pH increased from 7.0 to 8.7 with complete degradation of the initial 50 mM acrylamide within 72 hours of incubation. pH control in the range of 5 to 9 influenced the growth of JK-7 and acrylamide degradation, whereas it was not examined the growth and degradation at pH 3 or pH 11, respectively. The effect of supplemented carbons (e.g., glucose, fructose, citrate, succinate) on the acrylamide degradation by the test culture of JK-7 was evaluated. The results indicated that the addition of carbons accelerated the bacterial growth and acrylamide degradation compared to those in the absence of supplemented carbons. The effect of supplemented nitrogens on the degradation was monitored. Increasing concentrations of yeast extract resulted in higher growth yield, based on the turbidity measurement, and complete degradation of acrylamide. However, acrylamide degradation was essentially uninfluenced by the addition of $(NH_{4})_{2}SO_{4}$, $NH_4Cl$ or urea. Addition of $AgNO_3$, $CuSO_4$ or $HgCl_2$ except $ZnSO_4$ in the test culture inhibited the degradation of acrylamide and growth of JK-7.

Quantitative Analysis and Qualification of Acrylamide Using LC/ESI-MS (LC/ESI-MS를 이용한 Acrylamide의 정성확인 및 정량분석)

  • Park Chan-Koo;Jo Sung-Ja;Chough Nam-Joon;Kim Min-Young;Sohn Jong-Ryeul;Moon Kyong-Whan
    • Journal of environmental and Sanitary engineering
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.25-33
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    • 2004
  • Acrylamide, difficult to analyze by GC and GC/MS due to the polarity and low volatility, was analyzed by LC/ESI/MS in the study. Acrylamide its(molecular weight 71amu) showed m/z=72 $(M+H)^+$ and high peak intensity at 22V in SIR mode. The mass spectrum ratios of acrylamide for qualitative identification had m/z=72 in precursor ion and m/z=55 in products ion, respectively. Those ratios at 30V in SIR mode ranged from 1: 1.4 to 1:1.17 despite various acrylamide concentrations. The ion intensity ratios of acrylamide $(m/z=72,\; [M+H]^+)$ to acrylamide isotopes $(m/z=73,\;[M+H]^+)$ ranged from 100 : 3.57 to 100 : 3.92. The results verified theoretical mass spectrum ratio that was 100:3.82. The linearity of standard calibration curve was y : 520.584x + 1815.26 with $r^2=0.99.$ In quality assurance and quality control, the recovery rate ranged from 81.64 percent to 90.97 percent and relative standard deviation was less than $10\%$ with 5 repeated injections at individual standard calibration solutions. The method was applied to analyze acrylamide in food at grocery stores. Snacks made of potatoes showed the highest acrylamide concentration followed by products made of French fries, wheat, and corn.

ACRYLAMIDE-INDUCED NEOPLASTIC TRANSFORMATION OF HUMAN EPITHELIAL CELLS IN CULTURE (Acrylamide가 인체상피세포의 발암화에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Sang-Kyu;Kim, Jin-Wook;Kim, Chin-Soo
    • Journal of the Korean Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons
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    • v.34 no.6
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    • pp.602-610
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    • 2008
  • Purpose Acrylamide is present in significant quantities in a wide range of commonly consumed human foods. Carcinogenic risk of acrylamide through the consumption of food is a great public concern and in controversy, but it is not properly addressed due to the lack of evidence in humans. While a plenty of data is available on the carcinogenicity in animal models, the studies in humans are limited. Thus, the present study attempted to examine the carcinogenic potentials of acrylamide on the human epithelial cell, which is the target cell origin of the most cancers. Material and method & Result 1. Acrylamide was not cytotoxic up to $100{\mu}M$ as measured by MTT and LDH assays, indicating a relatively low toxicity of this substance in human epithelial cells. 2. The parameters of neoplastic cellular transformation such as cell saturation density, soft-agar colony formation and cell aggregation were analyzed to examine the carcinogenic potential of acrylamide. 3. The neoplastic transformation was further increased with the co-treatment of TPA 4. Antioxidants blocked the generation of Reactive Oxygen Species(ROS) and the GSH depleting agent dramatically increased the ROS production. 5. mRNA levels of fibronectin following acrylamide exposure was increased in a dose-dependent manner, indicating a possible biomarker of acrylamide-induced cellular transformation. Conclusion The present study will provide a valuable basis to compare the interspecies differences in response to carcinogenic potentials of acrylamide. The data on the interspecies differences are essential element in human risk assessment. Thus, our results obtained from the human epithelial cells will contribute to improving the risk assessment of human neoplasm including oral cancer.

Effects of acrylamide in the presence of vitamin E on sperm parameters, chromatin quality, and testosterone levels in mice

  • Anvari, Morteza;Talebi, Ali Reza;Mangoli, Esmat;Shahedi, Abbas;Ghasemi, Mohammad Rasool;Pourentezari, Majid
    • Clinical and Experimental Reproductive Medicine
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    • v.47 no.2
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    • pp.101-107
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    • 2020
  • Objective: The present study investigated sperm chromatin quality and testosterone levels in acrylamide-treated mice and the possible protective effects of vitamin E on the fertility potential of spermatozoa. Methods: Thirty-two adult male mice were divided equally into four groups. Group 1 was the control, group 2 received acrylamide (10 mg/kg, water solution), group 3 received vitamin E (100 mg/kg, intraperitoneal), and group 4 received both acrylamide and vitamin E. After 35 days, spermatozoa from the right cauda epididymis were analyzed in terms of count, motility, morphology, and viability. Sperm DNA integrity and chromatin condensation were assessed by acridine orange (AO), aniline blue (AB), toluidine blue (TB), and chromomycin A3 (CMA3) staining. Results: In acrylamide-treated mice, significantly lower sperm concentration, viability, motility, and testosterone levels were found in comparison with the control and acrylamide+vitamin E groups (p< 0.05). In the vitamin E group, significantly more favorable sperm parameters and testosterone levels were found than in the other groups (p< 0.05). There were also significantly more spermatozoa with less condensed chromatin in the acrylamide-treated mice than in the other groups. Moreover, significantly more spermatozoa with mature nuclei (assessed by AB, CMA3, AO, and TB staining) were present in the vitamin E group than in the control and acrylamide+vitamin E groups. Conclusion: This study revealed the deleterious effects of acrylamide on sperm parameters and sperm chromatin quality. Vitamin E can not only compensate for the toxic effects of acrylamide, but also improve sperm chromatin quality in mice.

The Detection of Acrylamide Toxin In Potato Noodles (감자라면에서의 발암물질 검사법)

  • 천병수;유종수;이승호;안희석
    • KSBB Journal
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.62-64
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    • 2003
  • Acrylamide is known to cause cancer in laboratory animals and so these findings on relevant to human health. Acrylamide was not found in any raw or boiled food investigated. There have been no previous reports of acrylamide in foods at these levels. The food safety implications of acrylamide toxins has been widely reported in potato noodles. It is envisioned that this method may be used for future acrylamide toxin monitoring in the food environment.

Determination and Generation Factor of Acrylamide Content in the French Fries and Snacks by HPLC/MS/MS (HPLC/MS/MS를 이용한 French Fries와 스낵류에서의 Acrylamide 함량 분석 및 생성요인)

  • Park Geon-Yong;Lee Sung-Deuk;Chang Min-Su;Choi Young-Hee;Kim Eun-Hee;Han Sang-Un;Chough Nam-Joon
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.47-51
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    • 2006
  • The formed acrylamide in many fried and baked starchy foods is in consequence of its formation during frying and preparation methods. Being acrylamide established to be a toxic substance, the implications to public health from amounts found in food are not clear. So this study was carried out to investigate the contents of acrylamide of French fries and snacks in addition to acrylamide formation in relation to water and lipid in foods. The raw materials of foods used in the experiments were wheat, potato, com and rice. The preparation of foods was modified in a little to raise the recovery ratio and contents of water and lipid were analyzed to the public food method. The contents of acrylamide were measured by the liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The average level of acrylamide produced in snacks is $236{\pm}322$ ppb and potato snacks came out the highest value at $521{\pm}403$ ppb in 104 snacks. The formation of acrylamide in fried food was found to depends on the composition of raw material not on water and lipid contents in food and not on storage period and temperature.

The Effect of Acrylamide on the Ultrastructures of Nervous System of the Mouse (생쥐 신경계의 미세구조에 미치는 Acrylamide의 영향)

  • 김동수;하재청
    • The Korean Journal of Zoology
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    • v.33 no.4
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    • pp.454-460
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    • 1990
  • The effed of acrylamide on the nervous system has heen morphologically studied using light and electron microscopes. The light micrographs on central and pedpheral nervous tissues of mouse treated with acrylamide monomer showed total vacuolation of spinal cord, cell degradation containing neuron and neuroglia, and distal nerve fiber degeneration. The electron micrographs showed ultrastrudural changes. Abnormal mitochondria in neuron, splitting of myelin sheath in lumbar ventral root nerve, partial disintergration of myelin sheath and axoplasmic degeneration in sciatic nerve, and overafl polyneuropathies in nervous system were observed. These results suggest that acrylarnide intoxicated mouse shows distal behavioral neuropathy as an earlist clinical sign, but the initial effect of acrylamide on the nervous system seems to appear at nearly the same time in both central and peripheral nervous systems.

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