• Title, Summary, Keyword: Acrosome

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Acrosome Morphogenesis in Gerris paludum (Heteroptera) (소금쟁이의 尖體形成)

  • Lee, Young-Hwan;Lee, Chang-Eon
    • The Korean Journal of Zoology
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.65-75
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    • 1981
  • The formation of the acrosome during spermatogenesis in Gerris paludum was studied. The Golgi bodies are dispersed randomly in the cytoplasm at the early stage of the spermatocyte and get together to form several group of many bodies, and then they are equally divided into the spermatids by the meiotic divisions. The acroblast first appears in the form of a vesicle and soon an acrosomal granule is differentiated within it. The acroblast is separated from the acrosomal granule at the posterior of the nucleus and is finally sloughed off along the tail filament. The acrosome, after moving to the side of the nucleus opposite the mitochondrial derivatives, differentiates into two zones. The two basal bodies and the differentiated tip originate from the sheath. The basal bodies appear at the proximal part of the sheath simply in contact with the core on one side. During elongation and and narrowing of the acrosomes of the spermatids, they surround the one side at the base of the acrosome and finally all the other are immediately adjacent to the nucleus. The differentiated tip continues to the sheath at the anterior of the cores and is elongated prior to the two basal bodies. They appear to be contiguous twin-tubes, not a single granule in the later stage of the spermatids, and a group of the basal bodies in the sperm bundle.

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Spermiogenesis in the Saghalien Pygmy Shrew, Sorex minutus gracillimus (쇠뒤쥐 (Sorex minutus gracillimus)의 정자변태)

  • Heo, Jin-Chol;Lee, Jung-Hun
    • Applied Microscopy
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    • v.31 no.2
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    • pp.129-141
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    • 2001
  • To investigate the spermiogenesis of the Saghalien Pygmy shrew (Sorex minutus gracillimus), the testis obtained from mature male shrew was studied by electron microscopy, and the following results obtained based on the morphological characteristics of cell differentiation of the seminiferous epithelium in the testis. According to the fine structural differentiation, spermiogenesis of S. minutus gracillimks was divided into Golgi, cap, acrosome, maturation and spermiation phases. Beside, the Golgi and cap phases were subdivided into three steps of early, middle and late phase respectively, and acrosome phase into two steps of early and late phase , and maturation and spermiation phases has only one step respectively. Thus, the spermiogenesis of S. minutus gracillimus was divided into a total of ten steps. The chromatin granules begin to be condensed in the acrosome phase, and a perfect nucleus of sperm was formed at the spermiation phase. Mancette were appeared from the late acrosome phase to the maturation phase. The formation of sperm tail began to develop in the late Golgi phase, and completed at the spermiation phase. Multivesicular bodies were appeared from the Golgi phase to the maturation phase, recognized with pale, pale and moderate, and dense at Golgi, cap and acrosomal and matulation phases respectively.

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Ultrastrucure of Germ Cells during Spermatogenesis and Some Characteristics of Sperm Morphology in Male Mytilus coruscus (Bivalvia: Mytilidae) on the West Coast of Korea

  • Kim, Jin-Hee;Chung, Ee-Yung;Choi, Ki-Ho;Park, Kwan-Ha;Park, Sung-Woo
    • The Korean Journal of Malacology
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.33-43
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    • 2010
  • The ultrastructure of germ cells during spermatogenesis and some characteristics of sperm morphology in male Mytilus coruscus, which was collected on the coastal waters of Gyeokpo in western Korea, were investigated by transmission electron microscope observations. The morphology of the spermatozoon has a primitive type and is similar to those of other bivalves in that it contains a short midpiece with five mitochondria surrounding the centrioles. The morphologies of the sperm nucleus type and the acrosome shape of this species have an oval and modified cone shape, respectively. In particular, the axial rod is observed between the nucleus and acrosome of the sperm. The spermatozoon is approximately $45-50{\mu}m$ in length including a sperm nucleus (about $1.46{\mu}m$ in length), an acrosome (about $3.94{\mu}m$ in length) and tail flagellum (approximately $40-45{\mu}m$). The axoneme of the sperm tail flagellum consists of nine pairs of microtubules at the periphery and a pair at the center. The axoneme of the sperm tail shows a 9+2 structure. Some special charateristics of sperm morphology of this species in the genus Mytilus are (1) acrosomal morphology, (2) the number of mitochondria in the midpiece of the sperm, and (3) the existence of a satellite. The axial rod appears in the acrosome and sperm nucleus as one of the characteristics seen in several species of the subclass Pteriomorphia, unlikely the subclass Heterodonta containing axial filament instead of the axial rod. The number of mitochondria in the midpiece of the sperm of this species in the family Mytilidae are five, as one of common characteristics appeared in most species in the family Mytilidae. Most of Mytilus species contain a satellite body which is attached to the proximal centriole in the middle piece of the sperm, as one of common characteristics of sperm morphology in the family Mytilidae.

Effects of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) on Sperm Function and Plasminogen Activator Activity in Porcine Spermatozoa

  • Sa, Soo-Jin;Park, Chun-Keun;Kim, In-Cheul;Lee, Seung-Hoon;Kwon, Oh-Sub;Kim, Myung-Jick;Cho, Kyu-Ho;Kim, Du-Wan;So, Kyoung-Min;Cheong, Hee-Tae
    • Reproductive and Developmental Biology
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    • v.34 no.3
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    • pp.185-191
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    • 2010
  • Plasminogen activators (PAs) are serine protease that cleave plasminogen to form the active protease plasmin and may participate in mammalian fertilization. Although correlations have been reported between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and sperm function, the relationship between PA activity and ROS is unknown. We determined the effects of ROS on sperm function and PA activities in boar spermatozoa preincubated under the X-XO system. When spermatozoa were treated with the X+XO group, a significant increase (p<0.05) was observed in the percentage of acrosome reacted spermatozoa compared with that of the control group. However, when antioxidants were added to the medium with X+XO, the rate of acrosome reaction tended to decrease. Also, a significantly lower percentage of acrosome reacted spermatozoa was observed in the X+XO+catalase group at 6 hr of incubation compared with that of X+XO group. The density of malondialdehyde (MDA) was higher in the X+XO group than in different treatment groups. In another experiment, incubation of spermatozoa in medium with X+XO was associated with a significant (p<0.05) increase in activity of tPA-PAI and tPA compared with the control group. Antioxidants decreased the increased activity of tPA-PAI and tPA by preincubation in the X-XO system. Also, a significantly lower (p<0.05) activities of tPA-PAI and tPA were observed in the X+XO+catalase group compared with the X+XO group. No significant differences, however, were observed in the activity of uPA. These results suggest that the increase of acrosome reaction by the X-XO system resulted in increase of PAs activity in the sperm incubation medium.

Capacitation-associated Changes in Protein-tyrosine-phosphorylation, Hyperactivation and Acrosome Reaction in Guinea Pig Sperm

  • Kong, Li-Juan;Shao, Bo;Wang, Gen-Lin;Dai, Ting-Ting;Xu, Lu;Huang, Jing-Yan
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.181-189
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    • 2008
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of $Ca^{2+}$, $HCO_3{^-}$ and BSA on the in vitro capacitation-associated protein tyrosine phosphorylation, hyperactivation and acrosome reaction in guinea pig sperm. Caudal epididymal sperm were incubated in four different groups: modified TALP (Tyrode's albumin lactate pyruvate) or TALP without one of the medium constituents ($Ca^{2+}$, $HCO_3{^-}$ and BSA). After incubation for the required time (0 h, 0.5 h, 1 h, 3 h, 5 h, and 7 h), sperm were removed for further experiment. The capacitation effect was assessed by CTC (Chlortetracycline) staining. Western blotting and indirect immunofluorescence were used to analyze the level and localization of tyrosine phosphorylation. The results showed that guinea pig sperm underwent a time-dependent increase in protein tyrosine phosphorylation during the in vitro capacitation and the percentage of protein tyrosine phosphorylated sperm increased from 36% to 92% from the beginning of incubation to 7 h incubation. Also, there was a shift in the site of phosphotyrosine-specific fluorescence from the head of sperm to both the head and the flagellum. Moreover, an absence of $Ca^{2+}$ or $HCO_3{^-}$ inhibited in vitro hyperactivation and acrosome reaction and decreased the phosphorylation of the proteins throughout the period of in vitro capacitation. However, an absence of BSA could not influence these processes if substituted by polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) in the medium.

Effect of Storage Times on the Kinematics and Capacitation Status in Liquid Boar Semen (보존 기간이 돼지 액상정액의 운동역학 및 수정능 획득에 미치는 영향)

  • Park, Yoo-Jin;Song, Won-Hee;Kim, Yeon-Hee;Mohamed, E.A.;Oh, Shin-Ae;Pang, Myung-Geol
    • Reproductive and Developmental Biology
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    • v.32 no.1
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    • pp.59-64
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    • 2008
  • The objective of this study was to estimate modification of semen quality during storage. Liquid boar semen samples extended in Beltsville Thawing Solution were stored at $17^{\circ}C$ up to 5 days. While % motility and linearity significantly decreased eon day 3 in extender, the qualitative motility patterns were maintained satisfactorily. Also the storage of boar semen up to 5 days before insemination did not significantly changed the acrosome intactness. However, acrosome changed sperm significantly increased and capacitated sperm significantly decreased from day 4. No significant modifications in acrosome integrity were showed during sperm storage; these results suggest that liquid boar semen may keep the quality in extender for 3 days.

Ultrastructure of the Abnormal Head of the Epididymal Spermatozoa in the Big White-Toothed Shrew, Crocidura lasiura (우수리땃쥐, Crocidura lasiura의 부정소 미부 정자의 비정상 두부 미세구조)

  • Jeong, Soon-Jeong;Yoo, Ji-Yun;Jeong, Moon-Jin
    • Applied Microscopy
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    • v.34 no.3
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    • pp.179-184
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    • 2004
  • Normal and abnormal morphology of the epididymal spermatozoa in the big white-toothed shrew, Crocidura lasiura were studied with the light and electron microscopy. Normal spematozoa were observed with a few abnormal spermatozoa. This indicates that abnormal morphology is no absolute indicator of infertility. However, the existence of the abnormal spermatozoa is related to infertility. Especially abnormal morphology of the sperm head is definitely associated with infertility. The following types of abnormal head morphology of the epididymal spermatozoa in the wild healthy adults of the C. lasiura were described: 1) Nucleus with lack of condensation of the nucleoplasm 2) Destructed acrosome 3) Folded acrosome and plasma membrane 4) Separation of the acrosome from the nucleus 5) Acrosome with irregular condensation 6) Wrongly located granules of the apical body.

Effect of Nicotinic Acid on Fresh Semen Characteristics in Miniature Pigs

  • Lee, Yeon-Ju;Lee, Sang-Hee;Lee, Eunsong;Lee, Seung Tae;Cheong, Hee-Tae;Yang, Boo-Keun;Lee, Seunghyung;Park, Choon-Keun
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.29 no.4
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    • pp.385-391
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    • 2014
  • Objective of this study was to investigate the effect of nicotinic acid (NA) on the characteristics in fresh semen of miniature pig. We evaluated viability, acrosome reaction and mitochondrial integrity of sperm on 0, 3, 7 and 10 days during storage period with nicotinic acid. As results, the survival rate of sperm in 15 mM NA (day 3, $87.8{\pm}1.2%$; day 5, $84.0{\pm}2.7%$; day 7, $82.2{\pm}0.9%$) and 30 mM NA (day 3, $87.7{\pm}0.3%$; day 5, $84.4{\pm}2.5%$; day 7, $82.3{\pm}0.7%$) groups were higher than control and 5 mM NA groups in 3, 7 and 10 days of semen storage. The NA-treated sperm on 10 day was used day for observing acrosome integrity. The survival sperm with acrosome reaction was higher in 30 mM NA group (day 3, $2.7{\pm}0.2%$; day 5, $3.3{\pm}0.6%$; day 7, $11.4{\pm}0.3%$) than in the control, significantly (P<0.05). Moreover, the live sperm with mitochondrial integrity was higher in whole treatment groups of NA than control group, significantly (P<0.05). Specially, most mitochondrial integrity on 10 day of semen storage was significantly higher in 30 mM NA group ($90.2{\pm}1.6%$) than other treatment groups (control, $81.8{\pm}3.1%$; 5 mM NA, $83.4{\pm}3.0%$; 15 mM NA, $89.1{\pm}0.7%$, P<0.05). In conclusion, supplement of NA in liquid semen of miniature pig can improve and maintain semen quality, such as viability, acrosome reaction, and mitochondria integrity.

Effects of Discontinuous Percoll Gradient Containing Alpha-linolenic Acid on Characteristics of Frozen-thawed Boar Spermatozoa

  • Kim, Doo-San;Hwangbo, Yong;Cheong, Hee-Tae;Park, Choon-Keun
    • Journal of Animal Reproduction and Biotechnology
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    • v.35 no.1
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    • pp.58-64
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    • 2020
  • This present study was conducted to investigate protective effect of discontinuous Percoll gradient containing alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) before freezing process on viability, acrosome damage, mitochondrial activity, and oxidative stress of frozen-thawed boar spermatozoa. The separation of spermatozoa by discontinuous Percoll gradient was performed by different concentration of Percoll solution (45/90%) containing ALA combined with bovine serum albumin (BSA), and collected sperm in each Percoll layer was cryopreserved. To evaluate viability, acrosome damage, mitochondrial activity, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) level of frozen-thawed sperm, flow cytometry was used. Morphological abnormalities were observed under light microscope. In results, viability of sperm from 90% Percoll layer was higher than control and 45% Percoll group (p < 0.05). Separated sperm in 90% Percoll layer had lower acrosome damage and morphological abnormalities than control as well as viability, whereas 45% Percoll group was higher (p < 0.05). Similar with acrosome damage and abnormalities, mitochondrial activity was slightly enhanced and the population of live sperm with high ROS level was decreased by 90% Percoll separation, however, there was no significant difference. Supplementation of 3 ng/mL ALA into Percoll solution increased sperm viability and decreased population of live sperm with high ROS compared to control (p < 0.05). In conclusion, discontinuous Percoll gradient before freezing process could improve efficiency of cryopreservation of boar sperm through selection of sperm with high freezing resistance, and supplement of ALA during Percoll gradient might contribute suppression of ROS generation via stabilizing of plasma membrane during cryopreservation.

Spermatozoan Ultrastructure of 4 Species in Mactridae (개량조개 과 4종의 정자미세구조)

  • Kim Jin Hee;Yoo Myong Suk
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.35 no.5
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    • pp.504-511
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    • 2002
  • Ultrastructure and sperm morphology were investigated Mactra venerifomis, Mactra chinensis, Spisula sacharinensis, Tresus keenae in Mactridae. All the sperm studied were primitive type. They consisted of three parts; the head, the middle piece and the tail part. The acrosome forms were similar among the 4 species. The acrosome was shaped like a modified hat. It was consisted of two different parts in electronic density; the anterior part, electric lucent part (elp), and the posterior part, electric dense part (edp). But nuclei forms were slightly different among the species. All the species studied had 4 mitocondria at middle piece. We guessed that the Mactridae sperm were family-specific with characterful acrosome shape.