• Title, Summary, Keyword: Acrosome

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Effect of Fertilization Promoting Peptide on Kinematic Parameters, Capacitation and Acrosome Reaction in Human Spermatozoa (Fertilization Promoting Peptide가 사람 정자의 운동양태, 수정능력획득 및 첨체반응에 미치는 영향)

  • Kang, Hee-Gyoo;Kim, Myo-Kyung;Kim, Dong-Hoon;Han, Sung-Won;Choi, Do-Hyun;Lee, Ho-Joon;Kim, Moon-Kyoo
    • Clinical and Experimental Reproductive Medicine
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.201-209
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    • 2000
  • Objective: This study has been carried out to evaluation the effect of fertilization promoting peptide (FPP) on the kinematic parameters, capacitation and acrosome reaction of the frozen-thawed human spermatozoa. Methods: After FPP treatment, we examined kinematic parameters, capacitation and acrosome reaction, using the methods of computer-aided sperm analysis (CASA) and chlortetracycline (CTC) fluorescence analysis. Results: We have obtained the evidence that FPP can promote the capacitation and inhibit the spontaneous acrosome reaction of frozen-thawed human spermatozoa in vitro. FPP ($25{\sim}100$ nM) induced a significant increase in the proportion of B-pattem capacitated spermatozoa, and a significant decrease in the proportion of F-pattem uncapacitated ones without significant stimulation of acrosomal exocytosis. In the kinematic parameters treatment, FPP treated groups maint3ined higher LIN, BCF and STR than those of control. The VAP, VSL, VCL and ALH were not different. Therefore it is suggested that FPP in human seminal plasma may play a positive role in promoting human sperm function.

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The effect of calcium ion concentrations in the medium and the treatment of caffeine and Ca-ionophore A23187 on in vitro capacitation of bull spermatozoa (배양액중의 calcium 이온 농도 및 caffeine과 Ca-ionophore A23187 처리가 소정자의 수정능획득에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Kye-Seung;Jo, Choong-Ho;Hwang, Woo-Seok
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.123-130
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    • 1991
  • The present study was performed to investigate the effect of Ca ion concentration on sperm viability and acrosome reaction rate and to evaluate the effect of treatments using caffeine and Ca-ionophore A23187 on acrosome reaction rate in frozen-thawed bull spermatozoa. Viabilities of in vitro capacitated bull spermatozoa at 0, 2.25 and 4.5 mM Ca ion concenrations were 21.00, 26.00 and 22.59%, respectively and significantly higher in Ca ion 2.25mM added group than Ca ion free group (p<0.05) and acrosome reaction rates of in vitro capacitated bull spermatozoa were 17.09, 52.15 and 47.92%, respectively and significantly high in Ca ion added groups(p<0.05). Viabilities in vitro capacitation by caffeine and Ca-ionophore A23187 in control, caffeine treated group, Ca-ionophore A23187 treated group and caffeine+Ca-ionophore A23187 treated group were 37.91, 27.67, 22.33 and 25.59%, respectively and significantly higher in control than treated groups(p<0.05), there were no significant differences among the treated groups, and acrosome reaction rates were 10.33, 37.92, 48.09 and 57.17%, respectively and there were significant differences among the groups(p<0.05), especially higher in caffeine+Ca-ionophore A23187 treated group than others.

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Effects of bovine antisperm antibodies on fertilizing capacity of bovine spermatozoa (소 항정자항체가 소 정자의 수태능력에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Kye-seong;Roh, Sang-ho;Lee, Kang-nam;Lee, Byeong-chun;Hwang, Woo-suk
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.37 no.4
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    • pp.925-934
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    • 1997
  • This study was directed at inducing the production of antibodies by immunizing heifers with bovine sperm antigen and on measuring the serum antibodies using indirect immunofluorescence assay(IFA) and agglutination test. The effect of antisperm antibodies on fertilizing capacity of bovine spermatozoa was evaluated. 1. Three heifers between 12- and 15- month old were immunized with bovine spermatozoa or phosphate-buffered saline. In heifers immunized with bovine spermatozoa serum IgG level was highest between 3 weeks and 5 weeks postimmunization detected by IFA. The antibody levels persisted through week 7 and slowly declined until week 20 and then antisperm antibodies were localized on spermatozoa. The fluorescent antisperm antibodies were detected at 2~20 weeks and at 6~9 weeks postinoculation on acrosome and tail, respectively. Among 21 sera from repeat breeder cows, only one cow has shown positive antisperm antibody response detected by IFA. 2. In spite of vital rate of bovine sperm after swim-up was not significantly affected by different concentration of antisperm antibodies in sera, the numbers of bovine sperm after swim-up were significantly reduced in proportion to the increased concentration of antibodies. Above 1/512 dilution of antibody neither influence on vital rate and numbers of bovine sperm nor sperm agglutination after swim-up. The study has also shown that the vital rate and number of sperm after swim-up and capacitation were also significantly reduced by the addition of antisperm antibodies. Although antisperm antibodies did not influence on the acrosome reaction rate of sperm during swim-up, did significantly reduce the sperm acrosome reaction rate after capacitation. The studies have resulted that the bovine antisperm antibodies can prevent the sperm motility by agglutination and block the capacitation and acrosome reaction of bovine sperm.

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Effects of Storage in Different Commercial Semen Extenders on Sperm Motility, Viability and Membrane Integrity of Korean Native Boar Spermatozoa

  • Sa, Soo-Jin;Kim, In-Cheul;Choi, Sun-Ho;Hong, Joon-Ki;Kim, Du-Wan;Cho, Kyu-Ho;Kim, Young-Hwa;Chung, Ki-Hwa;Park, Jun-Cheol
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.28 no.4
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    • pp.349-353
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    • 2013
  • The objective of this study was to compare the effect of semen extenders on the sperm motility, viability, acrosome integrity and functional integrity of plasma membrane (HOST: hypo-osmotic swelling test) during liquid preservation of Korean Native boar semen. In this experiment, semen was diluted in Androhep plus, Beltsville Thawing Solution (BTS), ModenaTM, Seminark and Vitasem LD. Sperm-rich fractions were collected from three Korean Native boars and sub-samples were diluted ($30{\times}10^6$ spermatozoa/ml) in different semen extenders. Semen samples were stored at $17^{\circ}C$ for 96 hours. On everyday (0, 24, 48, 72, 96 h) after storage, the sperm characteristics relevant for fertility, such as sperm motility, viability, acrosome integrity and HOST positive were evaluated. The motility of spermatozoa stored in different extenders was no significantly different among other extenders (P>0.05). Also, no difference was observed among samples processed with different extenders in the percentage of sperm viability, acrosome integrity and HOST positive. All extenders maintained a high percentage (70%) of sperm motility, viability and acrosome integrity through 96 h of storage. The result of this study show that there was no significant differences among extenders in their capacity to preserve motility, viability and membrane integrity of spermatozoa from normal, fertile Korean Native boars for 96 h of liquid preservation at $17^{\circ}C$.

Effect of the Vasectomy on the Fine Structure of the Sperm-Acrosome in Rats (정관절제가 흰쥐의 정자두부의 미세구조에 미치는 영향)

  • Ryoo, Hee-Soo;Kim, Kee-Soo
    • Clinical and Experimental Reproductive Medicine
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.29-33
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    • 1981
  • Vesectomy has been increased as a popular method of birth control because it is simpler than other methods for men. But the vasectomy results in several problems such as relation to effect changes on the structure and function of the reproductive organ. The fate of non-ejaculated spermatozoa is postulated by some authors that those are disappeared by a progress of dissolution and reabsorption in the epididymis, and we have attempted to prove the true state of sperm-acrosome on the fine structure in vasectomized rats. The results were as follows: 1. Apical segments of the acrosome were swollen similar to the shape of club in many spermatozoa. 2. Discontinuities of the outer and inner acrosomal membranes were occasionally noted and there were complete losses of acrosomes in the certain place. 3. There was no evidence of significant changes in the nuclear structure, nor dilatation of the subacrosomal space. 4. Vasectomy might effect destructive changes in the acrosomes of the non-ejaculated spermatozoa in situ.

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Spermiogenesis and Taxonomic Value of Sperm Morphologies of Two Species in Veneridae (Bivalvia: Heterodonta)

  • Kim, Jin-Hee;Kim, Sung-Han
    • The Korean Journal of Malacology
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.149-157
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    • 2011
  • Some characteristics of the formations of acrosomal vesicles during the late stage of spermatids during spermiogenesis and taxonomical charateristics of sperm morphology in male two species (Saxidomus purpurata and Meretrix petechialis) in the family Veneridae were investigated by electron microscope observations. In two species, the morphologies of the spermatozoa have the primitive type and are similar to those of other bivalves in that it contains a short midpiece with five mitochondria surrounding the centrioles. The morphologies of the sperm nuclear types of S. purpurata and M. petechialis in Veneridae have the curved cylindrical and cylinderical type, respectively. And the acrosome shapes of two species are the same cap-shape type. In particular, the axial filament is not found in the lumen of the acrosome of two species, however, subacrosomal material are observed in the subacrosomal spaces between the anterior nuclear fossa and the acrosomal vesicle of two species. The spermatozoon of S. purpurata is approximately 46-$52{\mu}m$ in length, including a curved sperm nucleus (about $3.75{\mu}m$ in length), a long acrosome (about $0.40{\mu}m$ in length),and a tail flagellum (about 45-$47{\mu}m$ long). And the spermatozoon of M. petechialis is approximately 47-$50{\mu}m$ in length including a slightly curved sperm nucleus (about $1.50{\mu}m$ in length), an acrosome (about $0.56{\mu}m$ in length) and tail flagellum (44-$48{\mu}m$ in length). In two species, the axoneme of the sperm tail flagellum of each species consists of nine pairs of microtubules at the periphery and a pair of cental doublets at the center. Therefore, the axoneme of the sperm tail flagellum shows a 9 + 2 structure. In particular, taxonomically important some charateristics of sperm morphologies of two species in the family Veneridae are acrosomal morphology of the sperm, The axial filament is not found in the acrosome as seen in a few species of the family Veneridae in the subclass Heterodonta. The acrosomal vesicle is composed of right, left basal rings and the apex part of the acrosomal vesicle. In particular, right and left basal rings show electron opaque part (region), while the apex part of the acrosomal vesicle shows electron lucent part (region). These charateristics belong to the subclass Heterodonta, unlikely a characteristic of the subclass Pteriomorphia showing all part of the acrosome being composed of electron opaque part (region). Therefore, it is easy to distinguish the families or the subclasses by the acrosomal structures. The number of mitochondria in the midpiece of the sperm of S. purpurata and M. petechialis in Veneridae are five. However, the number of mitochondria in the midpiece of the sperm in most species of Veneridae in the subclass Heterodonta are four. Therefore, the number of mitochondria of the sperm midpiece of two species are exceptionally 5, and it is only exceptional case in the species in Veneridae in the subclass Heterodonta. Except these cases, the number of mitochondria in the sperm midpiece in all families in the subclass Heterodontaare are 4, and now widely used in taxonomic analyses.

Pig Spermatozoa Defect in Acrosome Formation Caused Poor Motion Parameters and Fertilization Failure through Artificial Insemination and In vitro Fertilization

  • Lee, Won Young;Lee, Ran;Kim, Hee Chan;Lee, Kyung Hoon;Cui, Xiang Shun;Kim, Nam Hyung;Kim, Sang Hyun;Lee, Il Joo;Uhm, Sang Jun;Yoon, Min Jung;Song, Hyuk
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.27 no.10
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    • pp.1417-1425
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    • 2014
  • The selection of morphologically normal spermatozoa is critical to obtain high breeding performances in boar breeding farms and artificial insemination (AI) centers. Parameters for the selection of semen mainly include total sperm motility, concentration, and morphology. However, these primary parameters are often not reliable for discriminating between normal and abnormal, non-fertilizable spermatozoa. The present study was designed to compare the motion characteristics, fertilization ability using in vitro fertilization (IVF), and acrosome formation of the semen from boars having low (boar number 2012) and normal (boar number 2004 and 2023) breeding performances. The ultimate goal was to identify additional simple and easy criteria for the selection of normal sperm. There was no significant difference between boar 2004 and boar 2023 sperm total motility in computer assisted sperm analysis. However, boar number 2012 semen presented a significantly reduced population of rapid moving spermatozoa and an increased population of slow moving spermatozoa compared to boar numbers 2004 and 2023. Analysis of detailed motion characteristics revealed that sperm from boar number 2012 had significantly reduced motility in progressiveness, average path velocity, straight-line velocity (VSL), curvilinear velocity (VCL), straightness, and linearity. The assessment of the fertilizing ability by IVF also showed that sperm from boar number 2012 showed a fertility rate of 3.4%, whereas sperm from boar number 2023 had a fertility rate of 75.45%. Interestingly, most of the sperm nuclei were found on the peripheral area of the oocytes, suggesting that the sperm from boar number 2012 lacked penetration ability into the oocyte zonapellucida. The acrosome formation analysis using Pisum sativum agglutinin staining demonstrated that the sperm from boar number 2012 had a defect in acrosome formation. Consequently, primary parameters for selecting semen before AI such as motility are not sufficient to select normal and fertilizable spermatozoa. In conclusion, the present study suggests that the acrosome staining and detailed motion characteristics such as progressiveness, VCL, and VSL should be included in determining semen quality together with primary parameters for successful AI and high breeding performance in the swine industry.

Vital and Acrosomal Staining of Bovine Spermatozoa (소 정자의 생존율 및 첨체반응 검사를 위한 간단한 염색법)

  • 김계성;이병천;황우석
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.103-108
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    • 2000
  • The object of this study was to find simple and effective methods for the speculation of vitality and scorsome status of bovine spermatozoa. The eosin-nigrosin staining, trypan blue staining, and naphthol yellow S-erythrosin B staining was ofter used for the speculation of vitality and/or acrosome status of bovine spermatozoa, respectively. This study has shown that the combined trypan blue-naphthol yellow S-erythrosin B staining is more accurate and effective for the examination of acrosome status and vitality of bovine spermatozoa.

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Role of Calcium and Calcium Channels in Progesterone Induced Acrosome Reaction in Caprine Spermatozoa

  • Somanath, P.R.;Gandhi, K.K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.15 no.7
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    • pp.949-956
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    • 2002
  • There are several physiological and pharmacological evidences indicating that opening of voltage dependent $Ca^{2+}$ channels play a critical role in induction of acrosome reaction in mammalian sperm. We determined the intracellular free $Ca^{2+}$ concentration in ejaculated goat sperm using a fluorescent, $Ca^{2+}$-specific probe, Fura2/AM, after the suspension of sperm in KRB medium, capable of sustaining capacitation and the acrosome reaction. We used nifedipine, D-600 and diltiazem, the $Ca^{2+}$ channel antagonists belonging to the classes of dihydropyridines, phenylalkylamines and benzothiazepines, to investigate the possibility that L-type voltage gated $Ca^{2+}$ channels play a role in the progesterone-stimulated exocytotic response. Progesterone promoted a rise in intracellular $Ca^{2+}$ in goat sperm and addition of nifedipine (100 nM) just prior to progesterone induction, significantly inhibited both intracellular $Ca^{2+}$ rise and exocytosis suggesting that $Ca^{2+}$ channels are involved in the process. However, the intracellular $Ca^{2+}$ increase during the process of capacitation was not affected with the addition of nifedipine suggesting a role of focal channel for $Ca^{2+}$ during capacitation. Studies using monensin and nigericin, two monovalent cation ionophores showed that an influx of $Na^+$ also may play a role in the opening of $Ca^{2+}$ channels. These results strongly suggests that the entry of $Ca^{2+}$ channels with characteristics similar to those of L-type, voltage-sensitive $Ca^{2+}$ channels found in cardiac and skeletal muscle, is a crucial step in the sequence of events leading to progesterone induced acrosome reaction in goat sperm.

Effect of Cholesterol-loaded-cyclodextrin in Presence and Absence of Egg Yolk during Freezing Step on Quality of Markhoz Buck's Spermatozoa

  • Farshad, A.;Amidi, F.;Khor, A. Koohi;Rashidi, A.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.181-189
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    • 2011
  • Cryopreservation protocols induce partially irreversible damage to mammalian sperm plasma membranes. Previous studies have indicated that adding cholesterol to the plasma membrane, as cholesterol-loaded-cyclodextrins, improves cryosurvival of sperm. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine if treating sperm of Markhoz bucks with cholesterol-loaded-cyclodextrins (CLC) (0, 0.75, 1.5, 2.25 and 3 mg/ml diluted $240{\times}10^6$ sperm/ml) in Tris-citric acid-glucose diluents with and without egg yolk (containing 5% glycerol) would improve the post-thaw sperm quality. The motion characteristics were evaluated with a Computer Assisted System Analyzer (CASA); acrosome integrity and vitality were measured with the triple-stain technique. Samples were recovered before and after freezing by means of putting straws into $37^{\circ}C$ water for 30 sec and then parameters were assessed. The results showed that the treatments significantly affected motility, progressive motility, recovery rate, curvilinear velocity, beat cross frequency, live sperm with reacted acrosome, live sperm with unreacted acrosome, dead sperm with reacted acrosorne, and dead sperm with unreacted acrosome during freezing (p<0.05). However; no significant differences were found for average path velocity, straight line velocity, amplitude of lateral head displacement, straightness and linearity (p>0.05). The best results were observed for extender containing 2.25 mg/ml ($240{\times}10^6$ sperm/ml) CLC supplemented with 2.6% egg yolk. In conclusion, the findings of this study indicate improved Markhoz sperm viability and motility following treatment in the presence of egg yolk.