• Title, Summary, Keyword: Acrosome

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The Cryoprotective Effect on Frozen-thawed Boar Semen of Egg Yolk Low Density Lipoproteins

  • Hu, Jian-hong;Li, Qing-Wang;Li, Gang;Chen, Xiao-Yu;Hai-Yang, Hai-Yang;Zhang, Shu-Shan;Wang, Li-Qiang
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.486-494
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    • 2006
  • In order to protect the spermatozoa against cold shock, hen egg yolk is widely used as a cryoprotective agent in semen freezing extenders for domestic animals. The protective action of yolk is largely presumed to be due to low density lipoproteins (LDL). The effects of LDL on sperm quality of bull and northern pike (Esox lucius) after freezing-thawing have been reported, but no study has been made to evaluate the effect of LDL on boar sperm motility and other characteristics. The experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of LDL on the freezing of boar sperm in 0.25 ml straws. The aim was to evaluate the quality of boar spermatozoa cryopreserved in the presence of LDL. Motility of semen cryopreserved in LDL was analyzed and compared to semen cryopreserved with Tris-citric acid-glucose (TCG) and Tris-citric acid-fructose (TCF), two basic freezing extenders containing egg yolk. Similarly, acrosome and plasma membrane integrity were also evaluated and compared to semen cryopreserved with TCG and TCF. Analysis of sperm quality after freeze-thaw showed that the motility, acrosome and plasma membrane integrity were improved with LDL in the extender, as compared to the TCG and TCF. The highest post-thaw integrity of acrosome and plasma membrane and motility were obtained with 9% LDL (w/v). Consequently, the optimum LDL concentration in the extender was 9%. It is also suggested that the concentration of LDL addition is important for the effect on boar sperm protection during freezing and thawing. The percentage of motile spermatozoa was significantly higher after freezing in 9% LDL than in TCG and TCF 54.4% versus 30.4% and 30.1% (p<0.05), respectively. The integrity of acrosome and plasma membrane were also significantly higher at 70.3% and 50.5% respectively with semen frozen in 9% LDL extender compared to TCG at 37.8% and 30.3% and TCF at 36.4% and 29.9%, respectively (p<0.05),. In conclusion, we propose that extender containing LDL extracted from hen egg yolk could be used as a cryoprotective media with a better efficiency than TCG and TCF. LDL improved boar semen quality, allowing better spermatozoa motility, acrosome and plasma membrane integrity after the freeze-thaw process. Furthermore, we found out that the extender with 9% LDL concentration significantly enhanced motility, acrosome and plasma membrane integrity of boar sperm after freezing and thawing.

Seminal Plasma Heparin Binding Proteins Improve Semen Quality by Reducing Oxidative Stress during Cryopreservation of Cattle Bull Semen

  • Patel, Maulikkumar;Gandotra, Vinod K.;Cheema, Ranjna S.;Bansal, Amrit K.;Kumar, Ajeet
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.29 no.9
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    • pp.1247-1255
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    • 2016
  • Heparin binding proteins (HBPs) are produced by accessory glands. These are secreted into the seminal fluid, bind to the spermatozoa at the time of ejaculation, favour capacitation, acrosome reaction, and alter the immune system response toward the sperm. The present study was conducted with an objective to assess the effect of purified seminal plasma-HBPs (SP-HBPs) on cross bred cattle bull sperm attributes during two phases of cryopreservation: Pre freezing and freezing-thawing. SP-HBPs were purified from pooled seminal plasma by heparin affinity chromatography. Three doses of SP-HBPs i.e. 10, 20, $40{\mu}g/mLs$ semen were standardized to find out the optimum dose and $20{\mu}g/mLs$ was found to be an optimum dose. Semen as such and treated with SP-HBPs was diluted with sodium citrate-egg yolk diluter and cryopreserved as per the standard protocol. Sperm parameters i.e. motility, viability, Hypo-osmotic swelling test (HOST), acrosome damage, in vitro capacitation and lipid peroxidation were evaluated in SP-HBP treated and untreated (control) semen at both phases of cryopreservation. A considerable variation in percent sperm motility, viability, membrane integrity (HOST), acrosome damage, acrosome reaction and lipid peroxidation was observed at both phases among the bulls irrespective of the treatment. Incubation of neat semen with $20{\mu}g/mL$ SP-HBP before processing for cryopreservation enhanced the average motility, viability, membrane integrity by 7.2%, 1.5%, 7.9%, and 5.6%, 6.6%, 7.4% in pre-frozen and frozen-thawed semen in comparison to control. There was also an average increase of 4.1%/3.9% in in vitro capacitation and acrosome reaction in SP-HBPs-treated frozen-thawed semen as compared to control. However, binding of SP-HBPs to the sperm declined acrosome damage and lipid peroxidation by 1.3%/4.1% and 22.1/$32.7{\mu}M$/$10^9$ spermatozoa in SP-HBP treated pre-frozen/frozen-thawed semen as compared to control, respectively. Significant (p<0.05) effects were observed only in motility, HOST and in vitro acrosome reaction. It can be concluded that treatment of neat semen with SP-HBPs before cryopreservation minimized the cryoinjury by decreasing the generation of reactive oxygen species.

Morphological Changes of Bovine Epididymal Spermatozoa Incubated In Chemical Defined Medium (人工培養液에서 培養된 牛精子의 形態的 變化)

  • Go, Dae-Hwan;Yun, San-Hyeon;Eom, Gi-Bung;Lee, Gyeong-Gwang;Jeong, Gil-Saeng
    • Korean Journal of Animal Reproduction
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.33-39
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    • 1991
  • This experiment was carried out to investigate ultrastructural changes that occurred in bovine epididymal spermatozoa during incubation in a BO medium supplemented with 5 mM caffeine. No structural changes were observed under electron microscope in the majority of non-incubated sperm(79.8%) keeping the membrane intact. Structural changes were however observed when spermatozoa were cultured in a BO medium supplemented with 5 mM caffeine, which were classified into 4 types, intact(29.4%), vesiculated(45.6%), acrosome lost(17.8%) and degenerated(7.2%) spermatozoa, respectively. These results indicated that : 1) vesiculation of spermatozoa membrane is normal acrosome reaction and acrosome lost of spermatozoa is dead one ; 2) caffeine can induce acrosome reaction of bovine epididymal spermatozoa.

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Study on Effect of Dilauroylphosphatidylcholine(PC12) on Bovine Sperm Capacitation (Dilauroylphosphatidylcholine(PC12)이 소 정자의 수정능획득에 미치는 영향에 관한 연구)

  • 박영식;임경순
    • Korean Journal of Animal Reproduction
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.309-313
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    • 1990
  • This stduy was carried out to investigate the effect of concentration of PC12 and washing of sperm of sperm motility and acrosome reaction, and the effect of sperm incubated in mTALP solution containing PC12 112.5$\mu\textrm{g}$/ml on development of follicular oocytes matured in vitro. The results obtained were as follows. 1. When fresh sperm was once washed and then incubated in mTALP solution containing 0, 75, 112.5 and 225$\mu\textrm{g}$/ml PC12 for 15minutes, 225$\mu\textrm{g}$/ml showed significantly higher percent of acrosome reacted sperm than 0, 75, 112.5 and 225$\mu\textrm{g}$/ml. 2. When once or twice washed fresh sperm was cultured in mTALP containing 112.5$\mu\textrm{g}$/ml PC12 for 15minutes, no-washing showed significantly higher percent of motile sperm than that once- and twice-washing showed significantly higher percent of acrosome reacted seprm than no- and once-washing. 3. When sperm was cultrued in mTALP containing PC12, 112.5$\mu\textrm{g}$/ml for 15minutes and then was cocultured with bovine follicular oocytes matured in vitro, 11.2 to 22.4% of the oocytes were coleaved to more than 2cell stage.

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Importance of Sperm Capacitation, Removal of Cumulus Matrix, Acrosome Reaction, and Sperm-egg Fusion in the Process of In Vitro Fertilization

  • Kim, Ki-Sun;Hwang, Kyung-A;Kim, Hyoung-Chin;Nam, Ki-Hoan;Choi, Kyung-Chul
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.287-296
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    • 2011
  • Mammalian fertilization is a complex cascade process consisting of sperm migration through the female reproductive tract, physiological changes to sperm such as sperm capacitation and acrosome reaction, and sperm-egg interaction in the oviduct in vivo. On the other hand, in vitro fertilization (IVF) is a process by which egg cells are fertilized by sperm outside the body: in vitro. IVF has been used for a variety of purposes in reproductive biotechnology for human and animals. The discovery of sperm capacitation in 1951 promoted the development of IVF technology. In the initial stage of IVF, sperm capacitation in preincubation medium was shown to be essential to fuse with eggs. Besides, sperms should detour some of the in vivo regulations for IVF. This review introduces a general mammalian fertilization process, including sperm capacitation, removal of cumulus matrix, acrosome reaction, and sperm-egg fusion and focuses on the roles of key biochemical molecules, signal mechanisms, and genes involved during IVF and novel results of sperm-oocyte interaction elucidated in various gene-knockout mice models.

Germ Cell Development during Spermatogenesis and Taxonomic Values of Sperm Morphology in Septifer (Mytilisepta) virgatus (Bivalvia: Mytilidae)

  • Kim, Jin-Hee;Kim, Sung-Han
    • Development and Reproduction
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.239-247
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    • 2011
  • Spermatogenesis and taxonomic values of mature sperm morphology of in male Septifer (Mytilisepta) virgatus were investigated by transmission electron microscope observations. The morphologies of the sperm nucleus and the acrosome of this species are the cylinder shape and cone shape, respectively. Spermatozoa are approximately 45-50 ${\mu}m$ in length including a sperm nucleus (about 1.26 ${\mu}m$ long), an acrosome (about 0.99 ${\mu}m$ long), and tail flagellum (about 45-47 ${\mu}m$). Several electron-dense proacrosomal vesicles become later the definitive acrosomal vesicle by the fusion of several Golgi-derived vesicles. The acrosome of this species has two regions of differing electron density: there is a thin, outer electron-dense opaque region (part) at the anterior end, behind which is a thicker, more electron-lucent region (part). In genus Septifer in Mytilidae, an axial rod does not find and also a mid-central line hole does not appear in the sperm nucleus. However, in genus Mytilus in Mytilidae, in subclass Pteriomorphia, an axial rod and a mid-central line hole appeared in the sperm nucleus. These morphological differences of the acrosome and sperm nucleus between the genuses Septifer and Mytilus can be used for phylogenetic and taxonomic analyses as a taxonomic key or a significant tool. The number of mitochondria in the midpiece of the sperm of this species are five, as seen in subclass Pteriomorphia.

Spermatid Differentiation and Sperm Ultrastructure of the Granular Ark, Tegillarca granosa (Bivalvia: Arcidae)

  • Lee, Jung-Sick;Park, Jung-Jun;Shin, Yun-Kyung;Jin, Young-Guk
    • Fisheries and aquatic sciences
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    • v.10 no.3
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    • pp.143-149
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    • 2007
  • This study describes spermatogenesis and sperm ultrastructure of the granular ark, Tegillarca granosa using light and electron microscopy. In the active spermatogenic season, the testis comprises many spermatogenic follicles that contain germ cells in different developmental stages. Primary spermatocytes in the pachytene stage are characterized by synaptonemal complexes. The early spermatids are characterized by the appearance of several Golgi bodies, increased karyoplasmic electron density, and tubular mitochondria. The mass of proacrosomal granules consists of numerous heterogeneous granules with high electron density that are about 20 nm in diameter. From the midstage of spermiogenesis, the well-developed mitochondria in the cytoplasm aggregate posterior to the nucleus and surround the proximal and distal centrioles. The proacrosomal granules condense and form a single acrosome with a thin envelope. During late spermiogenesis, the acrosome begins to elongate becoming conical. The sperm is approximately $35.0{\mu}m$ long and consists of a head, midpiece, and tail. The head comprises a round nucleus and a conical acrosome. A micro fibrous axial rod is observed between the nucleus and acrosome. The midpiece has a calyx-like structure with five mitochondria, and the tail, which has the typical "9+2" microtubular system, originates from the distal centriole.

Ultrastructural Characteristics of the Testis, Spermatogenesis and Taxonomic Values of Sperm Morphology in Male Ruditapes philippinarum in Western Korea

  • Kim, Jin Hee;Chung, Jae Seung;Lee, Ki-Young
    • Development and Reproduction
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.121-132
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    • 2013
  • Ultrastructural characteristics of the germ cells and accessory cells in testis during spermatogenesis and taxonomic values of mature sperm morphology of Ruditapes philippinarum were investigated by the transmission electron microscope and scanning electron microscope observations. The testis is the diffuse organ that consists of branching acini containing developing germ cells and accessory cells associated with spermatogenesis. The morphology of the spermatozoon is of the primitive type and is somewhat different to those of other bivalves. The morphologies of the sperm nucleus type and the acrosome shape of this species have a cylinderical type and a modified cone shape, respectively. As some ultrastructural characteristics of the acrosomal vesicle, the peripheral parts of two basal rings show electron opaque part, while the apex part of the acrosome shows electron lucent part. These characteristics of sperm belong to the family Veneridae in the subclass Heterodonta, unlike a characteristic of the subclass Pteriomorphia showing all part of the acrosome being composed of electron opaque part. In particular, a cylinder-like nucleus of the sperm is curved. The spermatozoon is approximately $48-51{\mu}m$ in length, including a long acrosome (about $2.4{\mu}m$ in length), a curved sperm nucleus (about $3.40{\mu}m$ in length), and a tail flagellum. The axoneme of the sperm tail shows a 9+2 structure.

Ferritin Overload Suppresses Male Fertility Via altered Acrosome Reaction

  • Kwon, Woo-Sung;Rahman, Md Saidur;Kim, Ye-Ji;Ryu, Do-Yeol;Kahtun, Amena;Pang, Myung-Geol
    • Reproductive and Developmental Biology
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    • v.39 no.4
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    • pp.117-125
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    • 2015
  • Iron is required for cell viability but is toxic in excess. While the iron-mediated malfunction of testicular cells is well appreciated, the underlying mechanism(s) of this effect and its relationship with fertility are poorly understood. Ferritin is a ubiquitous intracellular protein that controls iron storage, ferroxidase activity, immune response, and stress response in cells. Ferritin light chain protein (FTL) is the light subunit of the Ferritin. Previously, we had identified the FTL in bovine spermatozoa following capacitation. In present study, to investigate the role of Ferritin in sperm function, mice spermatozoa were incubated with multiple doses (1, 10 and $100{\mu}M$) of sodium nitroprusside (SNP), an iron donor. SNP was increased Ferritin levels in a dose-dependent manner. The Ferritin was detected on the acrosome in spermatozoa by immunocytochemistry. Short-term exposure of spermatozoa to SNP increased tyrosine phosphorylation and the acrosome reaction (AR). Finally, SNP affected a significant decrease in the rate of fertilization as well as blastocyst formation during early embryonic development. On the basis of these results, we propose that the effects of Ferritin on the AR may reduce overall sperm function leads to poor fertility in males and compromised embryonic development.

Effects of Bovine Serum Albumin and Sugars on Sperm Livability and Acrosome Morphology of Frozen-thawed Boar Semen (소혈청알부민과 당류가 돼지 동결정자의 생존성 및 두모형태에 미치는 영향)

  • 윤종택;임경순;이용빈
    • Korean Journal of Animal Reproduction
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.19-26
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    • 1986
  • This experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of bovine serum ablumin (BSA), sugars, glycerol equilibration time, straw size and thawing method on the survival index and the morphology of frozen boar spermatozoa. The results obtained were summarized as follow: 1. When the semen frozen in BF5 dilutor as pellet form was thawed in BTS at 37$^{\circ}$and 50$^{\circ}C$, BF5 dilutor with fructose showed higher sperm survival index than that with dextrose, however, when the semen was thawed on dry test tube at 37$^{\circ}C$, BF5 dilutor with sucrose showed higher sperm survival index than with other sugars. 2 When the semen forzen in BF5 dilutor with straw and thawed at 37$^{\circ}C$, BF5 dilutor with dextrose showed higher sperm survival index than those with other sugars, and there was no difference in sperm survival index between 0.5 and 1.0 ml straws. 3. The sperm survival index of frozen sperm was significantly (P<0.05) improved due to addition of BSA (0.05%) to BF5 dilutor. 4. When the extended semen with BF5 dilutor contatining 0.01 to 0.05% of BSA was frozen in the straw, the semen without glycerol equilibration showed significantly (P<0.05) higher sperm survival index than those with 2, 4 and 6 hrs glycerol equilibration time. 5. The sperm frozen in BF5 dilutor with dextrose or fructose, sucrose and raffinose showed 77 to 88% in normal acrosome rate and no difference among sugars. 6. The frozen semen showed lower normal acrosome rate than the first and second diluted semen, whereas the frozen semen showed higher swollen, damaged and missing acrosome rate than the first and second diluted semen. 7. Damaged and missing acrosome rate of sperm head due to freezing was somewhat inhibited by addition of BSA (0.01 to 0.05) to the BF5 dilutor.

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